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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 13, Issue 10 (October 2016)

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Open AccessReview UV “Indices”—What Do They Indicate?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101041
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 24 October 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1352 | PDF Full-text (565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation covers the spectrum of wavelengths from 100 to 400 nm. The potency and biological activity for a variety of endpoints differ by wavelength. For monitoring and communication purposes, different UV action spectra have been developed. These spectra use different weighting
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Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation covers the spectrum of wavelengths from 100 to 400 nm. The potency and biological activity for a variety of endpoints differ by wavelength. For monitoring and communication purposes, different UV action spectra have been developed. These spectra use different weighting functions. The action spectrum for erythemal dose is the most widely used one. This erythemal dose per time or dose-rate has been further simplified into a “UV index”. Following this example, in our review we use the term “index” or (plural) “indices” in a more general description for all simplified single-value measures for any biologically effective UV dose, e.g., for human non-melanoma skin cancer and for previtamin D production rate. Ongoing discussion about the existence of an increased melanoma risk due to UV-A exposure underscores the uncertainties inherent in current weighting functions. Thus, we performed an online literature search to review the data basis for these indices, to understand their relevance for an individual, and to assess the applicability of the indices for a range of exposure scenarios. Even for natural (solar) UV, the spectral composition varies spatially and temporally. Artificial UV sources and personal protection introduce further variation to the spectral composition. Many biological effects are proposed for UV radiation. Only few endpoints have been studied sufficiently to estimate a reliable index. Weighting functions for chronic effects and most importantly for cancer endpoints have been developed in animal models, and often for proxy endpoints only. Epidemiological studies on biological effects of UV radiation should not only depend on single-value weighted UV dose estimates (indexes) but should strive for a more detailed description of the individual exposure. A better understanding of the adverse and beneficial effects of UV radiation by wavelength would also improve medical counseling and health communication regarding individual health-supportive behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UV-Radiation: From Physics to Impacts)
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Open AccessArticle Is Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity Decreasing in Czech Adults? Findings from 2008 to 2013
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101040
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 24 October 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1234 | PDF Full-text (490 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective measured trend data are important for public health practice. However, these data are rare for an adult population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe time trends in pedometer-determined physical activity of Czech adults (25–65 years) from 2008 to 2013.
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Objective measured trend data are important for public health practice. However, these data are rare for an adult population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe time trends in pedometer-determined physical activity of Czech adults (25–65 years) from 2008 to 2013. Participants were Czech national citizens whose physical activity was assessed objectively using a Yamax Digiwalker SW-700 pedometer (Yamax Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) for seven consecutive days in the period 2008 to 2013. The final sample was 4647 Czech adults [M age 41.4 ± 10 years; M body mass index (BMI) 25.1 ± 3.7 kg/m2]. The results showed that men took more steps/day (M (Mean) = 10,014; 95% CI (Confidence Interval) = 9864–10,164) than women (M = 9448; 95% CI = 9322–9673) in all age and BMI groups. Mean steps/day declined from 2008 to 2013 by 852 steps/day in men and 1491 steps/day in women. In the whole sample, the proportion of participants who had a sedentary lifestyle (<5000 steps/day) increased by 5.8%; the proportion taking ≥10,000 steps/day decreased by 15.8%. In 2013, men and women were 2.67 and 2.05 times, respectively, more likely to have a physically inactive lifestyle (<7500 steps/day) than in 2008. Conversely, in 2008, men and women were 1.68 and 2.46 times, respectively, less likely to have very active lifestyle (>12,500 steps/day). In conclusion, this study suggests that there has been a substantial reduction in physical activity in Czech adults over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Open AccessArticle Tobacco Control Progress in Low and Middle Income Countries in Comparison to High Income Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101039
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 24 October 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1477 | PDF Full-text (835 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The study aimed to describe worldwide levels and trends of tobacco control policy by comparing low and middle income countries with other income categories from 2007 to 2014 and to analyze the corresponding relation to recent changes in smoking prevalence. Policy measure data
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The study aimed to describe worldwide levels and trends of tobacco control policy by comparing low and middle income countries with other income categories from 2007 to 2014 and to analyze the corresponding relation to recent changes in smoking prevalence. Policy measure data representing years 2007 to 2014 were collected from all available World Health Organization (WHO) reports on the global tobacco epidemic. Corresponding policy percentage scores (PS) were calculated based on MPOWER measures. Age-standardized smoking prevalence data for years 2010 and 2015 were collected from the WHO Global Health Observatory Data Repository. Trends of PS were analysed with respect to WHO region and OECD country income category. Scatter plots and regression analysis were used to depict the relationship between tobacco control policy of 2010 and change in smoking prevalence between 2015 and 2010 by sex and income category. Combined PS for all countries increased significantly from 47% in 2007 to 61% by 2014 (p < 0.001). When grouped by income category and region, policies were strengthened in all categories, albeit with varying progression. By 2014, tobacco control policy legislation had reached 45% in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), 59% in Low Middle Income Countries (LMICs), 66% in Upper Middle Income Countries (UMICs) and 70% in High Income Countries (HICs). Overall, there was a negative relationship between higher policy scores and change in smoking prevalence. Although policy strengthening had been conducted between 2007 and 2014, room for considerable global improvement remains, particularly in LDCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control and Priority Groups)
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Open AccessArticle The Other Side: How does Informed Choice Affect Induced Abortions among Reproductive-Age Immigrant Women in China—A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101038
Received: 12 June 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 24 October 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1048 | PDF Full-text (571 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study attempted to explore how informed choice on contraceptive methods influenced induced abortions among reproductive-age immigrant women in China. A total of 3230 participants were recruited in Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing. Information on informed choice was collected by questionnaires. The annual incidence
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This study attempted to explore how informed choice on contraceptive methods influenced induced abortions among reproductive-age immigrant women in China. A total of 3230 participants were recruited in Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing. Information on informed choice was collected by questionnaires. The annual incidence rate (spells) of induced abortions was 0.46 (1500/3230) among the participants. The sequence from the highest score to the lowest was long-term, short-term and natural contraceptive methods (p < 0.0001). Significant differences of rates in induced abortions were found in region, occupation, length of the first immigration up to now (year), purpose for immigration, number of children, marital status, sex preference, contraceptive methods, deciders of contraceptive methods and side effects. In the zero-inflated negative binomial model, the joint impacts showed when a participant with one child employed condoms or family planning service providers as the deciders of contraceptive methods introduced intrauterine devices, the occurrence of induced abortions was more likely to be reduced. Women who underwent side effects using pills were more likely to have had induced abortions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Family Affluence and the Eating Habits of 11- to 15-Year-Old Czech Adolescents: HBSC 2002 and 2014
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101034
Received: 3 September 2016 / Revised: 2 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 24 October 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1204 | PDF Full-text (288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Socioeconomic inequalities in eating habits have a profound impact on the health of adolescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate socioeconomic disparities in the eating habits of Czech adolescents and to compare their change between 2002 and 2014. The data
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Socioeconomic inequalities in eating habits have a profound impact on the health of adolescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate socioeconomic disparities in the eating habits of Czech adolescents and to compare their change between 2002 and 2014. The data from the Czech Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in 2002 and 2014 was utilized. The Family Affluence Scale (FAS) was used to assess socioeconomic disparities. Higher odds of daily consumption of fruit (2002: OR = 1.67; 2014: OR = 1.70, p < 0.001) and vegetables (2002: OR = 1.54; 2014: OR = 1.48, p < 0.001) were associated with high FAS in both genders. Adolescents with higher FAS were less likely to consume sweets (2002: OR = 0.72, p < 0.05) and more likely to eat breakfast on weekdays (2014: OR = 1.19, p < 0.05). In 2002 and 2014, the data showed lower odds of daily consumption of soft drinks (Low: OR = 0.47; Medium: OR = 0.43; High: OR = 0.41, p < 0.001), fruit (Low: OR = 0.73; Medium: OR = 0.74, p < 0.001; High: OR = 0.75, p < 0.05), sweets (Low: OR = 0.71; Medium: OR = 0.79, p < 0.001) and breakfast on weekends (High: OR = 0.70, p < 0.05), and a higher likelihood of eating breakfast on weekdays (Low: OR = 1.26, p < 0.01; Medium: OR = 1.13, p < 0.05). These findings play an important role in future public measures to improve dietary habits and decrease social inequalities in youth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
Open AccessArticle Occurrence of Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in Milk and Yogurt and Their Risk Assessment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101037
Received: 15 August 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1354 | PDF Full-text (1822 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been identified in milk and dairy products in many regions, knowledge on their occurrence in Xinjiang (China) is rare. This study was conducted to measure the levels of PFOA and PFOS in milk and
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Although perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been identified in milk and dairy products in many regions, knowledge on their occurrence in Xinjiang (China) is rare. This study was conducted to measure the levels of PFOA and PFOS in milk and yogurt from Xinjiang and to investigate the average daily intake (ADI) of these two compounds. PFOA and PFOS levels were analyzed using ultrasonic extraction with methanol and solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Retail milk and yogurt samples present higher detection rates (39.6% and 48.1%) and mean concentrations (24.5 and 31.8 ng/L) of PFOS than those of PFOA (33.0% and 37.0%; 16.2 and 22.6 ng/L, respectively). For raw milk samples, only PFOS was detected. The differences in the levels of the two compounds between samples from the north and south regions were observed, and northern regions showed higher pollution levels than southern regions. On the basis of the retail milk measurements and consumption data, the ADIs of PFOA and PFOS for Xinjiang adults were calculated to be 0.0211 and 0.0318 ng/kg/day, respectively. Furthermore, the estimated intakes of PFOA and PFOS varied among different groupings (age, area, gender, and race) and increased with increasing age. Relevant hazard ratios were found to be far less than 1.0, and this finding suggested that no imminent health damages were produced by PFOA and PFOS intake via milk and yogurt consumption in the Xinjiang population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Depth and Well Type Related to Groundwater Microbiological Contamination
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101036
Received: 25 June 2016 / Revised: 14 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1270 | PDF Full-text (604 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Use of groundwater from private wells in households has increased considerably, owing to a better cost/benefit ratio than that of water provided by local utilities for a fee. However, this water is usually untreated, which makes it a vehicle for diseases. Thus, monitoring
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Use of groundwater from private wells in households has increased considerably, owing to a better cost/benefit ratio than that of water provided by local utilities for a fee. However, this water is usually untreated, which makes it a vehicle for diseases. Thus, monitoring this water is necessary to ensure its integrity and quality. We aimed to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters of untreated groundwater drawn from different types of wells, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the bacteria isolated from this water. Wellwater samples were collected in two Brazilian cities. Although physical and chemical parameters of the water were suitable for drinking, Escherichia coli was detected in 33% of the samples. E. coli contaminated 65% of dug wells and 10.25% of drilled wells. Many bacteria isolated were resistant to multiple antibacterial agents, including β-lactams. Microbial contamination of this water was related to the well depth, and was more common in dug wells, making this water unfit for human consumption. Consumption of such contaminated and untreated water is a public health concern. Thus, individuals who regularly use such water must be alerted so they may either take preventive measures or connect to the water distribution system operated by local utilities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Application of Multivariate Statistical Methods to Source Apportionment of Watercourses in the Liao River Basin, Northeast China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101035
Received: 10 July 2016 / Revised: 15 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1419 | PDF Full-text (5508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Source apportionment of river water pollution is critical in water resource management and aquatic conservation. Comprehensive application of various GIS-based multivariate statistical methods was performed to analyze datasets (2009–2011) on water quality in the Liao River system (China). Cluster analysis (CA) classified the
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Source apportionment of river water pollution is critical in water resource management and aquatic conservation. Comprehensive application of various GIS-based multivariate statistical methods was performed to analyze datasets (2009–2011) on water quality in the Liao River system (China). Cluster analysis (CA) classified the 12 months of the year into three groups (May–October, February–April and November–January) and the 66 sampling sites into three groups (groups A, B and C) based on similarities in water quality characteristics. Discriminant analysis (DA) determined that temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), NH4+–N, total phosphorus (TP) and volatile phenols were significant variables affecting temporal variations, with 81.2% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) identified eight potential pollution factors for each part of the data structure, explaining more than 61% of the total variance. Oxygen-consuming organics from cropland and woodland runoff were the main latent pollution factor for group A. For group B, the main pollutants were oxygen-consuming organics, oil, nutrients and fecal matter. For group C, the evaluated pollutants primarily included oxygen-consuming organics, oil and toxic organics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Socioeconomic Inequalities and Multi-Disability among the Population Aged 15–64 Years from 1987 to 2006 in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101033
Received: 3 August 2016 / Revised: 5 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
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Abstract
Socioeconomic inequalities associated with multiple disabilities have not been explored in China. This is the first study to explore changes in multiple disabilities among persons aged 15–64 years in China. Data were derived from the 1987 and 2006 China National Sample Surveys on
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Socioeconomic inequalities associated with multiple disabilities have not been explored in China. This is the first study to explore changes in multiple disabilities among persons aged 15–64 years in China. Data were derived from the 1987 and 2006 China National Sample Surveys on Disability, which are nationally representative population-based surveys. Both surveys used multistage, stratified, cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size to derive nationally representative samples. We used standard weighting procedures to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities on multiple disabilities was examined by using logistic regression. Higher prevalence rates among rural residents than urban residents were observed. Male was more vulnerable than female in the present study. Minority ethnicity did increase the risk of multiple disabilities, but this association inversed in the logistic regression model. The widening discrepancy between urban and rural areas indicates that the most important priorities of disability prevention in China are to reinforce health promotion and to improve health services in rural communities. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Umbilical Cord Blood Serum of Newborns in Kingston, Jamaica
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101032
Received: 16 June 2016 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1333 | PDF Full-text (304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To date much of the biomonitoring related to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides is from middle to high income countries, including the U.S., Canada and Europe, but such data are lacking for the majority of low to middle income
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To date much of the biomonitoring related to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides is from middle to high income countries, including the U.S., Canada and Europe, but such data are lacking for the majority of low to middle income countries. Using data from 64 pregnant mothers who were enrolled in 2011, we aimed to assess the concentrations of the aforementioned toxins in umbilical cord blood serum of 67 Jamaican newborns. For 97 of the 100 PCB congeners and 16 of the 17 OC pesticides, all (100%) concentrations were below their respective limits of detection (LOD). Mean (standard deviation (SD)) lipid-adjusted concentrations in cord blood serum for congeners PCB-153, PCB-180, PCB-206 and total PCB were 14.25 (3.21), 7.16 (1.71), 7.30 (1.74) and 28.15 (6.03) ng/g-lipid, respectively. The means (SD) for the 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE)-hexane fraction and total-DDE were 61.61 (70.78) and 61.60 (70.76) ng/g-lipid, respectively. Compared to the U.S. and Canada, the concentrations of these toxins were lower in cord-blood serum of Jamaican newborns. We discuss that these differences could be partly due to differences in dietary patterns in these countries. Despite limitations in our dataset, our results provide information on the investigated toxins in cord blood serum that could serve as a reference for Jamaican newborns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Open AccessReview Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly: Evidence for a Causal Link
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101031
Received: 8 September 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2222 | PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to the Dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses. Since the explosive outbreaks of ZIKV in Latin America in 2015, a sudden increase in the number of microcephaly cases has been observed in infants of women
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Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to the Dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses. Since the explosive outbreaks of ZIKV in Latin America in 2015, a sudden increase in the number of microcephaly cases has been observed in infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. The severity of this condition raises grave concerns, and extensive studies on the possible link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly have been conducted. There is substantial evidence suggesting that there is a causal link between ZIKV and microcephaly, however, future studies are warranted to solidify this association. To summarize the most recent evidence on this issue and provide perspectives for future studies, we reviewed the literature to identify existing evidence of the causal link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly within research related to the epidemics, laboratory diagnosis, and possible mechanisms. Full article
Open AccessArticle Polymorphisms of HLA-DM on Treatment Response to Interferon/Ribavirin in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Type 1 Infection
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101030
Received: 28 July 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1048 | PDF Full-text (689 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: HLA-DM gene, which is related to antigen processing and presentation and located in the non-classical class-II region of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, may play a crucial role in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection treatment outcomes. The study was conducted to
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Background: HLA-DM gene, which is related to antigen processing and presentation and located in the non-classical class-II region of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, may play a crucial role in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection treatment outcomes. The study was conducted to evaluate the role of the variant of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HLA-DM gene in HCV treatment outcomes. Methods: We genotyped four SNPs from the candidate genes (HLA-DMA and DMB) in 336 patients who were treated with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin (PEG IFN-α/RBV). Multivariate analysis of factors predicting sustained virological response (SVR) was conducted. Results: HLA-DMA rs1063478 and DMB rs23544 were independent factors of HCV treatment outcomes in Chinese Han population. Individuals who carried favorable genotypes of rs1063478TT and rs23544GG were more likely to achieve SVR {Dominant model: odds ratio (OR) = 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24–3.41; OR = 2.04, 95% CI =1.23–3.35, respectively}. Rs23544, rs1063478, baseline glucose, baseline platelet and T4 level were independent predictors of SVR. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was 0.740. Conclusions: The genetic variation of rs1063478 and rs23544 are associated with the treatment outcomes in the Chinese Han population. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary Morbid Obesity in Disasters: Bringing the “Conspicuously Invisible” into Focus
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101029
Received: 14 September 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1682 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is a frightening reality for some people to be caught up in the midst of a disaster, alone and vulnerable due to their relative size, shape or weight. A literature search failed to find any empirical reports of data specific to body
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It is a frightening reality for some people to be caught up in the midst of a disaster, alone and vulnerable due to their relative size, shape or weight. A literature search failed to find any empirical reports of data specific to body mass index (BMI) in disaster situations. A handful of largely anecdotal reports described situations in which people categorised as morbidly obese were negatively impacted in disasters because of their size and/or weight. While a small number of toolkits and training resources were found, there remains a paucity of research in relation to obesity and emergency planning or disaster risk reduction. This is somewhat surprising, considering the concern about increasing levels of obesity globally. Research is urgently needed to prioritise and address the specific considerations of people with morbid obesity and how communities plan, prepare, respond, and recover from disasters and public health emergencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolving Relationship between Science and Disaster Risk Reduction)
Open AccessArticle Multi-Level, Multi-Component Approaches to Community Based Interventions for Healthy Living—A Three Case Comparison
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101023
Received: 1 June 2016 / Revised: 23 September 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1746 | PDF Full-text (298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is increasing interest in integrated and coordinated programs that intervene in multiple community settings/institutions at the same time and involve policy and system changes. The purpose of the paper is to analyse three comparable cases of Multi Level, Multi Component intervention programs
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There is increasing interest in integrated and coordinated programs that intervene in multiple community settings/institutions at the same time and involve policy and system changes. The purpose of the paper is to analyse three comparable cases of Multi Level, Multi Component intervention programs (ML-MC) from across the world in order to give recommendations for research, policy and practice in this field. Through the comparison of three cases: Health and Local Community (SoL-program), Children’s Healthy Living (CHL) and B’More Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK), this paper examines the potential of ML-MC community-based public health nutrition interventions to create sustainable change. The paper proposes methodology, guidelines and directions for future research through analysis and examination strengths and weaknesses in the programs. Similarities are that they engage and commit local stakeholders in a structured approach to integrate intervention components in order to create dose and intensity. In that way, they all make provisions for post intervention impact sustainability. All programs target the child and family members’ knowledge, attitudes, behavior, the policy level, and the environmental level. The study illustrates the diversity in communities as well as diversity in terms of which and how sites and settings such as schools, kindergartens, community groups and grocery stores became involved in the programs. Programs are also different in terms of involvement of media stakeholders. The comparison of the three cases suggests that there is a need to build collaboration and partnerships from the beginning, plan for sufficient intensity/dose, emphasize/create consistency across levels and components of the intervention, build synchronization across levels, and plan for sustainability. Full article
Open AccessReview Beneficial Effects of UV-Radiation: Vitamin D and beyond
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101028
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1576 | PDF Full-text (327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aside from its well-known effects on bone and mineral metabolism, vitamin D may also play an important role in extra-skeletal processes like immunologic diseases, cancer, or cardiovascular diseases. Even though meta-analyses showed that vitamin D supplementation reduces fractures, falls, and overall mortality, its
[...] Read more.
Aside from its well-known effects on bone and mineral metabolism, vitamin D may also play an important role in extra-skeletal processes like immunologic diseases, cancer, or cardiovascular diseases. Even though meta-analyses showed that vitamin D supplementation reduces fractures, falls, and overall mortality, its potential benefits did not find universal acclaim. Several health care authorities published Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamin D, most of them ranging from 600 to 800 international units (IU) per day, corresponding to a serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of at least 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). However, studies conducted in the general population revealed a much lower overall intake of vitamin D than the proposed RDAs. Thus, strategies to increase the vitamin D intake in the general population, e.g., food fortification or vitamin D supplementation, are needed to match the existing evidence and recommendations. Therefore, several currently ongoing projects aim to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in the general population and try to establish food-based solutions to improve vitamin D status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UV-Radiation: From Physics to Impacts)
Open AccessArticle The Association of Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Atherogenic Index of Plasma in Rural Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Northeast China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101027
Received: 6 August 2016 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1230 | PDF Full-text (1465 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In 2010, the American Heart Association has proposed a new concept “ideal cardiovascular health” (CVH) based on seven CVH metrics: smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet score, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose. We aimed to determine the association of
[...] Read more.
In 2010, the American Heart Association has proposed a new concept “ideal cardiovascular health” (CVH) based on seven CVH metrics: smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet score, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose. We aimed to determine the association of CVH with atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), a strong marker for atherosclerosis (AS). This cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of northeast China and 11,113 middle-aged subjects were enrolled. Seven CVH metrics were classified into ideal, intermediate, and poor groups. AIP was calculated as log (TG/HDL) (triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). AIP > 0.21 was classified into the high AIP group and served as dependent variable. All seven CVH metrics were correlated with AIP. A gradient relationship between the number of poor CVH metrics and the prevalence of high AIP existed. Log binomial regression analysis showed that compared to those with five to seven ideal CVH metrics, individuals with four, three, two, one, and no ideal CVH metrics had 1.67, 2.66, 4.00, 5.30 and 6.50 times higher prevalence for high AIP. The subjects with poor CVH status had 2.73 times higher prevalence for high AIP. We found an inversely gradient relationship between the number of ideal CVH metrics and lower prevalence of high AIP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Accessibility to Specialized Public Oral Health Services from the Perspective of Brazilian Users
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101026
Received: 10 August 2016 / Revised: 15 September 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
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Abstract
The Specialized Dental Clinics (SDCs) represent the first government initiative in Latin America aimed at providing specialized oral health services. This study sought to evaluate the organizational accessibility to specialized oral health care services in Brazil and to understand the factors that may
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The Specialized Dental Clinics (SDCs) represent the first government initiative in Latin America aimed at providing specialized oral health services. This study sought to evaluate the organizational accessibility to specialized oral health care services in Brazil and to understand the factors that may be associated with accessibility from the user’s perspective. This epidemiological, cross-sectional and quantitative study was conducted by means of interviews with individuals who sought specialized public oral health services in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, and consisted of a sample of 590 individuals. Users expressed a favorable view of the classification and resolutive nature of specialized services offered by Brazilian public health. The binary logistic regression analysis revealed weak points highlighting the difficulty involved in obtaining such treatments leading to unfavorable evaluations. In the resolutive nature item, difficulty in accessing the location, queues and lack of materials and equipment were highlighted as statistically significant unfavorable aspects. While many of the users considered the service to be resolutive, weaknesses were mentioned that need to be detected to promote improvements and to prevent other health models adopted worldwide from reproducing the same flaws. Full article
Open AccessArticle Two Mechanisms: The Role of Social Capital and Industrial Pollution Exposure in Explaining Racial Disparities in Self-Rated Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101025
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 28 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
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Abstract
This study provides an empirical test of two mechanisms (social capital and exposure to air pollution) that are theorized to mediate the effect of neighborhood on health and contribute to racial disparities in health outcomes. To this end, we utilize the Social Capital
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This study provides an empirical test of two mechanisms (social capital and exposure to air pollution) that are theorized to mediate the effect of neighborhood on health and contribute to racial disparities in health outcomes. To this end, we utilize the Social Capital Benchmark Study, a national survey of individuals nested within communities in the United States, to estimate how multiple dimensions of social capital and exposure to air pollution, explain racial disparities in self-rated health. Our main findings show that when controlling for individual-confounders, and nesting within communities, our indicator of cognitive bridging, generalized trust, decreases the gap in self-rated health between African Americans and Whites by 84%, and the gap between Hispanics and Whites by 54%. Our other indicator of cognitive social capital, cognitive linking as represented by engagement in politics, decreases the gap in health between Hispanics and Whites by 32%, but has little impact on African Americans. We also assessed whether the gap in health was explained by respondents’ estimated exposure to toxicity-weighted air pollutants from large industrial facilities over the previous year. Our results show that accounting for exposure to these toxins has no effect on the racial gap in self-rated health in these data. This paper contributes to the neighborhood effects literature by examining the impact that estimated annual industrial air pollution, and multiple measures of social capital, have on explaining the racial gap in health in a sample of individuals nested within communities across the United States. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Associations between Body Mass Index and Visual Impairment of School Students in Central China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101024
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 9 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
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Abstract
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a risk indicator for some eye diseases. However, the association between BMI and Visual Impairment (VI) was not quite certain in Chinese students. Our aim was to assess the relationship between BMI and VI with a cross-sectional study.
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Body Mass Index (BMI) is a risk indicator for some eye diseases. However, the association between BMI and Visual Impairment (VI) was not quite certain in Chinese students. Our aim was to assess the relationship between BMI and VI with a cross-sectional study. A total of 3771 students aged 6–21 years, including 729 with VI, were sampled from 24 schools in Huangpi District of central China to participate in the study. A multistage stratified cluster random sampling was adopted. Each of the students answered a questionnaire and had physical and eye examinations. The association between BMI and VI was examined with logistic regression and threshold effect analysis. The prevalence of VI was 19.33% (729/3771). Compared to normal and underweight, overweight/obese students showed a stronger relation with VI in age- and sex-adjusted (Odds Ratio (OR) = 16.16, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 12.37–21.09, p < 0.001) and multivariable models (OR = 8.32, 95% CI: 6.13–11.30, p < 0.001). There was a nonlinear dose–response relation between levels of BMI and the prevalence of VI (p < 0.001). A high level of BMI (≥19.81 kg/m2) was associated with a higher VI prevalence (adjusted OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.15–1.25, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the study demonstrated BMI levels were significantly associated with the prevalence of VI. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Association between LIPC rs493258 Polymorphism and the Susceptibility to Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101022
Received: 15 August 2016 / Revised: 25 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of the hepatic lipase (LIPC) rs493258 polymorphism and susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI web of science databases was performed to identify eligible published studies
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of the hepatic lipase (LIPC) rs493258 polymorphism and susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI web of science databases was performed to identify eligible published studies without language restrictions up to April 2016. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in different stages of AMD were estimated under different genetic models using meta-analytic methods. Seven studies comprising 20,559 cases and 17,200 controls met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The LIPC rs493258 polymorphism showed a significant association with a lower risk of AMD under the allelic model (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.84–0.90). Significant relationships between the variant and AMD were also observed in other genetic models (OR ranging from 0.71 to 0.86, all p < 0.05). Stratified analysis based on ethnicity found that LIPC rs493258 polymorphism had a significant association with the decreased risk of the disease in the Caucasian population, but not in the Asian population. For late AMD, significant associations of the rs493258 polymorphism with a lower risk of this disease were also observed in the allelic genetic model (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.83–0.90). This meta-analysis demonstrates that the T allele in the LIPC rs493258 polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of any and late AMD. The associations of the locus with early and late AMD risk in various populations need further exploration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Overexpression of RACK1 Promotes Metastasis by Enhancing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Predicts Poor Prognosis in Human Glioma
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101021
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
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Abstract
Emerging studies show that dysregulation of the receptor of activated protein kinase C1 (RACK1) plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and progression of various cancers. However, the biological function and underlying mechanism of RACK1 in glioma remains poorly defined. Here, we found that
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Emerging studies show that dysregulation of the receptor of activated protein kinase C1 (RACK1) plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and progression of various cancers. However, the biological function and underlying mechanism of RACK1 in glioma remains poorly defined. Here, we found that RACK1 was significantly up-regulated in glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues, being closely related to clinical stage of glioma both in mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients with high RACK1 expression had a poor prognosis (p = 0.0062, HR = 1.898, 95% CI: 1.225–3.203). In vitro functional assays indicated that silencing of RACK1 could dramatically promote apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma cells. More importantly, knockdown of RACK1 led to a vast accumulation of cells in G0/G1 phase and their reduced proportions at the S phase by suppressing the expression of G1/S transition key regulators Cyclin D1 and CDK6. Additionally, this forced down-regulation of RACK1 significantly suppressed migration and invasion via inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, such as MMP2, MMP9, ZEB1, N-Cadherin, and Integrin-β1. Collectively, our study revealed that RACK1 might act as a valuable prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for glioma. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Rural-Urban Difference in BMI and Anemia among Children and Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101020
Received: 26 August 2016 / Revised: 27 September 2016 / Accepted: 9 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
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Abstract
There is growing concern over the double burden of over- and under-nutrition in individuals, especially in children and adolescents, which could dwarf their growth and development. This study aims to explore the rural-urban difference in BMI and anemia among children and adolescents. A
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There is growing concern over the double burden of over- and under-nutrition in individuals, especially in children and adolescents, which could dwarf their growth and development. This study aims to explore the rural-urban difference in BMI and anemia among children and adolescents. A stratified cluster sampling technique was employed. Dietary data were collected through interviews, and anthropometric values were measured. There were 1534 children and adolescents who participated in this study, including 775 male and 759 female participants. The prevalence of obesity among children living in a city, township and rural area was 10.3%, 8.5% and 5.5%, and that among adolescents was 1.4%, 2.9% and 2.8%. The prevalence of anemia among children and living in a city, township and rural area was 4.3%, 2.5% and 4.5%, while that among adolescents was 6.1%, 3.7% and 11.3%, respectively, with significant difference (χ2 = 10.824, p = 0.004). The prevalence of being overweight, obesity and anemia was significant when comparing children with adolescents (χ2 = 37.861, p = 0.000; χ2 = 19.832, p = 0.000; χ2 = 8.611, p = 0.003). Findings of this study indicate the double burden of malnutrition in Zhejiang province, characterized by a high prevalence of being overweight, obesity and anemia among children and a high prevalence of anemia among adolescents living in townships. Full article
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Open AccessReview Vitamin D Status and Its Consequences for Health in South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101019
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 10 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
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Abstract
In this review, reports were retrieved in which vitamin D status, as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, was measured in South African population groups with varied skin colours and ethnicities. Healthy children and adults were generally vitamin D-sufficient [25(OH)D level >50
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In this review, reports were retrieved in which vitamin D status, as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, was measured in South African population groups with varied skin colours and ethnicities. Healthy children and adults were generally vitamin D-sufficient [25(OH)D level >50 nmol/L] but the majority of those aged above 65 years were deficient. A major role for exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in determining 25(OH)D levels was apparent, with the dietary contribution being minor. Limited data exist regarding the impact of recent changes in lifestyles on vitamin D status, such as urbanisation. With regard to disease susceptibility, 11 of 22 relevant publications indicated association between low 25(OH)D levels and disease, with deficiency most notably found in individuals with tuberculosis and HIV-1. Information on the relationship between vitamin D receptor variants and ethnicity, disease or treatment response in the South African population groups demonstrated complex interactions between genetics, epigenetics and the environment. Whether vitamin D plays an important role in protection against the range of diseases that currently constitute a large burden on the health services in South Africa requires further investigation. Only then can accurate advice be given about personal sun exposure or dietary vitamin D supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UV-Radiation: From Physics to Impacts)
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Open AccessArticle Up-Regulation of Claudin-6 in the Distal Lung Impacts Secondhand Smoke-Induced Inflammation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101018
Received: 17 August 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
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Abstract
It has long been understood that increased epithelial permeability contributes to inflammation observed in many respiratory diseases. Recently, evidence has revealed that environmental exposure to noxious material such as cigarette smoke reduces tight junction barrier integrity, thus enhancing inflammatory conditions. Claudin-6 (Cldn6) is
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It has long been understood that increased epithelial permeability contributes to inflammation observed in many respiratory diseases. Recently, evidence has revealed that environmental exposure to noxious material such as cigarette smoke reduces tight junction barrier integrity, thus enhancing inflammatory conditions. Claudin-6 (Cldn6) is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein found within the tight junctional complex and is implicated in maintaining lung epithelial barriers. To test the hypothesis that increased Cldn6 ameliorates inflammation at the respiratory barrier, we utilized the Tet-On inducible transgenic system to conditionally over-express Clnd6 in the distal lung. Cldn6 transgenic (TG) and control mice were continuously provided doxycycline from postnatal day (PN) 30 until euthanasia date at PN90. A subset of Cldn6 TG and control mice were also subjected to daily secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) via a nose only inhalation system from PN30-90 and compared to room air (RA) controls. Animals were euthanized on PN90 and lungs were harvested for histological and molecular characterization. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was procured for the assessment of inflammatory cells and molecules. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting revealed increased Cldn6 expression in TG vs. control animals and SHS decreased Cldn6 expression regardless of genetic up-regulation. Histological evaluations revealed no adverse pulmonary remodeling via Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining or any qualitative alterations in the abundance of type II pneumocytes or proximal non-ciliated epithelial cells via staining for cell specific propeptide of Surfactant Protein-C (proSP-C) or Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP), respectively. Immunoblotting and qRT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of Cldn6 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. As a general theme, inflammation induced by SHS exposure was influenced by the availability of Cldn6. These data reveal captivating information suggesting a role for Cldn6 in lungs exposed to tobacco smoke. Further research is critically necessary in order to fully explain roles for tight junctional components such as Cldn6 and other related molecules in lungs coping with exposure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High Vaccination Coverage among Children during Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 as a Potential Factor of Herd Immunity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101017
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 5 October 2016 / Accepted: 6 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to identify factors related to the expansion of infection and prevention of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. A retrospective non-randomized cohort study (from June 2009 to May 2010) on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was conducted in a sample of residents from Hiroshima
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The objective of this study was to identify factors related to the expansion of infection and prevention of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. A retrospective non-randomized cohort study (from June 2009 to May 2010) on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was conducted in a sample of residents from Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The cumulative incidence of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and the pandemic vaccine effectiveness (VE) were estimated. The response rate was 53.5% (178,669/333,892). Overall, the odds ratio of non-vaccinated group to vaccinated group for cumulative incidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was 2.18 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.13–2.23) and the VE was 43.9% (CI: 42.8–44.9). The expansion of infection, indicating the power of transmission from infected person to susceptible person, was high in the 7–15 years age groups in each area. In conclusion, results from this survey suggested that schoolchildren-based vaccination rate participates in determining the level of herd immunity to influenza and children might be the drivers of influenza transmission. For future pandemic preparedness, vaccination of schoolchildren may help to prevent disease transmission during influenza outbreak. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Polymorphism of the XRCC1 Gene Is Associated with Susceptibility and Short-Term Recovery of Ischemic Stroke
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101016
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 8 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
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Abstract
Background: Base excision repair (BER) is the primary DNA repair system with the ability to fix base lesions caused by oxidative damage. Genetic variants influencing the BER pathway may affect the susceptibility and the outcomes of ischemic stroke. Here, we examined how single
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Background: Base excision repair (BER) is the primary DNA repair system with the ability to fix base lesions caused by oxidative damage. Genetic variants influencing the BER pathway may affect the susceptibility and the outcomes of ischemic stroke. Here, we examined how single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BER impact susceptibility and short-term recovery of ischemic stroke. Methods: We selected 320 ischemic stroke patients and 303 controls. Then we genotyped SNPs of NEIL1 rs4462560, NEIL3 rs12645561 and XRCC1 rs25487 in both groups. Results: Polymorphism in XRCC1 rs25487 was significantly associated with reduced ischemic stroke (IS) risk (dominant model: OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.36–0.79, p = 0.002), a milder initial stroke (dominant model: OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.33–0.98, p = 0.043), and also a better short-term recovery (dominant model: OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.35–0.92, p = 0.022). No association was observed in the other two SNPs. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the genetic variant of XRCC1 rs25487 may contribute to the etiology of ischemic stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Open AccessReview The Need for a Definition of Big Data for Nursing Science: A Case Study of Disaster Preparedness
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101015
Received: 20 July 2016 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
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Abstract
The rapid development of technology has made enormous volumes of data available and achievable anytime and anywhere around the world. Data scientists call this change a data era and have introduced the term “Big Data”, which has drawn the attention of nursing scholars.
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The rapid development of technology has made enormous volumes of data available and achievable anytime and anywhere around the world. Data scientists call this change a data era and have introduced the term “Big Data”, which has drawn the attention of nursing scholars. Nevertheless, the concept of Big Data is quite fuzzy and there is no agreement on its definition among researchers of different disciplines. Without a clear consensus on this issue, nursing scholars who are relatively new to the concept may consider Big Data to be merely a dataset of a bigger size. Having a suitable definition for nurse researchers in their context of research and practice is essential for the advancement of nursing research. In view of the need for a better understanding on what Big Data is, the aim in this paper is to explore and discuss the concept. Furthermore, an example of a Big Data research study on disaster nursing preparedness involving six million patient records is used for discussion. The example demonstrates that a Big Data analysis can be conducted from many more perspectives than would be possible in traditional sampling, and is superior to traditional sampling. Experience gained from the process of using Big Data in this study will shed light on future opportunities for conducting evidence-based nursing research to achieve competence in disaster nursing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study on the Fire Damage Characteristics of the New Qidaoliang Highway Tunnel: Field Investigation with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Back Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101014
Received: 7 July 2016 / Revised: 11 September 2016 / Accepted: 2 October 2016 / Published: 15 October 2016
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Abstract
In the New Qidaoliang Tunnel (China), a rear-end collision of two tanker trunks caused a fire. To understand the damage characteristics of the tunnel lining structure, in situ investigation was performed. The results show that the fire in the tunnel induced spallation of
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In the New Qidaoliang Tunnel (China), a rear-end collision of two tanker trunks caused a fire. To understand the damage characteristics of the tunnel lining structure, in situ investigation was performed. The results show that the fire in the tunnel induced spallation of tunnel lining concrete covering 856 m3; the length of road surface damage reached 650 m; the sectional area had a maximum 4% increase, and the mechanical and electrical facilities were severely damaged. The maximum area loss happened at the fire spot with maximum observed concrete spallation up to a thickness of 35.4 cm. The strength of vault and side wall concrete near the fire source was significantly reduced. The loss of concrete strength of the side wall near the inner surface of tunnel was larger than that near the surrounding rock. In order to perform back analysis of the effect of thermal load on lining structure, simplified numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was also performed, repeating the fire scenario. The simulated results showed that from the fire breaking out to the point of becoming steady, the tunnel experienced processes of small-scale warming, swirl around fire, backflow, and longitudinal turbulent flow. The influence range of the tunnel internal temperature on the longitudinal downstream was far greater than on the upstream, while the high temperature upstream and downstream of the transverse fire source mainly centered on the vault or the higher vault waist. The temperature of each part of the tunnel near the fire source had no obvious stratification phenomenon. The temperature of the vault lining upstream and downstream near the fire source was the highest. The numerical simulation is found to be in good agreement with the field observations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Japanese Articles about Suicides Involving Charcoal Burning or Hydrogen Sulfide Gas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101013
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 23 September 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 15 October 2016
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Abstract
It is well known that certain types of media reports about suicide can result in imitative suicides. In the last two decades, Japan has experienced two suicide epidemics and the subsequent excessive media coverage of these events. However, the quality of the media
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It is well known that certain types of media reports about suicide can result in imitative suicides. In the last two decades, Japan has experienced two suicide epidemics and the subsequent excessive media coverage of these events. However, the quality of the media suicide reports has yet to be evaluated in terms of the guidelines for media suicide coverage. Thus, the present study analyzed Japanese newspaper articles (n = 4007) on suicides by charcoal burning or hydrogen sulfide gas between 11 February 2003 and 13 March 2010. The suicide reports were evaluated in terms of the extent to which they conformed to the suicide reporting guidelines. The mean violation scores were 3.06 (±0.7) for all articles, 3.2 (±0.8) for articles about suicide by charcoal burning, and 2.9 (±0.7) for articles about suicide by hydrogen sulfide (p < 0.001). With the exception of not following several recommendations, newspaper articles about suicide have improved in quality, as defined by the recommendations for media suicide coverage. To prevent imitative suicides based on media suicide reports, individuals in the media should try not to report suicide methods and to make attempts to report the poor condition of suicide survivors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Understanding Suicide Risk to Preventing Suicide)
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Open AccessArticle Health Hazards Associated with Consumption of Roof-Collected Rainwater in Urban Areas in Emergency Situations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101012
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 30 September 2016 / Published: 15 October 2016
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Abstract
The greater Wellington region, New Zealand, is highly vulnerable to large earthquakes because it is cut by active faults. Bulk water supply pipelines cross the Wellington Fault at several different locations, and there is considerable concern about severe disruption of the provision of
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The greater Wellington region, New Zealand, is highly vulnerable to large earthquakes because it is cut by active faults. Bulk water supply pipelines cross the Wellington Fault at several different locations, and there is considerable concern about severe disruption of the provision of reticulated water supplies to households and businesses in the aftermath of a large earthquake. A number of policy initiatives have been launched encouraging householders to install rainwater tanks to increase post-disaster resilience. However, little attention has been paid to potential health hazards associated with consumption of these supplies. To assess health hazards for householders in emergency situations, six 200-litre emergency water tanks were installed at properties across the Wellington region, with five tanks being allowed to fill with roof-collected rainwater and one tank being filled with municipal tapwater as a control. Such tanks are predominantly set aside for water storage and, once filled, feature limited drawdown and recharge. Sampling from these tanks was carried out fortnightly for one year, and samples were analysed for E. coli, pH, conductivity, a range of major and trace elements, and organic compounds, enabling an assessment of the evolution of water chemistry in water storage tanks over time. Key findings were that the overall rate of E. coli detections in the rain-fed tanks was 17.7%, which is low in relation to other studies. We propose that low incidences of may be due to biocidal effects of high zinc concentrations in tanks, originating from unpainted galvanised steel roof cladding. Lead concentrations were high compared to other studies, with 69% of rain-fed tank samples exceeding the World Health Organisation’s health-based guideline of 0.01 mg/L. Further work is required to determine risks of short-term consumption of this water in emergency situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolving Relationship between Science and Disaster Risk Reduction)
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