An Evidence-Based Review of Impacts, Strategies and Tools to Mitigate Urban Heat Islands
2. Materials and Methods
- Characteristics of the phenomenon in different cities across the world, identifying parameters analysed and mitigation proposals suggested based on the analysis.
- Analysis of different UHI mitigation strategies proposed, and description of the principle and effects.
- Analysis of digital UHI online tools, identifying geographical cover, scale of assessment, type of assessment and limitations.
3.1. Trends on Urban Heat Islands in Cities Round the World
3.1.1. The UHI in the World
- Parameters related to the geographical location:
- Climate classification: Köppen-Geiger climate classification (presented by Köppen in 1900, and updated by Geiger in 1954 and 1961) is still the most frequently used climate classification  (Figure 1). It provides a good overview of the earth’s climates which inevitably influence the UHI , however, other parameters should also be taken into consideration as well .
- Global and regional climate models: The global and regional climate models are atmospheric simulations meant to predict the impact on climate of greenhouse gas emissions. If climate influences UHI, the study of future climate conditions is also relevant for the analysis of the phenomenon (Figure 2) .
- Parameters related to the urban environment:
- Local climate zones (LCZ): The World Urban Database and Portal Tool (WUDAPT) is a project that aims at retrieving, storing and disseminating data on physical characteristics of cities worldwide . It acquires data related to form (surface cover, the construction materials and geometry) and function (metabolism, i.e., exchange of energy, water and materials) of cities . It uses the Local Climate Zones  which classify neighbourhoods based on their influence on local air temperature, to produce a method for a more refined worldwide systematic classification assessment.
- Urbanisation predictions: Future prospects for urbanization are also important data to assess the evolution of the phenomenon at medium term (Figure 5).
- Population density: Several studies establish a relationship between population density and UHI [52,53]. The United Nations Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) produced the The Gridded Population of the World (GPW) series which consist of a set of maps which model the distribution of human population (counts and densities) on a continuous global surface of censuses occurred between 2005 and 2014 (Figure 6).
3.1.2. Examples of Causes and Impacts of the UHI in Cities Worldwide
Example 1: USA
Example 2: UK
Example 3: Belgium
Example 4: The Netherlands
Example 5: Greece
Example 6: Germany
Example 7: Malaysia
Example 8: India
Example 9: Japan
3.2. Strategies to Reduce Heat Islands
- In Quebec the Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies catalogue  organizes the mitigation strategies around four sections:
- Sustainable urban infrastructure
- Sustainable stormwater management
- Reduction of anthropogenic heat
- The catalogue developed within the framework of the UHI project which was implemented through the Central Europe Programme co-financed by the ERDF  structures the actions in four packages:
- Street morphology
- The Yamamoto compilation study  organizes the mitigation strategies in three blocks:
and introduces important characteristics for each mitigation strategy:
- Reduction of anthropogenic heat release
- Improvement of artificial surface covers
- Improvement of urban structure
- Scale (individuals, buildings, ward, city)
- Period (short, medium or long term)
- Degree of effect (on sweltering nights or on daytime temperature rise)
- And administrators of the actions (individuals, business institutions, local governments…)
- There are other catalogues that attempt to keep updated the review of the UHI mitigation literature, such as the catalogue of strategies for tropical Singapore, which focuses in improving the outdoor thermal comfort in the tropical climate .
3.2.1. At Building Scale
Choice of Roofing Materials
Use of Green Roofs
Reduction of Anthropogenic Heat Production
3.2.2. At City Scale
More Urban Green Vegetation
Choice of Pavement Materials
Access to Cooling Centres
Stormwater Management Infrastructure
Reduction of Anthropogenic Heat
3.2.3. At Regional Scale
More Peri-Urban Vegetation
Catering for Wind Corridors
Using the Ecological Functions of Water Bodies
Land Use Considerations
3.2.4. Raising Awareness among Residents
3.3. Systematizing Estimation and Adaptation Measures to UHI
3.3.1. The “Decision Support System” (DSS)
3.3.2. The CE Urban Heat Island Atlas
3.3.3. The STAR Tools
3.3.4. The “London Unified Model” (Londum)
3.3.5. The ADMS Model
3.3.6. The LSSAT
3.3.7. EPA Mitigation Impact Screening Tool (MIST)
3.3.8. The Urban Microclimate Tool
- the current adaptation deficit be acknowledged and that cities actively try to address the problem they face right now
- a great emphasis to UHI be given in city development plans, so that the problem may be avoided or at least minimized in the future.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Country||Reference||City||Air Temperature Difference||Summer||Winter||Period of Analysis||Parameters Analysed||Mitigation Measures Suggested|
|USA||National Center for Atmospheric Research, 2011 ||5.6|
|Hatchett et al. 2016 ||Reno, Nevada||X||X||1950–2014|
|Debbage & Shepherd, 2015 ||50 most populous cities in the US||Spatial contiguity, density and sprawl.||Spatial contiguity critical factor UHI. An increase of 10% in spatial contiguity might increase annual UHI by 0.3 and 0.4.|
|UK||Kershaw et al. 2010 ||0.1 to 1.9||X||X|
|Belgium||Lauwaet et al. 2016 ||Brussels||3.15||2000–2009 and 2060–2069|
|The Netherlands||Icaza et al. 2016 ||The Hague, Delft, Leiden, Gouda, Utrecht and Den Bosch||X||Storage heat flux, vegetation index, land surface temperature, albedo, sky view factor and coolspots.||Hotspots of 5 of the 6 cities were located in the seventeenth century City Center. Albedo interventions on those could reduce the effect by 1.5.|
|Hove et al. 2011 ||The Hague, Delftand Leiden||4.8 and 5.6||X|
|Van der Hoven and Wandl 2015 ||Amsterdam||7||X||Land use, imperviousness, social vulnerability and building vulnerability.|
|Germany||Office for Environmental Protection, section of urban climatology, 2008 ||Stuttgart||Cold production areas, air catchment areas and breeze systems.||Preservation and enhancement of existing green infrastructure surrounding the city.|
|Malaysia||Morris et al. 2015 ||Putrajaya||1.9 to 3.1||Vegetation surface||The overall effect of urbanised local climate zones is normalised by the total amount of area reserved for vegetation.|
|India||Borbora & Das 2014 ||Guwahati||>2||Green cover||The reduction of green cover associated with urbanisation, increases the UHI.|
|Japan||Fujibe 2011 ||Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya||X||Surface heating over large surfaces, sea breeze penetration, temperature change evolution per decade, density.|
|UHI Assessment TOOL||Geographical Cover||Scale of the Assessment||Type of Assessment||User Input Parameters||Tool Output|
|Decision Support System (DSS) UHI project||Bologna/Modena, Venice/Padua, Wien, Stuttgart, Lodz/Warsaw, Ljubljana, Budapest and Prague.||Supra-metropolitan||Phase 1: Mapping Urban Heat. Phase 2: Understanding regulations and policies related to UHI (greenery: street or roof, material reflectance…)||1/Location, 2/Scale (building or urban) 3/Typology of the intervention (building, facade, roofs, surface lots, urban structure and urban green) 4/Economic assessment 5/Skills.||1/climate change assessment (Change in annual mean temperature per decade, changes in annual near-surface temperature for 30 year periods and heat wave frequency), 2/a set of normative applicable to the selected area and skills, 3/a set of potential mitigation strategies.|
|CE Urban Heat Island Atlas UHI project||Central Europe region||Regional||Phase 1: Mapping Urban heat related parameters.||1/Location||1/Air temperature 2/Digital elevation models 3/Land surface temperature 4/Land cover regional scale (corine) 5/Urban land use.|
|STAR tools GRaBS project||North West region of England||Neighbourhood||Phase 4: Testing conceptual design||1/Location 2/Land cover proposal (% of buildings, major roads, other impervious surfaces, green and blue surfaces and bare soil or gravel surfaces) 3/Temperature scenario for 2050 (Baseline temperature, 2050’s 10% probability level, 50% probability level or 90% probability level).||1/Maximum surface temperature|
|London unified model (Londum)||City of London||City||Phase 1: Simluation map of the Urban Heat Island of the existing city. Phase 4: Simulation map of the Urban Heat Island of the projected city.||1/ Volume (Reflection, Shadowing, conduction of heat into the buildings, flux of heat into the atmosphere). Provided by the tool for the city of London.||1/Urban heat island intensity (air temperature at 1,5m height).|
|ADMS model||City of London||Neighbourhood||Phase 1: Simluation map of the Urban Heat Island of the existing city. Phase 4: Simulation map of the Urban Heat Island of the projected city.||1/Location 2/Surface cover (Albedo, evapotranspiration, thermal admittance).||2/Air temperature variations -due to land cover- at 2m height.|
|London site-specific air temperature prediction model (LSSAT)||City of London||Neighbourhood||Phase 1: Air temperature mapping at a particular time. Phase 4: Air temperature prediction based on intervention proposed.||1/Location||1/Hourly prediction of air temperature based on site specific transects (Global solar radiation, cloud cover, wind velocity and relative humidity).|
|EPA Mitigation Impact Screening Tool (MIST)||U.S.A. 230 cities||City||Phase 4: Testing the mitigation effect of the selected mitiation strategy.||1/Location 2/The latitude 3/the cooling degree day (CDD) 4/the heating degree day (HDD) 5/the population 6/the mean annual temperature 7/the typical peak (one hour) ozone 8/Mitigation strategy (albedo or vegetation modification).||Calculation of the effect of the mitigation strategy 1/Reduction of the mean city temperature 2/Cooling degree days 3/the heating degree day 4/the typical 1hr and 8hr max ozone 5/The energy consumption.|
© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Leal Filho, W.; Echevarria Icaza, L.; Emanche, V.O.; Quasem Al-Amin, A. An Evidence-Based Review of Impacts, Strategies and Tools to Mitigate Urban Heat Islands. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1600. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121600
Leal Filho W, Echevarria Icaza L, Emanche VO, Quasem Al-Amin A. An Evidence-Based Review of Impacts, Strategies and Tools to Mitigate Urban Heat Islands. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2017; 14(12):1600. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121600Chicago/Turabian Style
Leal Filho, Walter, Leyre Echevarria Icaza, Victoria Omeche Emanche, and Abul Quasem Al-Amin. 2017. "An Evidence-Based Review of Impacts, Strategies and Tools to Mitigate Urban Heat Islands" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14, no. 12: 1600. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121600