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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 13, Issue 9 (September 2016)

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Open AccessArticle Acoustic, Visual and Spatial Indicators for the Description of the Soundscape of Waterfront Areas with and without Road Traffic Flow
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 934; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090934
Received: 12 May 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 25 August 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1469 | PDF Full-text (15486 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High flows of road traffic noise in urban agglomerations can negatively affect the livability of squares and parks located at the neighborhood, district and city levels, therefore pushing anyone who wants to enjoy calmer, quieter areas to move to non-urban parks. Due to [...] Read more.
High flows of road traffic noise in urban agglomerations can negatively affect the livability of squares and parks located at the neighborhood, district and city levels, therefore pushing anyone who wants to enjoy calmer, quieter areas to move to non-urban parks. Due to the distances between these areas, it is not possible to go as regularly as would be necessary to satisfy any needs. Even if cities are densely populated, the presence of a sea or riverfront offers the possibility of large restorative places, or at least with potential features for being the natural core of an urban nucleus after a renewal intervention. This study evaluates the soundscape of the Naples waterfront, presenting an overview of the most significant visual, acoustic and spatial factors related to the pedestrian areas, as well as areas open to road traffic and others where the road traffic is limited. The factors were chosen with feature selection methods and artificial neural networks. The results show how certain factors, such as the perimeter between the water and promenade, the visibility of the sea or the density of green areas, can affect the perception of the soundscape quality in the areas with road traffic. In the pedestrian areas, acoustic factors, such as loudness or the A-weighted sound level exceeded for 10% of the measurement duration (LA10), influence the perceived quality of the soundscape. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Heat Wave Definitions on the Added Effect of Heat Waves on Cardiovascular Mortality in Beijing, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090933
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 30 August 2016 / Accepted: 4 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1409 | PDF Full-text (846 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Heat waves are associated with increased mortality, however, few studies have examined the added effect of heat waves. Moreover, there is limited evidence for the influence of different heat wave definitions (HWs) on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, the capital of China. The aim [...] Read more.
Heat waves are associated with increased mortality, however, few studies have examined the added effect of heat waves. Moreover, there is limited evidence for the influence of different heat wave definitions (HWs) on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, the capital of China. The aim of this study was to find the best HW definitions for cardiovascular mortality, and we examined the effect modification by an individual characteristic on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, a typical northern city in China. We applied a Poisson generalized additive approach to estimate the differences in cardiovascular mortality during heat waves (using 12 HWs) compared with non-heat-wave days in Beijing from 2006 to 2009. We also validated the model fit by checking the residuals to ensure that the autocorrelation was successfully removed. In addition, the effect modifications by individual characteristics were explored in different HWs. Our results showed that the associations between heat waves and cardiovascular mortality differed from different HWs. HWs using the 93th percentile of the daily average temperature (27.7 °C) and a duration ≥5 days had the greatest risk, with an increase of 18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 6%, 31%) in the overall population, 24% (95% CI: 10%, 39%) in an older group (ages ≥65 years), and 22% (95% CI: 3%, 44%) in a female group. The added effect of heat waves was apparent after 5 consecutive heat wave days for the overall population and the older group. Females and the elderly were at higher risk than males and younger subjects (ages <65 years). Our findings suggest that heat wave definitions play a significant role in the relationship between heat wave and cardiovascular mortality. Using a suitable definition may have implications for designing local heat early warning systems and protecting the susceptible populations during heat waves. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Psychometric Properties and Clinical Usefulness of the Youth Self-Report DSM-Oriented Scales: A Field Study among Detained Male Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090932
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 6 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1298 | PDF Full-text (302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
It is unknown if the DSM-oriented (DSM) scales of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) are useful to determine what kind of narrowly-focused psychiatric assessment is needed, and how well these scales serve as a triage tool in real-world forensic settings. To address this knowledge [...] Read more.
It is unknown if the DSM-oriented (DSM) scales of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) are useful to determine what kind of narrowly-focused psychiatric assessment is needed, and how well these scales serve as a triage tool in real-world forensic settings. To address this knowledge gap, the YSR and diagnostic interviews were administered to 405 detained boys as part of a clinical protocol. Continuous DSM scale scores (e.g., Conduct Problems) were moderately to highly accurate in predicting their corresponding disorder (e.g., conduct disorder), whereas dichotomized DSM scale scores were not. To test the DSM scales’ usefulness for triage purposes, the sensitivity and specificity of being in the borderline range of one or more DSM scales were calculated. Almost all boys who did not have a disorder were in the normal range of at least one DSM scale (high specificity). However, many boys with a disorder would have been missed if such a decision rule was used for triage purposes (low sensitivity). In conclusion, their relations with the corresponding disorders support the construct validity of the DSM scales in an applied forensic setting. Nevertheless, the findings also warrant against the use of these scales for planning further narrowly-focused assessment or for triage purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Psychology and Crime)
Open AccessArticle Dust and Cobalt Levels in the Austrian Tungsten Industry: Workplace and Human Biomonitoring Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090931
Received: 8 June 2016 / Revised: 16 July 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1159 | PDF Full-text (1210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In general, routine industrial hygiene (IH) data are collected not to serve for scientific research but to check for compliance with occupational limit values. In the preparation of an occupational retrospective cohort study it is vital to test the validity of the exposure [...] Read more.
In general, routine industrial hygiene (IH) data are collected not to serve for scientific research but to check for compliance with occupational limit values. In the preparation of an occupational retrospective cohort study it is vital to test the validity of the exposure assessment based on incomplete (temporal coverage, departments) IH data. Existing IH data from a large hard metal plant was collected. Individual workers’ exposure per year and department was estimated based on linear regression of log-transformed exposure data for dust, tungsten, and cobalt. Estimated data were back-transformed, and for cobalt the validity of the estimates was confirmed by comparison with individual cobalt concentrations in urine. Air monitoring data were available from 1985 to 2012 and urine tests from the years 2008 to 2014. A declining trend and significant differences among departments was evident for all three air pollutants. The estimated time trend fitted the time trend in urine values well. At 1 mg/m3, cobalt in the air leads to an excretion of approximately 200 µg/L cobalt in urine. Cobalt levels in urine were significantly higher in smokers with an interaction effect between smoking and air concentrations. Exposure estimates of individual workers are generally feasible in the examined plant, although some departments are not documented sufficiently enough. Additional information (expert knowledge) is needed to fill these gaps. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identifying the Uncertainty in Physician Practice Location through Spatial Analytics and Text Mining
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090930
Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 2 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1339 | PDF Full-text (8808 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In response to the widespread concern about the adequacy, distribution, and disparity of access to a health care workforce, the correct identification of physicians’ practice locations is critical to access public health services. In prior literature, little effort has been made to detect [...] Read more.
In response to the widespread concern about the adequacy, distribution, and disparity of access to a health care workforce, the correct identification of physicians’ practice locations is critical to access public health services. In prior literature, little effort has been made to detect and resolve the uncertainty about whether the address provided by a physician in the survey is a practice address or a home address. This paper introduces how to identify the uncertainty in a physician’s practice location through spatial analytics, text mining, and visual examination. While land use and zoning code, embedded within the parcel datasets, help to differentiate resident areas from other types, spatial analytics may have certain limitations in matching and comparing physician and parcel datasets with different uncertainty issues, which may lead to unforeseen results. Handling and matching the string components between physicians’ addresses and the addresses of the parcels could identify the spatial uncertainty and instability to derive a more reasonable relationship between different datasets. Visual analytics and examination further help to clarify the undetectable patterns. This research will have a broader impact over federal and state initiatives and policies to address both insufficiency and maldistribution of a health care workforce to improve the accessibility to public health services. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Empowering Energy Justice
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090926
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 19 August 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1895 | PDF Full-text (1449 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack [...] Read more.
The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1) fossil fuel divestment; (2) carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3) cap-and-trade; (4) renewable energy; and (5) energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Rational-Emotive Hospice Care Therapy on Problematic Assumptions, Death Anxiety, and Psychological Distress in a Sample of Cancer Patients and Their Family Caregivers in Nigeria
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090929
Received: 16 July 2016 / Revised: 26 August 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1615 | PDF Full-text (773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was a preliminary investigation that aimed to examine the effects of rational emotive hospice care therapy (REHCT) on problematic assumptions, death anxiety, and psychological distress in a sample of cancer patients and their family caregivers in Nigeria. The study adopted a [...] Read more.
This study was a preliminary investigation that aimed to examine the effects of rational emotive hospice care therapy (REHCT) on problematic assumptions, death anxiety, and psychological distress in a sample of cancer patients and their family caregivers in Nigeria. The study adopted a pre-posttest randomized control group design. Participants were community-dwelling cancer patients (n = 32) and their family caregivers (n = 52). The treatment process consisted of 10 weeks of full intervention and 4 weeks of follow-up meetings that marked the end of intervention. The study used repeated-measures analysis of variance for data analysis. The findings revealed significant effects of a REHCT intervention program on problematic assumptions, death anxiety, and psychological distress reduction among the cancer patients and their family caregivers at the end of the intervention. The improvements were also maintained at follow-up meetings in the treatment group compared with the control group who received the usual care and conventional counseling. The researchers have been able to show that REHCT intervention is more effective than a control therapy for cancer patients’ care, education, and counseling in the Nigerian context. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Health Co-Benefits in the Development of Australian Climate Change Mitigation Policies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090927
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 9 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1892 | PDF Full-text (475 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reducing domestic carbon dioxide and other associated emissions can lead to short-term, localized health benefits. Quantifying and incorporating these health co-benefits into the development of national climate change mitigation policies may facilitate the adoption of stronger policies. There is, however, a dearth of [...] Read more.
Reducing domestic carbon dioxide and other associated emissions can lead to short-term, localized health benefits. Quantifying and incorporating these health co-benefits into the development of national climate change mitigation policies may facilitate the adoption of stronger policies. There is, however, a dearth of research exploring the role of health co-benefits on the development of such policies. To address this knowledge gap, research was conducted in Australia involving the analysis of several data sources, including interviews carried out with Australian federal government employees directly involved in the development of mitigation policies. The resulting case study determined that, in Australia, health co-benefits play a minimal role in the development of climate change mitigation policies. Several factors influence the extent to which health co-benefits inform the development of mitigation policies. Understanding these factors may help to increase the political utility of future health co-benefits studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Economics, Environmental Health Policy and Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone and N,N-Diethyl-3 Methylbenzamide in Personal Care Products
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090925
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 19 September 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1501 | PDF Full-text (1648 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Benzophenone (BP) and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) are two chemicals often used in personal care products (PCPs). There is a lack of systematic ecotoxicological evaluations about the two chemicals to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the acute toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris, [...] Read more.
Benzophenone (BP) and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) are two chemicals often used in personal care products (PCPs). There is a lack of systematic ecotoxicological evaluations about the two chemicals to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the acute toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia Magana, and Brachydanio rerio were tested and the ecotoxicological risks were evaluated. For BP, the 96-h half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) on C. vulgaris was 6.86 mg/L; the 24-h median lethal concentration (LC50) on D. magana was 7.63 mg/L; the 96-h LC50 on B. rerio was 14.73 mg/L. For DEET, those were 270.72 mg/L, 40.74 mg/L, and 109.67 mg/L, respectively. The mixture toxicity of BP and DEET, on C. vulgaris, D. magana, and B. rerio all showed an additive effect. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for BP and DEET by assessment factor (AF) method are 0.003 mg/L and 0.407 mg/L, respectively. Both are lower than the concentrations detected from environment at present, verifying that BP and DEET are low-risk chemicals to the environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Return Migrants’ Experience of Access to Care in Corrupt Healthcare Systems: The Bosnian Example
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090924
Received: 18 August 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 19 September 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2045 | PDF Full-text (278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Equal and universal access to healthcare services is a core priority for a just health system. A key societal determinant seen to create inequality in access to healthcare is corruption in the healthcare system. How return migrants’ access to healthcare is affected by [...] Read more.
Equal and universal access to healthcare services is a core priority for a just health system. A key societal determinant seen to create inequality in access to healthcare is corruption in the healthcare system. How return migrants’ access to healthcare is affected by corruption is largely unstudied, even though return migrants may be particularly vulnerable to problems related to corruption due to their period of absence from their country of origin. This article investigates how corruption in the healthcare sector affects access to healthcare for refugees who repatriated to Bosnia, a country with a high level of corruption, from Denmark, a country with a low level of corruption. The study is based on 18 semi-structured interviews with 33 refugees who returned after long-term residence in Denmark. We found that the returned refugees faced greater problems with corruption than was the case for those who had not left the country, as doctors considered them to be better endowed financially and therefore demanded larger bribes from them than they did from those who had remained in Bosnia. Moreover, during their stay abroad the returnees had lost the connections that could have helped them sidestep the corruption. Returned refugees are thus particularly vulnerable to the effects of corruption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Refugee Health)
Open AccessArticle A Group Decision Framework with Intuitionistic Preference Relations and Its Application to Low Carbon Supplier Selection
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 923; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090923
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 11 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 19 September 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1297 | PDF Full-text (348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article develops a group decision framework with intuitionistic preference relations. An approach is first devised to rectify an inconsistent intuitionistic preference relation to derive an additive consistent one. A new aggregation operator, the so-called induced intuitionistic ordered weighted averaging (IIOWA) operator, is [...] Read more.
This article develops a group decision framework with intuitionistic preference relations. An approach is first devised to rectify an inconsistent intuitionistic preference relation to derive an additive consistent one. A new aggregation operator, the so-called induced intuitionistic ordered weighted averaging (IIOWA) operator, is proposed to aggregate individual intuitionistic fuzzy judgments. By using the mean absolute deviation between the original and rectified intuitionistic preference relations as an order inducing variable, the rectified consistent intuitionistic preference relations are aggregated into a collective preference relation. This treatment is presumably able to assign different weights to different decision-makers’ judgments based on the quality of their inputs (in terms of consistency of their original judgments). A solution procedure is then developed for tackling group decision problems with intuitionistic preference relations. A low carbon supplier selection case study is developed to illustrate how to apply the proposed decision model in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Economics, Environmental Health Policy and Climate Change)
Open AccessCorrection Correction: Dong, F.; et al. Disparities in Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control between Bouyei and Han: Results from a
Bi-Ethnic Health Survey in Developing Regions from South China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016 13, 233
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090922
Received: 5 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 17 September 2016
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Open AccessArticle Spatial and Temporal Variations of PM2.5 and Its Relation to Meteorological Factors in the Urban Area of Nanjing, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 921; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090921
Received: 23 June 2016 / Revised: 28 August 2016 / Accepted: 5 September 2016 / Published: 16 September 2016
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2040 | PDF Full-text (6099 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The serious air pollution problem has aroused widespread public concerns in China. Nanjing city, as one of the famous cities of China, is faced with the same situation. This research aims to investigate spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM [...] Read more.
The serious air pollution problem has aroused widespread public concerns in China. Nanjing city, as one of the famous cities of China, is faced with the same situation. This research aims to investigate spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and the influence of weather factors on PM2.5 in Nanjing using Spearman-Rank analysis and the Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise (CEEMDAN) method. Hourly PM2.5 observation data and daily meteorological data were collected from 1 April 2013 to 31 December 2015. The spatial distribution result shows that the Maigaoqiao site suffered the most serious pollution. Daily PM2.5 concentrations in Nanjing varied from 7.3 μg/m3 to 336.4 μg/m3. The highest concentration was found in winter and the lowest in summer. The diurnal variation of PM2.5 increased greatly from 6 to 10 a.m. and after 6 p.m., while the concentration exhibited few variations in summer. In addition, the concentration was slightly higher on weekends compared to weekdays. PM2.5 was found to exhibit a reversed relation with wind speed, relative humidity, and precipitation. Although temperature had a positive association with PM2.5 in most months, a negative correlation was observed during the whole period. Additionally, a high concentration was mainly brought with the wind with a southwest direction and several relevant factors are discussed to explain the difference of the impacts of diverse wind directions. Full article
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Open AccessReview DengueME: A Tool for the Modeling and Simulation of Dengue Spatiotemporal Dynamics
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090920
Received: 15 May 2016 / Revised: 17 August 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 15 September 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2105 | PDF Full-text (9940 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The prevention and control of dengue are great public health challenges for many countries, particularly since 2015, as other arboviruses have been observed to interact significantly with dengue virus. Different approaches and methodologies have been proposed and discussed by the research community. An [...] Read more.
The prevention and control of dengue are great public health challenges for many countries, particularly since 2015, as other arboviruses have been observed to interact significantly with dengue virus. Different approaches and methodologies have been proposed and discussed by the research community. An important tool widely used is modeling and simulation, which help us to understand epidemic dynamics and create scenarios to support planning and decision making processes. With this aim, we proposed and developed DengueME, a collaborative open source platform to simulate dengue disease and its vector’s dynamics. It supports compartmental and individual-based models, implemented over a GIS database, that represent Aedes aegypti population dynamics, human demography, human mobility, urban landscape and dengue transmission mediated by human and mosquito encounters. A user-friendly graphical interface was developed to facilitate model configuration and data input, and a library of models was developed to support teaching-learning activities. DengueME was applied in study cases and evaluated by specialists. Other improvements will be made in future work, to enhance its extensibility and usability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatio-temporal Frameworks for Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Swimming Pool Water: Evidences and Perspectives for a New Control Strategy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090919
Received: 28 June 2016 / Revised: 12 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 15 September 2016
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Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently isolated in swimming pool settings. Nine recreational and rehabilitative swimming pools were monitored according to the local legislation. The presence of P. aeruginosa was correlated to chlorine concentration. The ability of the isolates to form a biofilm on plastic [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently isolated in swimming pool settings. Nine recreational and rehabilitative swimming pools were monitored according to the local legislation. The presence of P. aeruginosa was correlated to chlorine concentration. The ability of the isolates to form a biofilm on plastic materials was also investigated. In 59.5% of the samples, microbial contamination exceeded the threshold values. P. aeruginosa was isolated in 50.8% of these samples. The presence of P. aeruginosa was not correlated with free or total chlorine amount (R2 < 0.1). All the isolates were moderate- to strong-forming biofilm (Optical Density O.D.570 range 0.7–1.2). To control biofilm formation and P. aeruginosa colonization, Quantum FreeBioEnergy© (QFBE, FreeBioEnergy, Brisighella, Italy), has been applied with encouraging preliminary results. It is a new, promising control strategy based on the change of an electromagnetic field which is responsible for the proliferation of some microorganisms involved in biofilm formation, such as P. aeruginosa. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria Involved in Urinary Infections in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional and Retrospective Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090918
Received: 15 July 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 15 September 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1786 | PDF Full-text (848 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Empirical and prolonged antimicrobial treatment of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli is associated with the emergence of bacterial resistance, and not all countries have strict policies against the indiscriminate use of drugs in order to prevent resistance. This cross-sectional and retrospective [...] Read more.
Empirical and prolonged antimicrobial treatment of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli is associated with the emergence of bacterial resistance, and not all countries have strict policies against the indiscriminate use of drugs in order to prevent resistance. This cross-sectional and retrospective study (2010–2015) aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and resistance of patient-derived E. coli to different drugs broadly used to treat urinary infections in Brazil: ampicillin + sulbactam, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and nitrofurantoin. We obtained 1654 E. coli samples from ambulatory patients with disease symptoms of the urinary tract from a Brazilian public hospital. While all antibiotics were effective in killing E. coli to a large degree, nitrofurantoin was the most effective, with fewer samples exhibiting antibiotic resistance. We assessed the costs of generic and brand name versions of each antibiotic. Nitrofurantoin, the most effective antibiotic, was the cheapest, followed by the fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin), ampicillin + sulbactam and, lastly, cephalothin. Finally, assessment of antibiotic resistance to fluoroquinolones over the study period and extrapolation of the data led to the conclusion that these antibiotics could no longer be effective against E. coli-based urinary infections in approximately 20 years if their indiscriminate use in empirical treatment continues. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Using Fenton Oxidation to Simultaneously Remove Different Estrogens from Cow Manure
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090917
Received: 28 June 2016 / Revised: 13 August 2016 / Accepted: 2 September 2016 / Published: 15 September 2016
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Abstract
The presence of estrogens in livestock excrement has raised concerns about their potential negative influence on animals and the overall food cycle. This is the first investigation to simultaneously remove estrogens, including estriol (E3), bisphenol A (BPA), diethylstilbestrol (DES), estradiol (E2), and ethinyl [...] Read more.
The presence of estrogens in livestock excrement has raised concerns about their potential negative influence on animals and the overall food cycle. This is the first investigation to simultaneously remove estrogens, including estriol (E3), bisphenol A (BPA), diethylstilbestrol (DES), estradiol (E2), and ethinyl estradiol (EE2), from cow manure using a Fenton oxidation technique. Based on the residual concentrations and removal efficiency of estrogens, the Fenton oxidation reaction conditions were optimized as follows: a H2O2 dosage of 2.56 mmol/g, a Fe(II) to H2O2 molar ratio of 0.125 M/M, a solid to water mass ratio of 2 g/mL, an initial pH of 3, and a reaction time of 24 h. Under these conditions, the simultaneous removal efficiencies of E3, BPA, DES, E2, and EE2, with initial concentrations in cow manure of 97.40, 96.54, 100.22, 95.01, and 72.49 mg/kg, were 84.9%, 99.5%, 99.1%, 97.8%, and 84.5%, respectively. We clarified the possible Fenton oxidation reaction mechanisms that governed the degradation of estrogens. We concluded that Fenton oxidation technique could be effective for efficient removal of estrogens in livestock excrement. Results are of great importance for cow manure reuse in agricultural management, and can be used to reduce the threat of environmental estrogens to human health and ecological safety. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Housing and Household Energy Pathways to Stress: A Mixed Methods Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 916; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090916
Received: 8 June 2016 / Revised: 14 August 2016 / Accepted: 22 August 2016 / Published: 14 September 2016
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Abstract
Chronic stress, known to contribute to negative physical and mental health outcomes, is closely associated with broader issues of material hardship, poor neighborhood conditions, residential instability, and inadequate housing conditions. However, few studies have comprehensively explored pathways to stress in a low-income housing [...] Read more.
Chronic stress, known to contribute to negative physical and mental health outcomes, is closely associated with broader issues of material hardship, poor neighborhood conditions, residential instability, and inadequate housing conditions. However, few studies have comprehensively explored pathways to stress in a low-income housing environment. A mixed-methods pilot study investigated the concept of energy insecurity by looking at the impacts of weatherization and energy efficiency interventions on low-income households in the South Bronx neighborhood of New York City. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 low-income heads of household; participants also completed health, housing and budget assessments. Physical deficiencies, economic hardship, and health issues all interacted to directly and indirectly produce living conditions that contribute to chronic stress. Households with higher stress reported more health problems. Poor quality housing led to coping responses that increased expenses, which in turn increased stress around housing and energy affordability. This study provides further support for the connections between both health and the built environment and between low socio-economic status populations and net negative health outcomes. Energy insecurity is an important contributor to chronic stress in low-income households, and isolating pathways to stress where there is potential for interventions is important for future policy and housing-based strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Pollution Hazard Intensity: A Spatial Epidemiology Case Study of Soil Pb Contamination
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090915
Received: 21 July 2016 / Revised: 15 August 2016 / Accepted: 2 September 2016 / Published: 14 September 2016
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Abstract
Heavy industrialization has resulted in the contamination of soil by metals from anthropogenic sources in Anniston, Alabama. This situation calls for increased public awareness of the soil contamination issue and better knowledge of the main factors contributing to the potential sources contaminating residential [...] Read more.
Heavy industrialization has resulted in the contamination of soil by metals from anthropogenic sources in Anniston, Alabama. This situation calls for increased public awareness of the soil contamination issue and better knowledge of the main factors contributing to the potential sources contaminating residential soil. The purpose of this spatial epidemiology research is to describe the effects of physical factors on the concentration of lead (Pb) in soil in Anniston AL, and to determine the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of those residing in areas with higher soil contamination. Spatial regression models are used to account for spatial dependencies using these explanatory variables. After accounting for covariates and multicollinearity, results of the analysis indicate that lead concentration in soils varies markedly in the vicinity of a specific foundry (Foundry A), and that proximity to railroads explained a significant amount of spatial variation in soil lead concentration. Moreover, elevated soil lead levels were identified as a concern in industrial sites, neighborhoods with a high density of old housing, a high percentage of African American population, and a low percent of occupied housing units. The use of spatial modelling allows for better identification of significant factors that are correlated with soil lead concentrations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Do They Need Goals or Support? A Report from a Goal-Setting Intervention Using Physical Activity Monitors in Youth
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090914
Received: 27 April 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) and different goal setting and strategies in youth. The study took into consideration different sources of support as well as gender variations. Classmate and Teacher Support scales were used [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) and different goal setting and strategies in youth. The study took into consideration different sources of support as well as gender variations. Classmate and Teacher Support scales were used to evaluate support in physical education (PE) classes, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was reported. Garmin Vivofit® activity trackers were used during an 8 week-long intervention to count daily steps. Data was collected from 65 adolescents (mean age 17.2 ± 0.2), 74 young adolescents (mean age 15.3 ± 0.2) and 57 children (mean age 11.5 ± 0.4). An experimental design was employed, with “goal” and “do your best” groups given different step goal strategies. The results show that both groups achieved a comparable number of steps. Two-way ANOVA showed interactional effects between gender and teacher support. There were no such effects for MVPA and number of steps. Although classmate support in PE was reported to be reasonably high, the findings show that it does not play a significant role in increasing MVPA behaviors in youths. However, the problem of significantly lower support given to adolescent girls by PE teachers should be embedded into the teaching context of PE students and counteracted in school setting realities. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Age-Friendly Living Environment as Seen by Chinese Older Adults: A “Photovoice” Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090913
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 6 September 2016 / Accepted: 9 September 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
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Abstract
“Ageing in place” is a policy initiative strongly advocated by the World Health Organization to face the challenge of an ageing population. This pilot study used a “photovoice” approach, aiming to explore aspects of the housing environment considered by older people as important [...] Read more.
“Ageing in place” is a policy initiative strongly advocated by the World Health Organization to face the challenge of an ageing population. This pilot study used a “photovoice” approach, aiming to explore aspects of the housing environment considered by older people as important in facilitating ageing in place. It enabled participants to express their ideas through photographs. Each participant was asked to take photos that illustrated age-friendly features they considered crucial for supporting their lives in the community. A total of 44 older people participated in the pilot study, and 300 photos were collected. Participants were invited to describe the reasons for taking these photos by filling in a journal sheet. A semi-structured interview was then conducted with individual participants, who were asked to elaborate on the meaning of their photos. The analysis revealed three themes: (1) age-friendly housing design; (2) supportive neighborhood; and (3) connection to family and the community. These three themes are pillars of an age-friendly city, which are important to seniors to facilitate ageing in place. Full article
Open AccessArticle Utilizing Chinese Admission Records for MACE Prediction of Acute Coronary Syndrome
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 912; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090912
Received: 22 April 2016 / Revised: 9 August 2016 / Accepted: 31 August 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
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Abstract
Background: Clinical major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) prediction of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is important for a number of applications including physician decision support, quality of care assessment, and efficient healthcare service delivery on ACS patients. Admission records, as typical media to [...] Read more.
Background: Clinical major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) prediction of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is important for a number of applications including physician decision support, quality of care assessment, and efficient healthcare service delivery on ACS patients. Admission records, as typical media to contain clinical information of patients at the early stage of their hospitalizations, provide significant potential to be explored for MACE prediction in a proactive manner. Methods: We propose a hybrid approach for MACE prediction by utilizing a large volume of admission records. Firstly, both a rule-based medical language processing method and a machine learning method (i.e., Conditional Random Fields (CRFs)) are developed to extract essential patient features from unstructured admission records. After that, state-of-the-art supervised machine learning algorithms are applied to construct MACE prediction models from data. Results: We comparatively evaluate the performance of the proposed approach on a real clinical dataset consisting of 2930 ACS patient samples collected from a Chinese hospital. Our best model achieved 72% AUC in MACE prediction. In comparison of the performance between our models and two well-known ACS risk score tools, i.e., GRACE and TIMI, our learned models obtain better performances with a significant margin. Conclusions: Experimental results reveal that our approach can obtain competitive performance in MACE prediction. The comparison of classifiers indicates the proposed approach has a competitive generality with datasets extracted by different feature extraction methods. Furthermore, our MACE prediction model obtained a significant improvement by comparison with both GRACE and TIMI. It indicates that using admission records can effectively provide MACE prediction service for ACS patients at the early stage of their hospitalizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Informatics and Public Health)
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Open AccessReview Economic Evaluation of Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood: Methods, Limitations and Recommendations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090911
Received: 28 July 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 September 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
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Despite methodological advances in the field of economic evaluations of interventions, economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood are seldom conducted. The aim of the present study was to explore existing methods and applications of economic evaluations, examining their limitations and [...] Read more.
Despite methodological advances in the field of economic evaluations of interventions, economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood are seldom conducted. The aim of the present study was to explore existing methods and applications of economic evaluations, examining their limitations and making recommendations for future cost-effectiveness assessments. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Databases and EconLit. Eligible studies included trial-based or simulation-based cost-effectiveness analyses of obesity prevention programmes targeting preschool children and/or their parents. The quality of included studies was assessed. Of the six studies included, five were intervention studies and one was based on a simulation approach conducted on secondary data. We identified three main conceptual and methodological limitations of their economic evaluations: Insufficient conceptual approach considering the complexity of childhood obesity, inadequate measurement of effects of interventions, and lack of valid instruments to measure child-related quality of life and costs. Despite the need for economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood, only a few studies of varying quality have been conducted. Moreover, due to methodological and conceptual weaknesses, they offer only limited information for policy makers and intervention providers. We elaborate reasons for the limitations of these studies and offer guidance for designing better economic evaluations of early obesity prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economics of the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Siblings’ Perceptions of Their ADHD-Diagnosed Sibling’s Impact on the Family System
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090910
Received: 3 June 2016 / Revised: 5 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 September 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
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Abstract
This qualitative study explored siblings’ perceptions of the impact a sibling diagnosed with ADHD has within the family system. Specific focus was placed on the different ways these different sibling cohorts were parented. Participants constituted eight adult females with a mean age of [...] Read more.
This qualitative study explored siblings’ perceptions of the impact a sibling diagnosed with ADHD has within the family system. Specific focus was placed on the different ways these different sibling cohorts were parented. Participants constituted eight adult females with a mean age of 20 years from different cultural and socio-economic backgrounds in the province of Gauteng, South Africa. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews and was analysed thematically. The four themes that emerged from the interviews include differential parental treatment, rejection, discrepancy with discipline, and the parentified child. Specifically, the results of this study revealed feelings of differential parental treatment and discipline that took place in the home and rejection experienced by the non-ADHD sibling. There was also a common theme of a parentified child, who had to carry a burden of caring for their sibling with ADHD. The non-diagnosed siblings perceive themselves to be particularly negatively impacted. The results are discussed in light of the previous empirical studies, and recommendations are made. Full article
Open AccessArticle Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 909; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090909
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 23 August 2016 / Accepted: 7 September 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
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Abstract
(1) Objective: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) Methods: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese [...] Read more.
(1) Objective: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) Methods: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas—namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang—of China; (3) Results: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children’s physical activity (PA) behavior (p < 0.0001). However, an insignificant correlation is observed between preschool children’s fruits and vegetables (FV) behavior, screen time (ST) behavior, and maternal social cognition; (4) Conclusions: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children’s PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children’s ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children’s ST behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Influences on Maternal and Child Health)
Open AccessArticle Prevalence and Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Determinants of Anemia during Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study of Pregnant Women in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090908
Received: 3 July 2016 / Revised: 26 August 2016 / Accepted: 7 September 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
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Abstract
Objective: This study aimed to assess the differences regarding anemia among pregnant women with diverse characteristics and lifestyle factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study of pregnant women was conducted between June and August 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces of Mainland China. Self-reported [...] Read more.
Objective: This study aimed to assess the differences regarding anemia among pregnant women with diverse characteristics and lifestyle factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study of pregnant women was conducted between June and August 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces of Mainland China. Self-reported doctor-diagnosed anemia was used in the study. Results: We included 2345 pregnant women. Of the participants, 1755 (74.8%) were pregnant women of first pregnancy (PWFP) and 590 (25.2%) were second pregnancy (PWSP). The mean age of the participants was 28.1 years (SD 4.1). Overall, the prevalence of anemia was 12.7% (13.4% and 10.7% among PWFP and PWSP, respectively). The prevalence for not eating breakfast was 11.0%. Compared with PWFP, PWSP was inversely associated with the risk of anemia (odds ratio (OR) 0.66, 95% CI 0.48–0.91). Compared with those being registered in a low ranking hospital, pregnant women who were admitted to a high (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.28–0.57) or a medium ranking hospital (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37–0.92) were inversely associated with the risk of anemia. Compared with women of low income (<¥4,500), those with high income were less likely to have anemia (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50–0.94). Compared with women with non-manual jobs, women with manual jobs (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.17–2.45) and unemployed women (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04–1.93) were associated with a greater likelihood of suffering from anemia. Conclusions: Pregnant women not eating breakfast are of concern. Anemia is highly prevalent among pregnant women in China. Lower socio-economic status, manual jobs, PWFP, and those who attend a lower quality hospital have a greater likelihood of suffering from anemia. Tailored interventions are needed to address these issues. Full article
Open AccessArticle Work Environment Characteristics and Teacher Well-Being: The Mediation of Emotion Regulation Strategies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090907
Received: 11 July 2016 / Revised: 21 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 September 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
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Based on an adjusted Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that considers the mediation of personal resources, this study examined the relationships between two characteristics of teachers’ work environment (i.e., emotional job demands and trust in colleagues) and two indicators of teachers’ well-being (i.e., teaching [...] Read more.
Based on an adjusted Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that considers the mediation of personal resources, this study examined the relationships between two characteristics of teachers’ work environment (i.e., emotional job demands and trust in colleagues) and two indicators of teachers’ well-being (i.e., teaching satisfaction and emotional exhaustion). In particular, the study focused on how emotion regulation strategies (i.e., reappraisal and suppression) mediate these relationships. Data collected from a questionnaire survey of 1115 primary school teachers in Hong Kong was analyzed to test the hypothesized relationships. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that: (1) the emotional job demands of teaching were detrimental to teacher well-being, whereas trust in colleagues was beneficial; (2) both emotion regulation strategies mediated the relationships between both emotional job demands and trust in colleagues and teacher well-being; and (3) teachers who tend to use more reappraisal may be psychologically healthier than those tend to adopt more suppression. These findings support the applicability of the JD-R model to school settings and highlight the role of teachers’ emotion regulation in teachers’ well-being. Implications for the improvement of school environments and teachers’ well-being are identified. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Exposure Uncertainty Analysis: The Association between Birth Weight and Trimester Specific Exposure to Particulate Matter (PM2.5 vs. PM10)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090906
Received: 22 January 2016 / Revised: 27 August 2016 / Accepted: 2 September 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
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Often spatiotemporal resolution/scale of environmental and health data do not align. Therefore, researchers compute exposure by interpolation or by aggregating data to coarse spatiotemporal scales. The latter is often preferred because of sparse geographic coverage of environmental monitoring, as interpolation method cannot reliably [...] Read more.
Often spatiotemporal resolution/scale of environmental and health data do not align. Therefore, researchers compute exposure by interpolation or by aggregating data to coarse spatiotemporal scales. The latter is often preferred because of sparse geographic coverage of environmental monitoring, as interpolation method cannot reliably compute exposure using the small sample of sparse data points. This paper presents a methodology of diagnosing the levels of uncertainty in exposure at a given distance and time interval, and examines the effects of particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5 µm and ≤10 µm in diameter (PM2.5 and PM10, respectively) on birth weight (BW) and low birth weight (LBW), i.e., birth weight <2500 g in Chicago (IL, USA), accounting for exposure uncertainty. Two important findings emerge from this paper. First, uncertainty in PM exposure increases significantly with the increase in distance from the monitoring stations, e.g., 50.6% and 38.5% uncertainty in PM10 and PM2.5 exposure respectively for 0.058° (~6.4 km) distance from the monitoring stations. Second, BW was inversely associated with PM2.5 exposure, and PM2.5 exposure during the first trimester and entire gestation period showed a stronger association with BW than the exposure during the second and third trimesters. But PM10 did not show any significant association with BW and LBW. These findings suggest that distance and time intervals need to be chosen with care to compute exposure, and account for the uncertainty to reliably assess the adverse health risks of exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
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Open AccessArticle Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Gestational Weight Gain: A Prospective Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090905
Received: 17 June 2016 / Revised: 1 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 September 2016 / Published: 12 September 2016
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Abstract
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been implicated in the development of obesity in non-pregnant adults. However, few studies have explored the association of POPs with gestational weight gain (GWG), an important predictor of future risk of obesity in both the mother and offspring. [...] Read more.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been implicated in the development of obesity in non-pregnant adults. However, few studies have explored the association of POPs with gestational weight gain (GWG), an important predictor of future risk of obesity in both the mother and offspring. We estimated the association of maternal pre-pregnancy levels of 63 POPs with GWG. Data are from women (18–40 years; n = 218) participating in a prospective cohort study. POPs were assessed using established protocols in pre-pregnancy, non-fasting blood samples. GWG was assessed using three techniques: (1) total GWG (difference between measured pre-pregnancy weight and final self-reported pre-delivery weight); (2) category based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI)-specific Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; and (3) area under the GWG curve (AUC). In an exploratory analysis, effects were estimated separately for women with BMI < 25 kg/m2 versus BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Multivariable polytomous logistic regression and linear regression were used to estimate the association between each chemical or congener and the three GWG outcomes. p,p’-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p’-DDT) was significantly inversely associated with AUC after adjustment for lipids and pre-pregnancy BMI: beta {95% confidence interval (CI)}, −378.03 (−724.02, −32.05). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was significantly positively associated with AUC after adjustment for lipids among women with a BMI < 25 kg/m2 {beta (95% CI), 280.29 (13.71, 546.86)}, but not among women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 {beta (95% CI), 56.99 (−328.36, 442.34)}. In summary, pre-pregnancy levels of select POPs, namely, p,p’-DDT and PFOS, were moderately associated with GWG. The association between POPs and weight gain during pregnancy may be more complex than previously thought, and adiposity prior to pregnancy may be an important effect modifier. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Histamine in Silages Using Nanomaghemite Core (γ-Fe2O3)-Titanium Dioxide Shell Nanoparticles Off-Line Coupled with Ion Exchange Chromatography
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090904
Received: 20 July 2016 / Revised: 19 August 2016 / Accepted: 5 September 2016 / Published: 12 September 2016
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Abstract
The presence of biogenic amines is a hallmark of degraded food and its products. Herein, we focused on the utilization of magnetic nanoparticles off-line coupled with ion exchange chromatography with post-column ninhydrin derivatization and Vis detection for histamine (Him) separation and detection. Primarily, [...] Read more.
The presence of biogenic amines is a hallmark of degraded food and its products. Herein, we focused on the utilization of magnetic nanoparticles off-line coupled with ion exchange chromatography with post-column ninhydrin derivatization and Vis detection for histamine (Him) separation and detection. Primarily, we described the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with nanomaghemite core (γ-Fe2O3) functionalized with titanium dioxide and, then, applied these particles to specific isolation of Him. To obtain further insight into interactions between paramagnetic particles’ (PMP) surface and Him, a scanning electron microscope was employed. It was shown that binding of histamine causes an increase of relative current response of deprotonated PMPs, which confirmed formation of Him-PMPs clusters. The recovery of the isolation showed that titanium dioxide-based particles were able to bind and preconcentrate Him with recovery exceeding 90%. Finally, we successfully carried out the analyses of real samples obtained from silage. We can conclude that our modified particles are suitable for Him isolation, and thus may serve as the first isolation step of Him from biological samples, as it is demonstrated on alfalfa seed variety Tereza silage. Full article
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