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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 12, Issue 6 (June 2015), Pages 5685-7099

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Open AccessArticle Application Study of Comprehensive Forecasting Model Based on Entropy Weighting Method on Trend of PM2.5 Concentration in Guangzhou, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 7085-7099; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120607085
Received: 27 April 2015 / Revised: 3 June 2015 / Accepted: 17 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1865 | PDF Full-text (781 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For the issue of haze-fog, PM2.5 is the main influence factor of haze-fog pollution in China. The trend of PM2.5 concentration was analyzed from a qualitative point of view based on mathematical models and simulation in this study. The comprehensive forecasting
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For the issue of haze-fog, PM2.5 is the main influence factor of haze-fog pollution in China. The trend of PM2.5 concentration was analyzed from a qualitative point of view based on mathematical models and simulation in this study. The comprehensive forecasting model (CFM) was developed based on the combination forecasting ideas. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model (ARIMA), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) model and Exponential Smoothing Method (ESM) were used to predict the time series data of PM2.5 concentration. The results of the comprehensive forecasting model were obtained by combining the results of three methods based on the weights from the Entropy Weighting Method. The trend of PM2.5 concentration in Guangzhou China was quantitatively forecasted based on the comprehensive forecasting model. The results were compared with those of three single models, and PM2.5 concentration values in the next ten days were predicted. The comprehensive forecasting model balanced the deviation of each single prediction method, and had better applicability. It broadens a new prediction method for the air quality forecasting field. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Social Support, Stigma and Disclosure: Examining the Relationship with HIV Medication Adherence among Ryan White Program Clients in the Mid-South USA
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 7073-7084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120607073
Received: 20 April 2015 / Revised: 3 June 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1845 | PDF Full-text (669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Social support from friends and family is positively related to better health outcomes among adults living with HIV. An extension of these networks such as religious communities may be an untapped source of social support for promoting HIV medical adherence. This paper explores
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Social support from friends and family is positively related to better health outcomes among adults living with HIV. An extension of these networks such as religious communities may be an untapped source of social support for promoting HIV medical adherence. This paper explores the association of HIV medication adherence to satisfaction with support from family, friends and church members, as well as HIV-related stigma, and HIV disclosure. In partnership with the Shelby County Health Department, the Memphis Ryan White Part A Program, and the University of Memphis School of Public Health, a total of 286 interviewer-administered surveys were conducted with Ryan White clients. Seventy-six percent (n = 216) of participants reported being prescribed antiretroviral medication (ARVs). Nearly all participants (n = 202, 94%) prescribed ARVs reported disclosing their HIV status to someone. Almost 20% (n = 40) of those prescribed ARVs reported not being satisfied with support received from his/her church. Interestingly, participants reported rarely experiencing stigma as a result of their HIV status. The extent to which satisfaction with support from personal networks and institutional settings like the church affect medication adherence is yet to be understood. The complexity of HIV disclosure and HIV stigma in relation to these supports warrants further investigation to understand how best to improve HIV health outcomes. Full article
Open AccessReview Therapeutic Community Treatment of an Inmate Population with Substance Use Disorders: Post-Release Trends in Re-Arrest, Re-Incarceration, and Drug Misuse Relapse
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 7059-7072; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120607059
Received: 25 March 2015 / Revised: 29 May 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2153 | PDF Full-text (659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This systematic literature review maps the evidence for the effectiveness of the therapeutic community interventions (TCI) in reducing re-arrest, re-incarceration or drug misuse following release from prison, including the extent to which these effects are retained over time. The databases searched for the
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This systematic literature review maps the evidence for the effectiveness of the therapeutic community interventions (TCI) in reducing re-arrest, re-incarceration or drug misuse following release from prison, including the extent to which these effects are retained over time. The databases searched for the review included PsychINFO, Medline and Scopus and reference lists from relevant articles published between 2007 and 2014. Only quantitative studies that examined the effectiveness of TCI for a prisoner population with drug dependence at the time of initial incarceration were considered. Fourteen studies were identified for inclusion in the review. Three-quarters of the studies reported TCI were effective in reducing rates of re-incarceration. About 70% of studies that examined follow-up rates of drug misuse relapse found TCI effective in reducing rates of drug misuse amongst participants. TCI participation reduced re-arrests events in 55% of the studies. Results suggest TCI effective in the short-term rather than longer term for reducing rates of re-incarceration among participants, and to a slightly lesser extent, drug misuse relapse. Full article
Open AccessArticle Annoyance Caused by Noise and Air Pollution during Pregnancy: Associated Factors and Correlation with Outdoor NO2 and Benzene Estimations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 7044-7058; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120607044
Received: 7 April 2015 / Revised: 29 May 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2009 | PDF Full-text (694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aimed to describe the degree of annoyance among pregnant women in a Spanish cohort and to examine associations with proximity to traffic, NO2 and benzene exposure. We included 2457 participants from the Spanish Childhood and Environment study. Individual exposures to
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This study aimed to describe the degree of annoyance among pregnant women in a Spanish cohort and to examine associations with proximity to traffic, NO2 and benzene exposure. We included 2457 participants from the Spanish Childhood and Environment study. Individual exposures to outdoor NO2 and benzene were estimated, temporally adjusted for pregnancy. Interviews about sociodemographic variables, noise and air pollution were carried out. Levels of annoyance were assessed using a scale from 0 (none) to 10 (strong and unbearable); a level of 8 to 10 was considered high. The reported prevalence of high annoyance levels from air pollution was 11.2% and 15.0% from noise; the two variables were moderately correlated (0.606). Significant correlations between NO2 and annoyance from air pollution (0.154) and that from noise (0.181) were observed. Annoyance owing to noise and air pollution had a low prevalence in our Spanish population compared with other European populations. Both factors were associated with proximity to traffic. In multivariate models, annoyance from air pollution was related to NO2, building age, and country of birth; annoyance from noise was only related to the first two. The health burden of these exposures can be increased by stress caused by the perception of pollution sources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lifestyle Behaviours Add to the Armoury of Treatment Options for Panic Disorder: An Evidence-Based Reasoning
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 7017-7043; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120607017
Received: 6 May 2015 / Revised: 11 June 2015 / Accepted: 12 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
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Abstract
This article presents an evidence-based reasoning, focusing on evidence of an Occupational Therapy input to lifestyle behaviour influences on panic disorder that also provides potentially broader application across other mental health problems (MHP). The article begins from the premise that we are all
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This article presents an evidence-based reasoning, focusing on evidence of an Occupational Therapy input to lifestyle behaviour influences on panic disorder that also provides potentially broader application across other mental health problems (MHP). The article begins from the premise that we are all different. It then follows through a sequence of questions, examining incrementally how MHPs are experienced and classified. It analyses the impact of individual sensitivity at different levels of analysis, from genetic and epigenetic individuality, through neurotransmitter and body system sensitivity. Examples are given demonstrating the evidence base behind the logical sequence of investigation. The paper considers the evidence of how everyday routine lifestyle behaviour impacts on occupational function at all levels, and how these behaviours link to individual sensitivity to influence the level of exposure required to elicit symptomatic responses. Occupational Therapists can help patients by adequately assessing individual sensitivity, and through promoting understanding and a sense of control over their own symptoms. It concludes that present clinical guidelines should be expanded to incorporate knowledge of individual sensitivities to environmental exposures and lifestyle behaviours at an early stage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Public Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior on Antibiotic Use and Self-Medication in Lithuania
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 7002-7016; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120607002
Received: 23 February 2015 / Revised: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 27 May 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2595 | PDF Full-text (710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Irrational antibiotic use has led society to antibiotic resistance—a serious health problem worldwide. This study aimed to assess public knowledge, beliefs, and behavior concerning antibiotic use and self-medication in Lithuania. The cross-sectional survey method was processed using a validated questionnaire in different regions
[...] Read more.
Irrational antibiotic use has led society to antibiotic resistance—a serious health problem worldwide. This study aimed to assess public knowledge, beliefs, and behavior concerning antibiotic use and self-medication in Lithuania. The cross-sectional survey method was processed using a validated questionnaire in different regions of Lithuania. In total, 1005 adults completed the questionnaire and were included in the study. More than half of the respondents (61.1%) had poor knowledge of antibiotics. Almost half of the respondents incorrectly identified antibiotics as being effective either against viral (26.0%) or mixed (bacterial and viral) infections (21.7%). The respondents with lower educational qualifications (OR = 2.515; 95% CI 1.464–4.319; p = 0.001) and those from rural areas (OR = 1.765; 95% CI 1.041–2.991; p = 0.035) were significantly less knowledgeable of antibiotics. There was no significant difference between genders, different age groups, or different parenthood status. The determined level of self–medication with antibiotics was 31.0%. The men (OR = 1.650; 95% CI 1.120–2.430; p = 0.011), the respondents from rural areas (OR = 2.002; 95% CI 1.343–2.985; p = 0.001), and those without children (OR = 2.428; 95% CI 1.477–3.991; p < 0.001) were more likely to use antibiotics in self-medication. Lithuanian residents’ knowledge of antibiotics is insufficient. More information about antibiotic use should be provided by physicians and pharmacists. Self-medication with antibiotics is a serious problem in Lithuania and requires considerable attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Diverse Land Use and the Impact on (Irrigation) Water Quality and Need for Measures — A Case Study of a Norwegian River
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6979-7001; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606979
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 12 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1895 | PDF Full-text (1176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface water is used for irrigation of food plants all over the World. Such water can be of variable hygienic quality, and can be contaminated from many different sources. The association of contaminated irrigation water with contamination of fresh produce is well established,
[...] Read more.
Surface water is used for irrigation of food plants all over the World. Such water can be of variable hygienic quality, and can be contaminated from many different sources. The association of contaminated irrigation water with contamination of fresh produce is well established, and many outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with fresh produce consumption have been reported. The objective of the present study was to summarize the data on fecal indicators and selected bacterial pathogens to assess the level of fecal contamination of a Norwegian river used for irrigation in an area which has a high production level of various types of food commodities. Sources for fecal pollution of the river were identified. Measures implemented to reduce discharges from the wastewater sector and agriculture, and potential measures identified for future implementation are presented and discussed in relation to potential benefits and costs. It is important that the users of the water, independent of intended use, are aware of the hygienic quality and the potential interventions that may be applied. Our results suggest that contamination of surface water is a complex web of many factors and that several measures and interventions on different levels are needed to achieve a sound river and safe irrigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety)
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Open AccessCommunication Comparison of Six Chromogenic Agar Media for the Isolation of a Broad Variety of Non-O157 Shigatoxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Serogroups
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6965-6978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606965
Received: 11 March 2015 / Revised: 2 June 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2494 | PDF Full-text (1527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The isolation of non-O157 STEC from food samples has proved to be challenging. The selection of a suitable selective isolation agar remains problematic. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate six chromogenic agar media for the isolation of STEC:
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The isolation of non-O157 STEC from food samples has proved to be challenging. The selection of a suitable selective isolation agar remains problematic. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate six chromogenic agar media for the isolation of STEC: Tryptone Bile X-glucuronide agar (TBX), Rainbow® Agar O157 (RB), Rapid E. coli O157:H7 (RE), Modified MacConkey Agar (mMac), CHROMagarTM STEC (Chr ST) and chromIDTM EHEC (Chr ID). During this study, 45 E. coli strains were used, including 39 STEC strains belonging to 16 different O serogroups and 6 non-STEC E. coli. All E. coli strains were able to grow on TBX and RB, whereas one STEC strain was unable to grow on Chr ID and a number of other STEC strains did not grow on mMac, CHROMagar STEC and Rapid E. coli O157:H7. However, only the latter three agars were selective enough to completely inhibit the growth of the non-STEC E. coli. Our conclusion was that paired use of a more selective agar such as CHROMagar STEC together with a less selective agar like TBX or Chr ID might be the best solution for isolating non-O157 STEC from food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Flooding and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Case-Crossover Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6948-6964; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606948
Received: 17 April 2015 / Revised: 2 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2001 | PDF Full-text (937 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that can spread by water. It often causes acute gastrointestinal illness in older adults who are hospitalized and/or receiving antibiotics; however, community-associated infections affecting otherwise healthy individuals have become more commonly reported. A case-crossover study was used to
[...] Read more.
Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that can spread by water. It often causes acute gastrointestinal illness in older adults who are hospitalized and/or receiving antibiotics; however, community-associated infections affecting otherwise healthy individuals have become more commonly reported. A case-crossover study was used to assess emergency room (ER) and outpatient visits for C. difficile infection following flood events in Massachusetts from 2003 through 2007. Exposure status was based on whether or not a flood occurred prior to the case/control date during the following risk periods: 0–6 days, 7–13 days, 14–20 days, and 21–27 days. Fixed-effects logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of diagnosis with C. difficile infection following a flood. There were 129 flood events and 1575 diagnoses of C. difficile infection. Among working age adults (19–64 years), ER and outpatient visits for C. difficile infection were elevated during the 7–13 days following a flood (Odds Ratio, OR = 1.69; 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 0.84, 3.37). This association was more substantial among males (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.01–10.19). Associations during other risk periods were not observed (p < 0.05). Although we were unable to differentiate community-associated versus nosocomial infections, a potential increase in C. difficile infections should be considered as more flooding is projected due to climate change. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Sahlin, E., et al. Using Nature-Based Rehabilitation to Restart a Stalled Process of Rehabilitation in Individuals with Stress-Related Mental Illness. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 1928–1951
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6946-6947; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606946
Received: 3 June 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1550 | PDF Full-text (609 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to their paper published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health [1]: [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Vertical Distribution of Bacterial Community Diversity and Water Quality during the Reservoir Thermal Stratification
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6933-6945; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606933
Received: 12 May 2015 / Revised: 9 June 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2385 | PDF Full-text (3440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reservoir thermal stratification drives the water temperature and dissolved oxygen gradient, however, the characteristic of vertical water microbial community during thermal stratification is so far poorly understood. In this work, water bacterial community diversity was determined using the Illumina Miseq sequencing technique. The
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Reservoir thermal stratification drives the water temperature and dissolved oxygen gradient, however, the characteristic of vertical water microbial community during thermal stratification is so far poorly understood. In this work, water bacterial community diversity was determined using the Illumina Miseq sequencing technique. The results showed that epilimnion, metalimnion and hypolimnion were formed steadily in the JINPEN drinking water reservoir. Water temperature decreased steadily from the surface (23.11 °C) to the bottom (9.17 °C). Total nitrogen ranged from 1.07 to 2.06 mg/L and nitrate nitrogen ranged from 0.8 to 1.84 mg/L. The dissolved oxygen concentration decreased sharply below 50 m, and reached zero at 65 m. The Miseq sequencing revealed a total of 4127 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 97% similarity, which were affiliated with 15 phyla including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Caldiserica, Chlamydiae, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. The highest Shannon diversity was 4.41 in 45 m, and the highest Chao 1 diversity was 506 in 5 m. Rhodobacter dominated in 55 m (23.24%) and 65 m (12.58%). Prosthecobacter dominated from 0.5 to 50 m. The heat map profile and redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated significant difference in vertical water bacterial community composition in the reservoir. Meanwhile, water quality properties including dissolved oxygen, conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen have a dramatic influence on vertical distribution of bacterial communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Microbial Pollution and Disinfection)
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Open AccessArticle Occurrence of Escherichia coli, Campylobcter, Salmonella and Shiga-Toxin Producing E. coli in Norwegian Primary Strawberry Production
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6919-6932; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606919
Received: 28 April 2015 / Revised: 5 June 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1711 | PDF Full-text (959 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the bacteriological quality of strawberries at harvest and to study risk factors such as irrigation water, soil and picker’s hand cleanliness. Four farms were visited during the harvest season in 2012. Samples of strawberries, irrigation
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the bacteriological quality of strawberries at harvest and to study risk factors such as irrigation water, soil and picker’s hand cleanliness. Four farms were visited during the harvest season in 2012. Samples of strawberries, irrigation water, soil and hand swabs were collected and analyzed for E. coli, Campylobacter, Salmonella and STEC Although fecal indicators and pathogens were found in environmental samples, only one of 80 samples of strawberries was positive for E. coli (1.0 log10 cfu/g) and pathogens were not detected in any of the strawberry samples. The water samples from all irrigation sources were contaminated with E. coli in numbers ranging from 0 to 3.3 log10 cfu/g. Campylobacter (8/16 samples) and Salmonella (1/16 samples) were isolated from samples with high numbers of E. coli. The water samples collected from a lake had lower numbers of E. coli than the samples from rivers and a stream. The present study indicated continuous background contamination in the primary production environment. Although the background contamination was not reflected on the strawberries tested here, the results must be interpreted with caution due to the limited number of samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Mineralization and Detoxification of the Carcinogenic Azo Dye Congo Red and Real Textile Effluent by a Polyurethane Foam Immobilized Microbial Consortium in an Upflow Column Bioreactor
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6894-6918; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606894
Received: 29 April 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 2446 | PDF Full-text (1126 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A microbial consortium that is able to grow in wheat bran (WB) medium and decolorize the carcinogenic azo dye Congo red (CR) was developed. The microbial consortium was immobilized on polyurethane foam (PUF). Batch studies with the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium showed complete removal
[...] Read more.
A microbial consortium that is able to grow in wheat bran (WB) medium and decolorize the carcinogenic azo dye Congo red (CR) was developed. The microbial consortium was immobilized on polyurethane foam (PUF). Batch studies with the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium showed complete removal of CR dye (100 mg·L−1) within 12 h at pH 7.5 and temperature 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic conditions. Additionally, 92% American Dye Manufactureing Institute (ADMI) removal for real textile effluent (RTE, 50%) was also observed within 20 h under the same conditions. An upflow column reactor containing PUF-immobilized microbial consortium achieved 99% CR dye (100 mg·L−1) and 92% ADMI removal of RTE (50%) at 35 and 20 mL·h−l flow rates, respectively. Consequent reduction in TOC (83 and 79%), COD (85 and 83%) and BOD (79 and 78%) of CR dye and RTE were also observed, which suggested mineralization. The decolorization process was traced to be enzymatic as treated samples showed significant induction of oxidoreductive enzymes. The proposed biodegradation pathway of the dye revealed the formation of lower molecular weight compounds. Toxicity studies with a plant bioassay and acute tests indicated that the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium favors detoxification of the dye and textile effluents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Systems Engineering)
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Samochowiec, A., et al. Monoamine Oxidase A Promoter Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MAOA-uVNTR) in Alcoholics According to Lesch Typology. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 3317–3326
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6892-6893; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606892
Received: 3 June 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [1]: [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6879-6891; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606879
Received: 26 April 2015 / Revised: 8 June 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 8055 | PDF Full-text (964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production
[...] Read more.
The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Systems Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Cellular Energy Allocation to Assess the Impact of Nanomaterials on Soil Invertebrates (Enchytraeids): The Effect of Cu and Ag
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6858-6878; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606858
Received: 18 May 2015 / Revised: 4 June 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2160 | PDF Full-text (905 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of several copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) nanomaterials were assessed using the cellular energy allocation (CEA), a methodology used to evaluate the energetic status and which relates with organisms’ overall condition and response to toxic stress. Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochatea), was exposed
[...] Read more.
The effects of several copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) nanomaterials were assessed using the cellular energy allocation (CEA), a methodology used to evaluate the energetic status and which relates with organisms’ overall condition and response to toxic stress. Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochatea), was exposed to the reproduction effect concentrations EC20/50 of several Cu and Ag materials (CuNO3, Cu-Field, Cu-Nwires and Cu-NPs; AgNO3, Ag NM300K, Ag-NPs Non-coated and Ag-NPs PVP-coated) for 7 days (0-3-7d). The parameters measured were the total energy reserves available (protein, carbohydrate and lipid budgets) and the energy consumption (Ec) integrated to obtain the CEA. Results showed that these parameters allowed a clear discrimination between Cu and Ag, but less clearly within each of the various materials. For Cu there was an increase in Ec and protein budget, while for Ag a decrease was observed. The results corroborate known mechanisms, e.g., with Cu causing an increase in metabolic rate whereas Ag induces mitochondrial damage. The various Cu forms seem to activate different mechanisms with size and shape (e.g., Cu-NPs versus Cu-Nwires), causing clearly different effects. For Ag, results are in line with a slower oxidation rate of Ag-NMs in comparison with Ag-salt and hence delayed effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluating the Effects of Temperature on Mortality in Manila City (Philippines) from 2006–2010 Using a Distributed Lag Nonlinear Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6842-6857; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606842
Received: 13 April 2015 / Revised: 9 June 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2285 | PDF Full-text (1330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The effect of temperature on the risk of mortality has been described in numerous studies of category-specific (e.g., cause-, sex-, age-, and season-specific) mortality in temperate and subtropical countries, with consistent findings of U-, V-, and J-shaped exposure-response functions. In this study, we
[...] Read more.
The effect of temperature on the risk of mortality has been described in numerous studies of category-specific (e.g., cause-, sex-, age-, and season-specific) mortality in temperate and subtropical countries, with consistent findings of U-, V-, and J-shaped exposure-response functions. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between temperature and mortality in Manila City (Philippines), during 2006–2010 to identify the potential susceptible populations. We collected daily all-cause and cause-specific death counts from the Philippine Statistics Authority-National Statistics Office and the meteorological variables were collected from the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Temperature-mortality relationships were modeled using Poisson regression combined with distributed lag nonlinear models, and were used to perform cause-, sex-, age-, and season-specific analyses. The minimum mortality temperature was 30 °C, and increased risks of mortality were observed per 1 °C increase among elderly persons (RR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.31–1.80), women (RR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.27–1.69), and for respiratory causes of death (RR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.23–1.88). Seasonal effect modification was found to greatly affect the risks in the lower temperature range. Thus, the temperature-mortality relationship in Manila City exhibited an increased risk of mortality among elderly persons, women, and for respiratory-causes, with inherent effect modification in the season-specific analysis. The findings of this study may facilitate the development of public health policies to reduce the effects of air temperature on mortality, especially for these high-risk groups. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pattern of Ambulatory Care Visits to Obstetrician-Gynecologists in Taiwan: A Nationwide Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6832-6841; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606832
Received: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 12 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1676 | PDF Full-text (831 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs) are the main actors in the provision of health care to women, their practice patterns have rarely been analyzed. The current study investigated the nationwide ambulatory visits to OB-GYNs in Taiwan using the National Health Insurance Research Database. From the
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Although obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs) are the main actors in the provision of health care to women, their practice patterns have rarely been analyzed. The current study investigated the nationwide ambulatory visits to OB-GYNs in Taiwan using the National Health Insurance Research Database. From the 1/500 sampling datasets indicating 619,760 ambulatory visits in 2012, it was found that 5.8% (n = 35,697) of the visits were made to OB-GYNs. Two-fifths of the services provided were performed by male OB-GYNs aged 50–59 years. Women of childbearing age accounted for more than half of the visits to OB-GYNs (57.2%), and elderly patients above 60 years accounted for only 7.7%. The most frequent diagnoses were menstrual disorders and other forms of abnormal bleeding from the female genital tract (13.1%). Anti-infective agents were prescribed in 15.1% of the visits to OB-GYNs. The study revealed the proportion of aging practicing OB-GYNs, and our detailed results could contribute to evidence-based discussions on health policymaking. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Illegal Dumping of Toxic Waste and Its Effect on Human Health in Campania, Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6818-6831; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606818
Received: 14 April 2015 / Revised: 8 June 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2696 | PDF Full-text (595 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The region of Campania (particularly Naples and Caserta) has experienced an emergency in the waste management cycle during past years. Although the most critical phase has been overcome after the construction of the incineration plant in Acerra (an old-fashioned technology built up over
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The region of Campania (particularly Naples and Caserta) has experienced an emergency in the waste management cycle during past years. Although the most critical phase has been overcome after the construction of the incineration plant in Acerra (an old-fashioned technology built up over a few months, whose impact on environment and health has not yet been assessed), most of the underlying problems have not been resolved. The illegal burning of wheels, plastics, textiles, and other industrial residuals, along with the detection of two thousand toxic substance dumping sites, still represents major concerns of environmental pollution and population health. This review summarizes the most relevant studies, which analyzed chemical contamination (primarily dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) of the air, soil, water, animals, and humans in Campania. In addition, we reviewed information on population health (i.e., mortality data, congenital malformations, and cancer incidence). Moving from a detailed mapping of (mostly illegal) waste dumping sites in Campania, we have focused on recent studies which have found: (a) high concentrations of dioxins (≥5.0 pg TEQ/g fat) in milk samples from sheep, cows, and river buffaloes; (b) remarkable contamination of dioxin and PCBs in human milk samples from those living in the Naples and Caserta areas (PCDDs+PCDFs and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs) assessed at 16.6 pg TEQ/g of fat; range: 7.5–43 pg/g of fat); (c) potential age-adjusted standardized mortality rates associated with some specific cancer types; (d) a statistically significant association between exposure to illegal toxic waste dumping sites and cancer mortality, even after adjustment by socio-economic factors and other environmental indicators. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Extent, Nature, and Risk Factors of Workplace Violence in Public Tertiary Hospitals in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6801-6817; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606801
Received: 27 April 2015 / Revised: 1 June 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1905 | PDF Full-text (717 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using a cross-sectional survey design from 11 public tertiary hospitals (a specialist hospital, four Chinese medicine hospitals, and six general hospitals) in the urban areas of Heilongjiang, we determined the nature of workplace violence that medical staff have encountered in Chinese hospitals and
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Using a cross-sectional survey design from 11 public tertiary hospitals (a specialist hospital, four Chinese medicine hospitals, and six general hospitals) in the urban areas of Heilongjiang, we determined the nature of workplace violence that medical staff have encountered in Chinese hospitals and identified factors associated with those experiences of violence. A total of 1129 health workers participated. The specialist hospital had the highest prevalence of physical violence (35.4%), while the general hospitals had the highest prevalence of non-physical violence (76%). Inexperienced medical staff (p < 0.001) were more likely to suffer non-physical violence than physical violence in Chinese medicine hospitals compared to experienced staff. Medical units (p = 0.001) had a high risk of non-physical violence, while surgical units (p = 0.005) had a high risk of physical violence. In general hospitals, staff with higher levels of anxiety about workplace violence were more vulnerable to both physical violence (1.67, 95% CI 1.36–2.10) and non-physical violence (1.309, 95% CI 1.136–1.508) compared to those with lower levels of anxiety, while rotating shift workers had a higher odds of physical violence (2.2, 95% CI 1.21–4.17) and non-physical violence (1.65, 95% CI 1.13–2.41) compared to fixed day shift workers. Thus, prevention should focus not only on high-risk sections of hospitals, but also on the nature of the hospital itself. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Varying Particle Sizes and Different Types of LDH-Modified Anthracite in Simulated Test Columns for Phosphorous Removal
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6788-6800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606788
Received: 20 April 2015 / Revised: 24 May 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1735 | PDF Full-text (6674 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A comparative study was carried out for the removal of phosphorus in simulated unplanted vertical-flow constructed wetlands with different layered double hydroxide (LDHs) coated anthracite substrates. Three particle sizes of anthracites were selected and modified separately with nine kinds of LDH coating. The
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A comparative study was carried out for the removal of phosphorus in simulated unplanted vertical-flow constructed wetlands with different layered double hydroxide (LDHs) coated anthracite substrates. Three particle sizes of anthracites were selected and modified separately with nine kinds of LDH coating. The simulated substrates test columns loaded with the original and modified anthracites were constructed to treat the contaminated water. For the medium and large particle size modified anthracite substrates, the purification effects of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus and phosphate were improved by various degrees, and the purification effect of the medium particle size anthracite is better than that of the large size one. The medium size anthracite modified by ZnCo-LDHs had optimal performance with average removal efficiencies of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus and phosphate reaching 95%, 95% and 98%, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity on ZnCo-LDHs and ZnAl-LDHs modified medium sizes anthracites were 65.79 (mg/kg) and 48.78 (mg/kg), respectively. In comparison, the small size anthracite is not suitable for LDHs modification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Systems Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Metallic Burden of Deciduous Teeth and Childhood Behavioral Deficits
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6771-6787; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606771
Received: 11 April 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1829 | PDF Full-text (765 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects 5%–8% of children in the U.S. (10% of males and 4% of females). The contributions of multiple metal exposures to the childhood behavioral deficits are unclear, although particular metals have been implicated through their neurotoxicity. The objective of
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Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects 5%–8% of children in the U.S. (10% of males and 4% of females). The contributions of multiple metal exposures to the childhood behavioral deficits are unclear, although particular metals have been implicated through their neurotoxicity. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the body burden of Mn is positively correlated with ADHD symptoms. We also investigated the putative roles of Ca, Fe, Pb, and Hg. We collected shed molars from 266 children (138 boys and 128 girls) who lost a tooth between 11 and 13 years of age. The molars were analyzed for metals using ICP-OES. The third grade teacher of each child completed the Teacher’s Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD) to produce a score for “Total Disruptive Behavior” and subscale scores for “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder”, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant. The mean Mn, Fe, Pb and Ca concentrations found in teeth was 6.1 ± 5.7 µg/g, 22.7 ± 24.1 µg/g, 0.9 ± 1.4 µg/g, and 6.0 × 105 ± 1.6 × 105 µg/g, respectively. Hg was not detected. No significant association was found between Mn and behavioral deficits. Ca was significantly negatively associated, and Pb showed a significant positive association with Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant Disorders. These findings call into question the putative independent association of manganese exposure and behavioral deficits in children, when the balance of other metallic burden, particularly Ca and Pb burdens play significant roles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015)
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Open AccessArticle Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin — Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6745-6770; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606745
Received: 28 February 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2302 | PDF Full-text (780 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD) in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For
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The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD) in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus) the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue) the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparation for changing patterns of VBD distribution is crucial in the Mediterranean basin. We analyzed six representative Mediterranean countries and found that they have started to prepare for this threat, but the preparation levels among them differ, and policy mechanisms are limited and basic. Furthermore, cross-border cooperation is not stable and depends on international frameworks. The Mediterranean countries should improve their adaptation plans, and develop more cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary and participatory approaches. In addition, based on experience from existing local networks in advancing national legislation and trans-border cooperation, we outline recommendations for a regional cooperation framework. We suggest that a stable and neutral framework is required, and that it should address the characteristics and needs of African, Asian and European countries around the Mediterranean in order to ensure participation. Such a regional framework is essential to reduce the risk of VBD transmission, since the vectors of infectious diseases know no political borders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Impacts on Vector-borne Diseases)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of the Particle Size Fraction associated with Heavy Metals in Suspended Sediments of the Yellow River
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6725-6744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606725
Received: 24 April 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1618 | PDF Full-text (1210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Variations in the concentrations of particulate heavy metals and fluxes into the sea in the Yellow River were examined based on observational and measured data from January 2009 to December 2010. A custom-built water elutriation apparatus was used to separate suspended sediments into
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Variations in the concentrations of particulate heavy metals and fluxes into the sea in the Yellow River were examined based on observational and measured data from January 2009 to December 2010. A custom-built water elutriation apparatus was used to separate suspended sediments into five size fractions. Clay and very fine silt is the dominant fraction in most of the suspended sediments, accounting for >40% of the samples. Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Fe and Mn are slightly affected by anthropogenic activities, while Cd is moderate affected. The concentrations of heavy metals increased with decrease in particle size. For suspended sediments in the Yellow River, on average 78%–82% of the total heavy metal loading accumulated in the <16 μm fraction. About 43% and 53% of heavy metal in 2009 and 2010 respectively, were readily transported to the Bohai Sea with “truly suspended” particles, which have potentially harmful effects on marine organisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Evaluation of the British Columbia Asthma Monitoring System (BCAMS) and PM2.5 Exposure Metrics during the 2014 Forest Fire Season
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6710-6724; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606710
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 8 June 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2189 | PDF Full-text (1474 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The British Columbia Asthma Monitoring System (BCAMS) tracks forest fire smoke exposure and asthma-related health outcomes, identifying excursions beyond expected daily counts. Weekly reports during the wildfire season support public health and emergency management decision-making. We evaluated BCAMS by identifying excursions for asthma-related
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The British Columbia Asthma Monitoring System (BCAMS) tracks forest fire smoke exposure and asthma-related health outcomes, identifying excursions beyond expected daily counts. Weekly reports during the wildfire season support public health and emergency management decision-making. We evaluated BCAMS by identifying excursions for asthma-related physician visits and dispensations of the reliever medication salbutamol sulfate and examining their corresponding smoke exposures. A disease outbreak detection algorithm identified excursions from 1 July to 31 August 2014. Measured, modeled, and forecasted concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were used to assess exposure. We assigned PM2.5 levels to excursions by choosing the highest value within a seven day window centred on the excursion day. Smoky days were defined as those with PM2.5 levels ≥ 25 µg/m3. Most excursions (57%–71%) were assigned measured or modeled PM2.5 concentrations of 10 µg/m3 or higher. Of the smoky days, 55.8% and 69.8% were associated with at least one excursion for physician visits and salbutamol dispensations, respectively. BCAMS alerted most often when measures of smoke exposure were relatively high. Better performance might be realized by combining asthma-related outcome metrics in a bivariate model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6700-6709; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606700
Received: 4 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1924 | PDF Full-text (2576 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM) as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration (MF) membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM
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Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM) as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration (MF) membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW) distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3–5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3–5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2–30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association between Work-Family Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Female Nurses: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Psychological Capital
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6682-6699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606682
Received: 10 March 2015 / Revised: 2 June 2015 / Accepted: 5 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2145 | PDF Full-text (880 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Depressive symptoms have been in the limelight for many kinds of people, but few studies have explored positive resources for combating depressive symptoms among Chinese nurses. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between work-family conflict (WFC) and depressive symptoms
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Depressive symptoms have been in the limelight for many kinds of people, but few studies have explored positive resources for combating depressive symptoms among Chinese nurses. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between work-family conflict (WFC) and depressive symptoms among Chinese female nurses, along with the mediating and moderating role of psychological capital (PsyCap) in this relationship. This cross-sectional study was completed during the period of September and October 2013. A questionnaire that consisted of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Work-Family Conflict scale and the Psychological Capital Questionnair scale was distributed to nurses in Shenyang, China. A total of 824 individuals (effective response rate: 74.9%) participated. Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of PsyCap in the relationship between WFC and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the moderating role of PsyCap. Both WFC and family-work conflict (FWC) were positively related with depressive symptoms. PsyCap positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. Self-efficacy and hope positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. PsyCap partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Hope and optimism partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Work-family conflict, as the risk factor of depressive symptoms, can increase nurses’ depressive symptoms, and PsyCap is a positive resource to combat nurses’ depressive symptoms. PsyCap can aggravate the effects of WFC on depressive symptoms and FWC can impact PsyCap to increase nurses’ depressive symptoms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Health-Related Quality of Life of the Roma in Greece: The Role of Socio-Economic Characteristics and Housing Conditions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6669-6681; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606669
Received: 12 February 2015 / Revised: 16 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1943 | PDF Full-text (679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim was to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of the Roma and further to detect the significant determinants that are associated with their HRQL. The cross-sectional study involved 1068 Roma adults living in settlements (mean age 36). HRQL was measured
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The aim was to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of the Roma and further to detect the significant determinants that are associated with their HRQL. The cross-sectional study involved 1068 Roma adults living in settlements (mean age 36). HRQL was measured by the Greek version of SF-36 Health Survey and further socio-demographic characteristics (sex, age, marital status, education, permanent occupation etc.) and housing conditions (stable housing, access to basic amenities such as drinkable water, drainage, electricity which compose material deprivation) were involved. Non parametric tests and multiple linear regression models were applied to identify the factors that have significant association with HRQL. After controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, health status and housing conditions, sex, age, education, chronic diseases, stable housing and material deprivation were found to be significant determinants of the Roma’s HRQL. Men reported significantly better health than women as well as those who attended school compared to the illiterate. Chronic diseases were remarkably associated with poor HRQL from 10 units in MH (Mental Health) to 34 units in RP (Role Physical). Material deprivation was related to lower GH (General Health), and VT (Vitality) scores and higher RP (Role Physical) and RE (Role Emotional) scores. Chronic conditions and illiteracy are two key areas that contribute significantly to worse HRQL. Policies should be part of a comprehensive and holistic strategy for the Roma through intervention to education, housing and public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Physiological and Psychological Effects of Viewing a Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa ‘Hayward’) Orchard Landscape in Summer in Japan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6657-6668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606657
Received: 18 March 2015 / Revised: 3 June 2015 / Accepted: 5 June 2015 / Published: 11 June 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2093 | PDF Full-text (321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The physiological and psychological relaxation effects of viewing a kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa ‘Hayward’) orchard landscape were investigated. Seventeen Japanese adult females (46.1 ± 8.2 years) viewed a kiwifruit orchard landscape or a building site (control) for 10 min. The heart rate variability
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The physiological and psychological relaxation effects of viewing a kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa ‘Hayward’) orchard landscape were investigated. Seventeen Japanese adult females (46.1 ± 8.2 years) viewed a kiwifruit orchard landscape or a building site (control) for 10 min. The heart rate variability and heart rate were determined. The modified semantic differential method and the short-form Profile of Mood States were used to assess the psychological effects. Compared with viewing the building site, viewing the kiwifruit orchard landscape resulted in a significant increase in the parasympathetic activity, a marginally significant decrease in the heart rate, a significant increase in “comfortable”, “relaxed” and “natural” feelings and a significant improvement in mood states. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Predicting the Probability of Failure of Cementitious Sewer Pipes Using Stochastic Finite Element Method
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6641-6656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606641
Received: 22 April 2015 / Revised: 4 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 10 June 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2014 | PDF Full-text (984 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a stochastic finite element method (SFEM) is employed to investigate the probability of failure of cementitious buried sewer pipes subjected to combined effect of corrosion and stresses. A non-linear time-dependant model is used to determine the extent of concrete corrosion.
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In this paper, a stochastic finite element method (SFEM) is employed to investigate the probability of failure of cementitious buried sewer pipes subjected to combined effect of corrosion and stresses. A non-linear time-dependant model is used to determine the extent of concrete corrosion. Using the SFEM, the effects of different random variables, including loads, pipe material, and corrosion on the remaining safe life of the cementitious sewer pipes are explored. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the merit of the proposed SFEM in evaluating the effects of the contributing parameters upon the probability of failure of cementitious sewer pipes. The developed SFEM offers many advantages over traditional probabilistic techniques since it does not use any empirical equations in order to determine failure of pipes. The results of the SFEM can help the concerning industry (e.g., water companies) to better plan their resources by providing accurate prediction for the remaining safe life of cementitious sewer pipes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Systems Engineering)
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