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Special Issue "Emerging Aquatic Microbial and Chemical Contaminants of Concern and Their Impact on Human Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 April 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Warish Ahmed
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CSIRO Land and Water, Ecosciences Precinct, 41 Boggo Road. Dutton Park, QLD 4102, Australia
Interests: identifying the microbial composition of water resources using next generation sequencing; tracking the sources of faecal pollution in environmental waters using rapid molecular based methods; development and evaluation of microbial methods for the detection and quantification of pathogens in water; quantitative microbial risk assessment; roof-harvested rainwater and recreational water quality; novel techniques for pathogen detection/quantification
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. David J. Beale
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Environmental Metabolomics and Proteomics, Land & Water, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Ecoscience Precinct, Dutton Park, QLD 4160, Australia
Interests: metabolomics; environmental multi-omics; pesticide analysis; systems biology; environmental science
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is preparing a timely Special Issue focusing on water quality issues and their impact on public health, titled “Emerging Aquatic Microbial and Chemical Contaminants of Concern and Their Impact on Human Health”.

It is well known that water has a profound influence on human health. The microbial and chemical quality of water can result in disastrous outcomes to the communities that are either exposed directly (i.e., drinking water, recreational water, wastewater discharges to waterways) or indirectly (i.e., groundwater and reclaimed water used for irrigation and aquaculture). For water that is microbially or chemically contaminated, the community receiving the water or being exposed indirectly through the consumption of food produced, can lead to outbreaks of water-borne infectious diseases and exposure to emerging contaminants of concern (such as personal care products (PCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). This may result in serious epidemics to occur or result in chronic exposure to toxins.

To address this important issue, this Special Issue is open to any subject area related to microbial and chemical water quality monitoring and assessment relating to public health risk. This includes all sources of environmental water, such as groundwater, stormwater, recreational water, lakes, reservoirs, rivers, coastal and shellfish harvesting waters. Research in microbial and chemical water quality monitoring in these sources in both developing and developed countries are encouraged, as they can offer a critical guide for policy makers to minimize disease burden. The listed keywords suggest just a few of the many possibilities that are considered in the Special Issue. Full-length research papers are accepted, as are critical Review articles. Please feel free to contact the editors with your proposed title and abstract for consideration prior to submission.

For detailed information on the journal, we refer you to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

Dr. Warish Ahmed
Dr. David Beale
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fecal and alternative indicator bacteria
  • pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminthes in water
  • microbial source tracking
  • emerging detection methods
  • risk assessment
  • recreational and alternative water sources
  • contaminants of emerging concern
  • pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PCPs)
  • endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs)
  • community metabolomics
  • ecometabolomics
  • multiomics

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Article
Regional Assessment of Human Fecal Contamination in Southern California Coastal Drainages
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080874 - 04 Aug 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2570
Abstract
Host-associated genetic markers that allow for fecal source identification have been used extensively as a diagnostic tool to determine fecal sources within watersheds, but have not been used in routine monitoring to prioritize remediation actions among watersheds. Here, we present a regional assessment [...] Read more.
Host-associated genetic markers that allow for fecal source identification have been used extensively as a diagnostic tool to determine fecal sources within watersheds, but have not been used in routine monitoring to prioritize remediation actions among watersheds. Here, we present a regional assessment of human marker prevalence among drainages that discharge to the U.S. southern California coast. Approximately 50 samples were analyzed for the HF183 human marker from each of 22 southern California coastal drainages under summer dry weather conditions, and another 50 samples were targeted from each of 23 drainages during wet weather. The HF183 marker was ubiquitous, detected in all but two sites in dry weather and at all sites during wet weather. However, there was considerable difference in the extent of human fecal contamination among sites. Similar site ranking was produced regardless of whether the assessment was based on frequency of HF183 detection or site average HF183 concentration. However, site ranking differed greatly between dry and wet weather. Site ranking also differed greatly when based on enterococci, which do not distinguish between pollution sources, vs. HF183, which distinguishes higher risk human fecal sources from other sources, indicating the additional value of the human-associated marker as a routine monitoring tool. Full article
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Article
Antibiotic Concentrations Decrease during Wastewater Treatment but Persist at Low Levels in Reclaimed Water
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14060668 - 21 Jun 2017
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 3186
Abstract
Reclaimed water has emerged as a potential irrigation solution to freshwater shortages. However, limited data exist on the persistence of antibiotics in reclaimed water used for irrigation. Therefore, we examined the fate of nine commonly-used antibiotics (ampicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, linezolid, oxacillin, oxolinic acid, [...] Read more.
Reclaimed water has emerged as a potential irrigation solution to freshwater shortages. However, limited data exist on the persistence of antibiotics in reclaimed water used for irrigation. Therefore, we examined the fate of nine commonly-used antibiotics (ampicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, linezolid, oxacillin, oxolinic acid, penicillin G, pipemidic acid, and tetracycline) in differentially treated wastewater and reclaimed water from two U.S. regions. We collected 72 samples from two Mid-Atlantic and two Midwest treatment plants, as well as one Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid-chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests and Kruskal Wallis tests. Overall, antibiotic concentrations in effluent samples were lower than that of influent samples. Mid-Atlantic plants had similar influent but lower effluent antibiotic concentrations compared to Midwest plants. Azithromycin was detected at the highest concentrations (of all antibiotics) in influent and effluent samples from both regions. For most antibiotics, transport from the treatment plant to the irrigation site resulted in no changes in antibiotic concentrations, and UV treatment at the irrigation site had no effect on antibiotic concentrations in reclaimed water. Our findings show that low-level antibiotic concentrations persist in reclaimed water used for irrigation; however, the public health implications are unclear at this time. Full article
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Article
Drivers of Microbial Risk for Direct Potable Reuse and de Facto Reuse Treatment Schemes: The Impacts of Source Water Quality and Blending
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14060635 - 13 Jun 2017
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3362
Abstract
Although reclaimed water for potable applications has many potential benefits, it poses concerns for chemical and microbial risks to consumers. We present a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) Monte Carlo framework to compare a de facto water reuse scenario (treated wastewater-impacted surface water) [...] Read more.
Although reclaimed water for potable applications has many potential benefits, it poses concerns for chemical and microbial risks to consumers. We present a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) Monte Carlo framework to compare a de facto water reuse scenario (treated wastewater-impacted surface water) with four hypothetical Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) scenarios for Norovirus, Cryptosporidium, and Salmonella. Consumer microbial risks of surface source water quality (impacted by 0–100% treated wastewater effluent) were assessed. Additionally, we assessed risks for different blending ratios (0–100% surface water blended into advanced-treated DPR water) when source surface water consisted of 50% wastewater effluent. De facto reuse risks exceeded the yearly 10−4 infections risk benchmark while all modeled DPR risks were significantly lower. Contamination with 1% or more wastewater effluent in the source water, and blending 1% or more wastewater-impacted surface water into the advanced-treated DPR water drove the risk closer to the 10−4 benchmark. We demonstrate that de facto reuse by itself, or as an input into DPR, drives microbial risks more so than the advanced-treated DPR water. When applied using location-specific inputs, this framework can contribute to project design and public awareness campaigns to build legitimacy for DPR. Full article
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Article
Enteric Viruses and Fecal Bacteria Indicators to Assess Groundwater Quality and Suitability for Irrigation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14060558 - 24 May 2017
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2957
Abstract
According to Italian Ministerial Decree No. 185 of 12 June 2003, water is considered suitable for irrigation if levels of fecal bacteria (i.e., Escherichia coli and Salmonella) are within certain parameters. The detection of other microorganisms is not required. The aim of [...] Read more.
According to Italian Ministerial Decree No. 185 of 12 June 2003, water is considered suitable for irrigation if levels of fecal bacteria (i.e., Escherichia coli and Salmonella) are within certain parameters. The detection of other microorganisms is not required. The aim of this study is to determine the bacteriological quality of groundwater used for irrigation and the occurrence of enteric viruses (Norovirus, Enterovirus, Rotavirus, Hepatovirus A), and to compare the presence of viruses with the fecal bacteria indicators. A total of 182 wells was analyzed. Widespread fecal contamination of Apulian aquifers was detected (141 wells; 77.5%) by the presence of fecal bacteria (i.e., E. coli, Salmonella, total coliforms, and enterococci). Considering bacteria included in Ministerial Decree No. 185, the water from 35 (19.2%) wells was unsuitable for irrigation purposes. Among 147 wells with water considered suitable, Norovirus, Rotavirus, and Enterovirus were detected in 23 (15.6%) wells. No Hepatovirus A was isolated. Consequently, 58 wells (31.9%) posed a potential infectious risk for irrigation use. This study revealed the inadequacy of fecal bacteria indicators to predict the occurrence of viruses in groundwater and it is the first in Italy to describe the presence of human rotaviruses in well water used for irrigation. Full article
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Article
A New Method for the Fast Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Tap and Recycled Waters Using Headspace Gas Chromatography with Micro-Electron Capture Detection
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14050527 - 15 May 2017
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2814
Abstract
Chemical disinfection of water supplies brings significant public health benefits by reducing microbial contamination. The process can however, result in the formation of toxic compounds through interactions between disinfectants and organic material in the source water. These new compounds are termed disinfection by-products [...] Read more.
Chemical disinfection of water supplies brings significant public health benefits by reducing microbial contamination. The process can however, result in the formation of toxic compounds through interactions between disinfectants and organic material in the source water. These new compounds are termed disinfection by-products (DBPs). The most common are the trihalomethanes (THMs) such as trichloromethane (chloroform), dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane and tribromomethane (bromoform); these are commonly reported as a single value for total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Analysis of DBPs is commonly performed via time- and solvent-intensive sample preparation techniques such as liquid–liquid and solid phase extraction. In this study, a method using headspace gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection was developed and applied for the analysis of THMs in drinking and recycled waters from across Melbourne (Victoria, Australia). The method allowed almost complete removal of the sample preparation step whilst maintaining trace level detection limits (>1 ppb). All drinking water samples had TTHM concentrations below the Australian regulatory limit of 250 µg/L but some were above the U.S. EPA limit of 60 µg/L. The highest TTHM concentration was 67.2 µg/L and lowest 22.9 µg/L. For recycled water, samples taken directly from treatment plants held significantly higher concentrations (153.2 µg/L TTHM) compared to samples from final use locations (4.9–9.3 µg/L). Full article
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Article
Water Access, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions and Health Outcomes among Two Settlement Types in Rural Far North Cameroon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14040441 - 20 Apr 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3136
Abstract
The Far North region in Cameroon has been more heavily impacted by cholera than any other region over the past decade, but very little has been done to study the drivers of waterborne diseases in the region. We investigated the relationship between water, [...] Read more.
The Far North region in Cameroon has been more heavily impacted by cholera than any other region over the past decade, but very little has been done to study the drivers of waterborne diseases in the region. We investigated the relationship between water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) parameters, microbial and antibiotic resistance (AR) contamination levels in drinking water, and health outcomes using health survey and molecular analysis during June and July of 2014 in two settlement types (agro-pastoralist villages and transhumant pastoralist camps). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine fecal contamination sources, enteric pathogens, and antibiotic resistance genes. Ruminant-associated fecal contamination was widespread in both settlement types (81.2%), with human-associated contamination detected in 21.7% of the samples. Salmonella spp. (59.4%) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (stx1 44.9% and stx2 31.9%) were detected across all samples. Tetracycline resistance was found only in village samples. A significant difference in diarrheal incidence within the past 28 days among young children was found between camps (31.3%) and villages (0.0%). Our findings suggest that water contamination may play an important role in contributing to gastrointestinal illness, supporting the need for future research and public health intervention to reduce gastrointestinal illness in the area. Full article
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Article
Abundance of Pathogenic Escherichia coli Virulence-Associated Genes in Well and Borehole Water Used for Domestic Purposes in a Peri-Urban Community of South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030320 - 20 Mar 2017
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2653
Abstract
In the absence of pipe-borne water, many people in Africa, especially in rural communities, depend on alternative water sources such as wells, boreholes and rivers for household and personal hygiene. Poor maintenance and nearby pit latrines, however, lead to microbial pollution of these [...] Read more.
In the absence of pipe-borne water, many people in Africa, especially in rural communities, depend on alternative water sources such as wells, boreholes and rivers for household and personal hygiene. Poor maintenance and nearby pit latrines, however, lead to microbial pollution of these sources. We evaluated the abundance of Escherichia coli and the prevalence of pathogenic E. coli virulence genes in water from wells, boreholes and a river in a South African peri-urban community. Monthly samples were collected between August 2015 and November 2016. In all, 144 water samples were analysed for E. coli using the Colilert 18 system. Virulence genes (eagg, eaeA, stx1, stx2, flichH7, ST, ipaH, ibeA) were investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Mean E. coli counts ranged between 0 and 443.1 Most Probable Number (MPN)/100 mL of water sample. Overall, 99.3% of samples were positive for at least one virulence gene studied, with flicH7 being the most detected gene (81/140; 57.6%) and the stx2 gene the least detected gene (8/140; 5.7%). Both intestinal and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli genes were detected. The detection of virulence genes in these water sources suggests the presence of potentially pathogenic E. coli strains and is a public health concern. Full article
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Article
A Community Multi-Omics Approach towards the Assessment of Surface Water Quality in an Urban River System
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030303 - 14 Mar 2017
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3505
Abstract
A multi-omics approach was applied to an urban river system (the Brisbane River (BR), Queensland, Australia) in order to investigate surface water quality and characterize the bacterial population with respect to water contaminants. To do this, bacterial metagenomic amplicon-sequencing using Illumina next-generation sequencing [...] Read more.
A multi-omics approach was applied to an urban river system (the Brisbane River (BR), Queensland, Australia) in order to investigate surface water quality and characterize the bacterial population with respect to water contaminants. To do this, bacterial metagenomic amplicon-sequencing using Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the V5–V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and untargeted community metabolomics using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were utilized. The multi-omics data, in combination with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) counts, trace metal concentrations (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)) and in-situ water quality measurements collected from various locations along the BR were then used to assess the health of the river ecosystem. Sites sampled represented the transition from less affected (upstream) to polluted (downstream) environments along the BR. Chemometric analysis of the combined datasets indicated a clear separation between the sampled environments. Burkholderiales and Cyanobacteria were common key factors for differentiation of pristine waters. Increased sugar alcohol and short-chain fatty acid production was observed by Actinomycetales and Rhodospirillaceae that are known to form biofilms in urban polluted and brackish waters. Results from this study indicate that a multi-omics approach enables a deep understanding of the health of an aquatic ecosystem, providing insight into the bacterial diversity present and the metabolic output of the population when exposed to environmental contaminants. Full article
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Article
Removal and Biodegradation of Nonylphenol by Four Freshwater Microalgae
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121239 - 14 Dec 2016
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 1925
Abstract
The removal and biodegradation of nonylphenol (NP) by four freshwater microalgae, including three green algae (Scendesmus quadriauda, Chlorella vulgaris, and Ankistrodesmus acicularis) and one cyanobacterium (Chroococcus minutus) were studied in bacteria-free cultures exposed to different concentrations of [...] Read more.
The removal and biodegradation of nonylphenol (NP) by four freshwater microalgae, including three green algae (Scendesmus quadriauda, Chlorella vulgaris, and Ankistrodesmus acicularis) and one cyanobacterium (Chroococcus minutus) were studied in bacteria-free cultures exposed to different concentrations of NP for 5 days. All four algal species showed a rapid and high ability to remove NP (including bioaccumulation and biodegradation). Among these species, A. acicularis (Ankistrodesmus acicularis) had the highest NP removal rate (83.77%) at 120 h when exposed to different NP treatments (0.5–2.5 mg·L−1), followed by C. vulgaris (Chlorella vulgaris) (80.80%), S. quadriauda (Scendesmus quadriauda) (70.96%) and C. minutus (Chroococcus minutus) (64.26%). C. vulgaris had the highest NP biodegradation percentage (68.80%) at 120 h, followed by A. acicularis (65.63%), S. quadriauda (63.10%); and C. minutus (34.91%). The extracellular NP contents were lower than the intracellular NP contents in all tested algae. The ratio of the extracellular NP content and the intracellular NP content ranged from 0.04 to 0.85. Therefore, the removal of NP from the medium was mainly due to the algal degradation. These results indicate that A. acicularis and C. vulgaris are more tolerant to NP and could be used for treatment of NP contaminated aqueous systems effectively by bioremoval and biodegradation. Full article
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Article
Perfluorinated Compounds in Greenhouse and Open Agricultural Producing Areas of Three Provinces of China: Levels, Sources and Risk Assessment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121224 - 10 Dec 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2319
Abstract
Field investigations on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) levels in various environmental matrixes were reported, but there is still a lack of PFAA level data for agricultural environments, especially agricultural producing areas, so we collected soil, irrigation water and agricultural product samples from agricultural producing [...] Read more.
Field investigations on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) levels in various environmental matrixes were reported, but there is still a lack of PFAA level data for agricultural environments, especially agricultural producing areas, so we collected soil, irrigation water and agricultural product samples from agricultural producing areas in the provinces of Liaoning, Shandong and Sichuan in China. The background pollution from instruments was removed and C4–C18 PFAAs were detected by LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of PFAAs in the top and deep layers of soil were compared, and the levels of PFAAs in different agricultural environments (greenhouses and open agriculture) were analyzed. We found the order of PFAA levels by province was Shandong > Liaoning > Sichuan. A descending trend of PFAA levels from top to deep soil and open to greenhouse agriculture was shown and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was considered as a marker for source analysis. Bean vegetables contribute highly to the overall PFAA load in vegetables. A significant correlation was shown between irrigation water and agricultural products. The EDI (estimated daily intake) from vegetables should be of concern in China. Full article
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Article
Depth and Well Type Related to Groundwater Microbiological Contamination
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101036 - 21 Oct 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2423
Abstract
Use of groundwater from private wells in households has increased considerably, owing to a better cost/benefit ratio than that of water provided by local utilities for a fee. However, this water is usually untreated, which makes it a vehicle for diseases. Thus, monitoring [...] Read more.
Use of groundwater from private wells in households has increased considerably, owing to a better cost/benefit ratio than that of water provided by local utilities for a fee. However, this water is usually untreated, which makes it a vehicle for diseases. Thus, monitoring this water is necessary to ensure its integrity and quality. We aimed to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters of untreated groundwater drawn from different types of wells, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the bacteria isolated from this water. Wellwater samples were collected in two Brazilian cities. Although physical and chemical parameters of the water were suitable for drinking, Escherichia coli was detected in 33% of the samples. E. coli contaminated 65% of dug wells and 10.25% of drilled wells. Many bacteria isolated were resistant to multiple antibacterial agents, including β-lactams. Microbial contamination of this water was related to the well depth, and was more common in dug wells, making this water unfit for human consumption. Consumption of such contaminated and untreated water is a public health concern. Thus, individuals who regularly use such water must be alerted so they may either take preventive measures or connect to the water distribution system operated by local utilities. Full article
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Article
Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Swimming Pool Water: Evidences and Perspectives for a New Control Strategy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090919 - 15 Sep 2016
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2877
Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently isolated in swimming pool settings. Nine recreational and rehabilitative swimming pools were monitored according to the local legislation. The presence of P. aeruginosa was correlated to chlorine concentration. The ability of the isolates to form a biofilm on plastic [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently isolated in swimming pool settings. Nine recreational and rehabilitative swimming pools were monitored according to the local legislation. The presence of P. aeruginosa was correlated to chlorine concentration. The ability of the isolates to form a biofilm on plastic materials was also investigated. In 59.5% of the samples, microbial contamination exceeded the threshold values. P. aeruginosa was isolated in 50.8% of these samples. The presence of P. aeruginosa was not correlated with free or total chlorine amount (R2 < 0.1). All the isolates were moderate- to strong-forming biofilm (Optical Density O.D.570 range 0.7–1.2). To control biofilm formation and P. aeruginosa colonization, Quantum FreeBioEnergy© (QFBE, FreeBioEnergy, Brisighella, Italy), has been applied with encouraging preliminary results. It is a new, promising control strategy based on the change of an electromagnetic field which is responsible for the proliferation of some microorganisms involved in biofilm formation, such as P. aeruginosa. Full article
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Article
Quantitative Detection of Trace Malachite Green in Aquiculture Water Samples by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(8), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13080814 - 11 Aug 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2977
Abstract
Exposure to malachite green (MG) may pose great health risks to humans; thus, it is of prime importance to develop fast and robust methods to quantitatively screen the presence of malachite green in water. Herein the application of extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry [...] Read more.
Exposure to malachite green (MG) may pose great health risks to humans; thus, it is of prime importance to develop fast and robust methods to quantitatively screen the presence of malachite green in water. Herein the application of extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been extended to the trace detection of MG within lake water and aquiculture water, due to the intensive use of MG as a biocide in fisheries. This method has the advantage of obviating offline liquid-liquid extraction or tedious matrix separation prior to the measurement of malachite green in native aqueous medium. The experimental results indicate that the extrapolated detection limit for MG was ~3.8 μg·L−1 (S/N = 3) in lake water samples and ~0.5 μg·L−1 in ultrapure water under optimized experimental conditions. The signal intensity of MG showed good linearity over the concentration range of 10–1000 μg·L−1. Measurement of practical water samples fortified with MG at 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg·L−1 gave a good validation of the established calibration curve. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) of malachite green in lake water and Carassius carassius fish farm effluent water were 115% (6.64% RSD), 85.4% (9.17% RSD) and 96.0% (7.44% RSD), respectively. Overall, the established EESI-MS/MS method has been demonstrated suitable for sensitive and rapid (<2 min per sample) quantitative detection of malachite green in various aqueous media, indicating its potential for online real-time monitoring of real life samples. Full article
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Review

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Review
A Review of the Effects of Chronic Arsenic Exposure on Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14060556 - 23 May 2017
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 2940
Abstract
Exposure to arsenic has a number of known detrimental health effects but impact on pregnancy outcomes is not as widely recognized. This narrative review examines existing epidemiological evidence investigating the association between arsenic exposure via drinking water and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed [...] Read more.
Exposure to arsenic has a number of known detrimental health effects but impact on pregnancy outcomes is not as widely recognized. This narrative review examines existing epidemiological evidence investigating the association between arsenic exposure via drinking water and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed published epidemiological studies from around the world on impact of chronic arsenic exposure on spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, neonatal death, post neonatal death, low birth weight and preterm baby. Plausible mechanisms of arsenic toxicity causing adverse pregnancy outcomes were also determined through literature review. There is convincing evidence to support the association between high inorganic arsenic exposure (>50 ppb) and spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and low birth weight. Limitations of certain studies include study design, small sample size, recall constraints and exposure assessment. There needs to be further research investigating the dose metered impact of arsenic exposure on pregnancy outcomes. Further research on impact of low–moderate arsenic concentration exposure on pregnancy outcomes will allow for appropriate public health policy recommendations. Full article
Review
The Occurrence and Diversity of Waterborne Fungi in African Aquatic Systems: Their Impact on Water Quality and Human Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14050546 - 20 May 2017
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2468
Abstract
Currently, there is a worldwide growing interest in the occurrence and diversity of fungi and their secondary metabolites in aquatic systems, especially concerning their role in water quality and human health. However, this concern is hampered by the scant information that is available [...] Read more.
Currently, there is a worldwide growing interest in the occurrence and diversity of fungi and their secondary metabolites in aquatic systems, especially concerning their role in water quality and human health. However, this concern is hampered by the scant information that is available in the literature about aquatic fungi and how they affect water quality. There are only few published reports that link certain species of aquatic fungi to human health. The common aquatic fungal species that have been reported so far in African aquatic systems belong to the hyphomycetes kingdom. This paper thus aims to survey the information about the occurrence and factors that control the distribution of different species of fungi in African aquatic systems, as well as their effect on water quality and the possible metabolic pathways that lead to the formation of toxic secondary metabolites that are responsible for the deterioration of water quality. This review will also investigate the analytical and bioanalytical procedures that have been reported for the identification of different species of waterborne fungi and their secondary metabolites. Full article
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Other

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Perspective
Fungal Contaminants in Drinking Water Regulation? A Tale of Ecology, Exposure, Purification and Clinical Relevance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14060636 - 13 Jun 2017
Cited by 58 | Viewed by 4380
Abstract
Microbiological drinking water safety is traditionally monitored mainly by bacterial parameters that indicate faecal contamination. These parameters correlate with gastro-intestinal illness, despite the fact that viral agents, resulting from faecal contamination, are usually the cause. This leaves behind microbes that can cause illness [...] Read more.
Microbiological drinking water safety is traditionally monitored mainly by bacterial parameters that indicate faecal contamination. These parameters correlate with gastro-intestinal illness, despite the fact that viral agents, resulting from faecal contamination, are usually the cause. This leaves behind microbes that can cause illness other than gastro-intestinal and several emerging pathogens, disregarding non-endemic microbial contaminants and those with recent pathogenic activity reported. This white paper focuses on one group of contaminants known to cause allergies, opportunistic infections and intoxications: Fungi. It presents a review on their occurrence, ecology and physiology. Additionally, factors contributing to their presence in water distribution systems, as well as their effect on water quality are discussed. Presence of opportunistic and pathogenic fungi in drinking water can pose a health risk to consumers due to daily contact with water, via several exposure points, such as drinking and showering. The clinical relevance and influence on human health of the most common fungal contaminants in drinking water is discussed. Our goal with this paper is to place fungal contaminants on the roadmap of evidence based and emerging threats for drinking water quality safety regulations. Full article
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