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Assessment of Industry-Induced Urban Human Health Risks Related to Benzo[a]pyrene based on a Multimedia Fugacity Model: Case Study of Nanjing, China

by Linyu Xu 1,*, Huimin Song 1,2, Yan Wang 1 and Hao Yin 1
1
State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875, China
2
China Environment Publishing Co. Ltd., No.16 Guangqumennei Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100062, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6162-6178; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606162
Received: 6 April 2015 / Revised: 21 May 2015 / Accepted: 22 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
Large amounts of organic pollutants emitted from industries have accumulated and caused serious human health risks, especially in urban areas with rapid industrialization. This paper focused on the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) from industrial effluent and gaseous emissions, and established a multi-pathway exposure model based on a Level IV multimedia fugacity model to analyze the human health risks in a city that has undergone rapid industrialization. In this study, GIS tools combined with land-use data was introduced to analyze smaller spatial scales so as to enhance the spatial resolution of the results. An uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation was also conducted to illustrate the rationale of the probabilistic assessment mode rather than deterministic assessment. Finally, the results of the case study in Nanjing, China indicated the annual average human cancer risk induced by local industrial emissions during 2002–2008 (lowest at 1.99´10–6 in 2008 and highest at 3.34´10–6 in 2004), which was lower than the USEPA prescriptive level (1´10–6–1´10–4) but cannot be neglected in the long term. The study results could not only instruct the BaP health risk management but also help future health risk prediction and control. View Full-Text
Keywords: human health risk; environmental exposure; developing countries; rapid industrialization; Nanjing; benzo[a]pyrene human health risk; environmental exposure; developing countries; rapid industrialization; Nanjing; benzo[a]pyrene
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Xu, L.; Song, H.; Wang, Y.; Yin, H. Assessment of Industry-Induced Urban Human Health Risks Related to Benzo[a]pyrene based on a Multimedia Fugacity Model: Case Study of Nanjing, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 6162-6178.

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