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Sensors, Volume 19, Issue 12 (June-2 2019) – 189 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) High-resolution (HR) mapping of the gastrointestinal (GI) bioelectrical activity is an emerging [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Methods for Simultaneous Robot-World-Hand–Eye Calibration: A Comparative Study
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2837; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122837 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1408
Abstract
In this paper, we propose two novel methods for robot-world-hand–eye calibration and provide a comparative analysis against six state-of-the-art methods. We examine the calibration problem from two alternative geometrical interpretations, called ‘hand–eye’ and ‘robot-world-hand–eye’, respectively. The study analyses the effects of specifying the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose two novel methods for robot-world-hand–eye calibration and provide a comparative analysis against six state-of-the-art methods. We examine the calibration problem from two alternative geometrical interpretations, called ‘hand–eye’ and ‘robot-world-hand–eye’, respectively. The study analyses the effects of specifying the objective function as pose error or reprojection error minimization problem. We provide three real and three simulated datasets with rendered images as part of the study. In addition, we propose a robotic arm error modeling approach to be used along with the simulated datasets for generating a realistic response. The tests on simulated data are performed in both ideal cases and with pseudo-realistic robotic arm pose and visual noise. Our methods show significant improvement and robustness on many metrics in various scenarios compared to state-of-the-art methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Systems and Sensors for Robotics)
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Open AccessArticle
AMiCUS—A Head Motion-Based Interface for Control of an Assistive Robot
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2836; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122836 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1107
Abstract
Within this work we present AMiCUS, a Human-Robot Interface that enables tetraplegics to control a multi-degree of freedom robot arm in real-time using solely head motion, empowering them to perform simple manipulation tasks independently. The article describes the hardware, software and signal processing [...] Read more.
Within this work we present AMiCUS, a Human-Robot Interface that enables tetraplegics to control a multi-degree of freedom robot arm in real-time using solely head motion, empowering them to perform simple manipulation tasks independently. The article describes the hardware, software and signal processing of AMiCUS and presents the results of a volunteer study with 13 able-bodied subjects and 6 tetraplegics with severe head motion limitations. As part of the study, the subjects performed two different pick-and-place tasks. The usability was assessed with a questionnaire. The overall performance and the main control elements were evaluated with objective measures such as completion rate and interaction time. The results show that the mapping of head motion onto robot motion is intuitive and the given feedback is useful, enabling smooth, precise and efficient robot control and resulting in high user-acceptance. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that the robot did not move unintendedly, giving a positive prognosis for safety requirements in the framework of a certification of a product prototype. On top of that, AMiCUS enabled every subject to control the robot arm, independent of prior experience and degree of head motion limitation, making the system available for a wide range of motion impaired users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assistance Robotics and Biosensors 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Real-time Precise Point Positioning with a Xiaomi MI 8 Android Smartphone
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2835; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122835 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning technology using smartphones can be applied to many aspects of mass life, and the world’s first dual-frequency GNSS smartphone Xiaomi MI 8 represents a new trend in the development of GNSS positioning technology with mobile phones. [...] Read more.
The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning technology using smartphones can be applied to many aspects of mass life, and the world’s first dual-frequency GNSS smartphone Xiaomi MI 8 represents a new trend in the development of GNSS positioning technology with mobile phones. The main purpose of this work is to explore the best real-time positioning performance that can be achieved on a smartphone without reference stations. By analyzing the GNSS raw measurements, it is found that all the three mobile phones tested have the phenomenon that the differences between pseudorange observations and carrier phase observations are not fixed, thus a PPP (precise point positioning) method is modified accordingly. Using a Xiaomi MI 8 smartphone, the modified real-time PPP positioning strategy which estimates two clock biases of smartphone was applied. The results show that using multi-GNSS systems data can effectively improve positioning performance; the average horizontal and vertical RMS positioning error are 0.81 and 1.65 m respectively (using GPS, BDS, and Galileo data); and the time required for each time period positioning errors in N and E directions to be under 1 m is less than 30s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Nano-Cracked Strain Sensor with High Sensitivity and Linearity by Controlling the Crack Arrangement
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2834; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122834 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
Studies on wearable sensors that monitor various movements by attaching them to a body have received considerable attention. Crack-based strain sensors are more sensitive than other sensors. Owing to their high sensitivity, these sensors have been investigated for measuring minute deformations occurring on [...] Read more.
Studies on wearable sensors that monitor various movements by attaching them to a body have received considerable attention. Crack-based strain sensors are more sensitive than other sensors. Owing to their high sensitivity, these sensors have been investigated for measuring minute deformations occurring on the skin, such as pulse. However, existing studies have limited sensitivity at low strain range and nonlinearity that renders any calibration process complex and difficult. In this study, we propose a pre-strain and sensor-extending process to improve the sensitivity and linearity of the sensor. By using these pre-strain and sensor-extending processes, we were able to control the morphology and alignment of cracks and regulate the sensitivity and linearity of the sensor. Even if the sensor was fabricated in the same manner, the sensor that involved the pre-strain and extending processes had a sensitivity 100 times greater than normal sensors. Thus, our crack-based strain sensor had high sensitivity (gauge factor > 5000, gauge factor (GF = (△R/R0)/ε), linearity, and low hysteresis at low strain (<1% strain). Given its high sensing performance, the sensor can be used to measure micro-deformation, such as pulse wave and voice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Optical Measurements: Non-Linearity Compensation of Compact Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Spectrometers
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2833; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122833 - 25 Jun 2019
Viewed by 1368
Abstract
Charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometers are widely used as detectors in analytical laboratory instruments and as sensors for in situ optical measurements. However, as the applications become more complex, the physical and electronic limits of the CCD spectrometers may restrict their applicability. The errors [...] Read more.
Charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometers are widely used as detectors in analytical laboratory instruments and as sensors for in situ optical measurements. However, as the applications become more complex, the physical and electronic limits of the CCD spectrometers may restrict their applicability. The errors due to dark currents, temperature variations, and blooming can be readily corrected. However, a correction for uncertainty of integration time and wavelength calibration is typically lacking in most devices, and detector non-linearity may distort the signal by up to 5% for some measurements. Here, we propose a simple correction method to compensate for non-linearity errors in optical measurements where compact CCD spectrometers are used. The results indicate that the error due to the non-linearity of a spectrometer can be reduced from several hundred counts to about 40 counts if the proposed correction function is applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
PALOT: Profiling and Authenticating Users Leveraging Internet of Things
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2832; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122832 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1205
Abstract
Continuous authentication was introduced to propose novel mechanisms to validate users’ identity and address the problems and limitations exposed by traditional techniques. However, this methodology poses several challenges that remain unsolved. In this paper, we present a novel framework, PALOT, that leverages IoT [...] Read more.
Continuous authentication was introduced to propose novel mechanisms to validate users’ identity and address the problems and limitations exposed by traditional techniques. However, this methodology poses several challenges that remain unsolved. In this paper, we present a novel framework, PALOT, that leverages IoT to provide context-aware, continuous and non-intrusive authentication and authorization services. To this end, we propose a formal information system model based on ontologies, representing the main source of knowledge of our framework. Furthermore, to recognize users’ behavioral patterns within the IoT ecosystem, we introduced a new module called “confidence manager”. The module is then integrated into an extended version of our early framework architecture, IoTCAF, which is consequently adapted to include the above-mentioned component. Exhaustive experiments demonstrated the efficacy, feasibility and scalability of the proposed solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Systems for Internet of Things)
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Open AccessArticle
3D Pose Detection of Closely Interactive Humans Using Multi-View Cameras
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2831; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122831 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
We propose a method to automatically detect 3D poses of closely interactive humans from sparse multi-view images at one time instance. It is a challenging problem due to the strong partial occlusion and truncation between humans and no tracking process to provide priori [...] Read more.
We propose a method to automatically detect 3D poses of closely interactive humans from sparse multi-view images at one time instance. It is a challenging problem due to the strong partial occlusion and truncation between humans and no tracking process to provide priori poses information. To solve this problem, we first obtain 2D joints in every image using OpenPose and human semantic segmentation results from Mask R-CNN. With the 3D joints triangulated from multi-view 2D joints, a two-stage assembling method is proposed to select the correct 3D pose from thousands of pose seeds combined by joint semantic meanings. We further present a novel approach to minimize the interpenetration between human shapes with close interactions. Finally, we test our method on multi-view human-human interaction (MHHI) datasets. Experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves high visualized correct rate and outperforms the existing method in accuracy and real-time capability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Modal Sensors for Human Behavior Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Analyses of Time Series InSAR Signatures for Land Cover Classification: Case Studies over Dense Forestry Areas with L-Band SAR Images
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2830; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122830 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
As demonstrated in prior studies, InSAR holds great potential for land cover classification, especially considering its wide coverage and transparency to climatic conditions. In addition to features such as backscattering coefficient and phase coherence, the temporal migration in InSAR signatures provides information that [...] Read more.
As demonstrated in prior studies, InSAR holds great potential for land cover classification, especially considering its wide coverage and transparency to climatic conditions. In addition to features such as backscattering coefficient and phase coherence, the temporal migration in InSAR signatures provides information that is capable of discriminating types of land cover in target area. The exploitation of InSAR signatures was expected to provide merits to trace land cover change in extensive areas; however, the extraction of suitable features from InSAR signatures was a challenging task. Combining time series amplitudes and phase coherences through linear and nonlinear compressions, we showed that the InSAR signatures could be extracted and transformed into reliable classification features for interpreting land cover types. The prototype was tested in mountainous areas that were covered with a dense vegetation canopy. It was demonstrated that InSAR time series signature analyses reliably identified land cover types and also recognized tracing of temporal land cover change. Based on the robustness of the developed scheme against the temporal noise components and the availability of advanced spatial and temporal resolution SAR data, classification of finer land cover types and identification of stable scatterers for InSAR time series techniques can be expected. The advanced spatial and temporal resolution of future SAR assets combining the scheme in this study can be applicable for various important applications including global land cover changes monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
A Dark Target Detection Method Based on the Adjacency Effect: A Case Study on Crack Detection
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2829; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122829 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 957
Abstract
Dark target detection is important for engineering applications but the existing methods do not consider the imaging environment of dark targets, such as the adjacency effect. The adjacency effect will affect the quantitative applications of remote sensing, especially for high contrast images and [...] Read more.
Dark target detection is important for engineering applications but the existing methods do not consider the imaging environment of dark targets, such as the adjacency effect. The adjacency effect will affect the quantitative applications of remote sensing, especially for high contrast images and images with ever-increasing resolution. Further, most studies have focused on how to eliminate the adjacency effect and there is almost no research about the application of the adjacency effect. However, the adjacency effect leads to some unique characteristics for the dark target surrounded by a bright background. This paper utilizes these characteristics to assist in the detection of the dark object, and the low-high threshold detection strategy and the adaptive threshold selection method under the assumption of Gaussian distribution are designed. Meanwhile, preliminary case experiments are carried out on the crack detection of concrete slope protection. Finally, the experiment results show that it is feasible to utilize the adjacency effect for dark target detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance and Applications of RGB Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
An Evaluation Method of Safe Driving for Senior Adults Using ECG Signals
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2828; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122828 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 828
Abstract
The elderly are more susceptible to stress than younger people. In particular, heart palpitations are one of the causes of heart failure, which can lead to serious accidents. To prevent heart palpitations, we have devised the Safe Driving Intensity (SDI) and Cardiac Reaction [...] Read more.
The elderly are more susceptible to stress than younger people. In particular, heart palpitations are one of the causes of heart failure, which can lead to serious accidents. To prevent heart palpitations, we have devised the Safe Driving Intensity (SDI) and Cardiac Reaction Time (CRT) as new methods of estimating the correlations between effects on the driver’s heart and the movement of a vehicle. In SDI measurement, recommended acceleration value of vehicle for safe driving is inferred from the suggested correlation algorithm using machine learning. A higher SDI value than other people means less pressure on the heart. CRT is an estimated value of the occurring time of heart palpitations caused by stressful driving. In particular, it is proved by SDI that elderly subjects tend to overestimate their driving abilities in personal assessment questionnaires. Furthermore, we validated our SDI using other general statistical methods. When comparing the results using a t-test, we obtained reliable results for the equivalent variance. Our results can be used as a basis for evaluating elderly people’s driving ability, as well as allowing for the implementation of a personalized safe driving system for the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Biopotential, Physiological and Biomedical Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Acoustic Impulsive Noise Based on Non-Gaussian Models: An Experimental Evaluation
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2827; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122827 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 965
Abstract
In general, acoustic channels are not Gaussian distributed neither are second-order stationary. Considering them for signal processing methods designed for Gaussian assumptions is inadequate, consequently yielding in poor performance of such methods. This paper presents an analysis for audio signal corrupted by impulsive [...] Read more.
In general, acoustic channels are not Gaussian distributed neither are second-order stationary. Considering them for signal processing methods designed for Gaussian assumptions is inadequate, consequently yielding in poor performance of such methods. This paper presents an analysis for audio signal corrupted by impulsive noise using non-Gaussian models. Audio samples are compared to the Gaussian, α -stable and Gaussian mixture models, evaluating the fitting by graphical and numerical methods. We discuss fitting properties as the window length and the overlap, finally concluding that the α -stable model has the best fit for all tested scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Intelligent Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Conservative Sensor Error Modeling Using a Modified Paired Overbound Method and its Application in Satellite-Based Augmentation Systems
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2826; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122826 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 667
Abstract
Conservative sensor error modeling is of great significance in the field of safety-of-life. At present, the overbound method has been widely used in areas such as satellite-based augmentation systems (SBASs) and ground-based augmentation systems (GBASs) that provide integrity service. It can effectively solve [...] Read more.
Conservative sensor error modeling is of great significance in the field of safety-of-life. At present, the overbound method has been widely used in areas such as satellite-based augmentation systems (SBASs) and ground-based augmentation systems (GBASs) that provide integrity service. It can effectively solve the difficulties of non-Gaussian and non-zero mean error modeling and confidence interval estimation of user position error. However, there is still a problem in that the model is too conservative and leads to the lack of availability. In order to further improve the availability of SBASs, an improved paired overbound method is proposed in this paper. Compared with the traditional method, the improved algorithm no longer requires the overbound function to conform to the characteristics of the probability distribution function, so that under the premise of ensuring the integrity of the system, the real error characteristics can be more accurately modeled and measured. The experimental results show that the modified paired overbound method can improve the availability of the system with a probability of about 99%. In view of the fact that conservative error modeling is more sensitive to large deviations, this paper analyzes the robustness of the improved algorithm in the case of abnormal data loss. The maximum deviation under a certain integrity risk is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the improved paired overbound method compared with the original method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Networks for Real Time Communication)
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Open AccessArticle
Microwave Staring Correlated Imaging Based on Unsteady Aerostat Platform
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2825; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122825 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 802
Abstract
Microwave staring correlated imaging (MSCI), with the technical capability of high-resolution imaging on relatively stationary targets, is a promising approach for remote sensing. For the purpose of continuous observation of a fixed key area, a tethered floating aerostat is often used as the [...] Read more.
Microwave staring correlated imaging (MSCI), with the technical capability of high-resolution imaging on relatively stationary targets, is a promising approach for remote sensing. For the purpose of continuous observation of a fixed key area, a tethered floating aerostat is often used as the carrying platform for MSCI radar system; however, its non-cooperative random motion of the platform caused by winds and its unbalance will result in blurred imaging, and even in imaging failure. This paper presents a method that takes into account the instabilities of the platform, combined with an adaptive variable suspension (AVS) and a position and orientation system (POS), which can automatically control the antenna beam orientation to the target area and measure dynamically the position and attitude of the stochastic radiation radar array, respectively. By analyzing the motion feature of aerostat platform, the motion model of the radar array is established, then its real-time position vector and attitude angles of each antenna can be represented; meanwhile the selection matrix of beam coverage is introduced to indicate the dynamic illumination of the radar antenna beam in the overall imaging area. Due to the low-speed discrete POS data, a curve-fitting algorithm can be used to estimate its accurate position vector and attitude of each antenna at each high-speed sampling time during the imaging period. Finally, the MSCI model based on the unsteady aerostat platform is set up. In the simulations, the proposed scheme is validated such that under the influence of different unstable platform movements, a better imaging performance can be achieved compared with the conventional MSCI method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advancements in Radar Imaging and Sensing Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Facile Non-Enzymatic Electrochemical Sensing for Glucose Based on Cu2O–BSA Nanoparticles Modified GCE
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2824; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122824 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
Transition-metal nanomaterials are very important to non-enzymatic glucose sensing because of their excellent electrocatalytic ability, good selectivity, the fact that they are not easily interfered with by chloride ion (Cl), and low cost. However, the linear detection range needs to be [...] Read more.
Transition-metal nanomaterials are very important to non-enzymatic glucose sensing because of their excellent electrocatalytic ability, good selectivity, the fact that they are not easily interfered with by chloride ion (Cl), and low cost. However, the linear detection range needs to be expanded. In this paper, Cu2O–bovine serum albumin (BSA) core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized for the first time in air at room temperature by a facile and green route. The structure and morphology of Cu2O–BSA NPs were characterized. The as-prepared Cu2O–BSA NPs were used to modify the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) in a Nafion matrix. By using cyclic voltammetry (CV), the influence from scanning speed, concentration of NaOH, and load of Cu2O–BSA NPs for the modified electrodes was probed. Cu2O–BSA NPs showed direct electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of glucose in 50 mM NaOH solution at 0.6 V. The chronoamperometry result showed this constructing sensor in the detection of glucose with a lowest detection limit of 0.4 μM, a linear detection range up to 10 mM, a high sensitivity of 1144.81 μAmM−1cm−2 and reliable anti-interference property to Cl, uric acid (UA), ascorbic acid (AA), and acetaminophen (AP). Cu2O–BSA NPs are promising nanostructures for the fabrication of non-enzymatic glucose electrochemical sensing devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Nanobiosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Trajectory Optimization in a Cooperative Aerial Reconnaissance Model
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2823; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122823 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
In recent years, the use of modern technology in military operations has become standard practice. Unmanned systems play an important role in operations such as reconnaissance and surveillance. This article examines a model for planning aerial reconnaissance using a fleet of mutually cooperating [...] Read more.
In recent years, the use of modern technology in military operations has become standard practice. Unmanned systems play an important role in operations such as reconnaissance and surveillance. This article examines a model for planning aerial reconnaissance using a fleet of mutually cooperating unmanned aerial vehicles to increase the effectiveness of the task. The model deploys a number of waypoints such that, when every waypoint is visited by any vehicle in the fleet, the area of interest is fully explored. The deployment of waypoints must meet the conditions arising from the technical parameters of the sensory systems used and tactical requirements of the task at hand. This paper proposes an improvement of the model by optimizing the number and position of waypoints deployed in the area of interest, the effect of which is to improve the trajectories of individual unmanned systems, and thus increase the efficiency of the operation. To achieve this optimization, a modified simulated annealing algorithm is proposed. The improvement of the model is verified by several experiments. Two sets of benchmark problems were designed: (a) benchmark problems for verifying the proposed algorithm for optimizing waypoints, and (b) benchmark problems based on typical reconnaissance scenarios in the real environment to prove the increased effectiveness of the reconnaissance operation. Moreover, an experiment in the SteelBeast simulation system was also conducted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Nile Red as a Tracer for Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Gasoline and Kerosene and Their Mixture with Biofuels
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2822; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122822 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1033
Abstract
Suitable fluorescence tracers (“dyes”) are needed for the planar measurement of droplet sizes by using a combination of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and Mie scattering. Currently, no suitable tracers have been characterized for application in planar droplet sizing in gasoline and kerosene fuels, as [...] Read more.
Suitable fluorescence tracers (“dyes”) are needed for the planar measurement of droplet sizes by using a combination of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and Mie scattering. Currently, no suitable tracers have been characterized for application in planar droplet sizing in gasoline and kerosene fuels, as well as biofuel blends. One promising tracer is nile red, which belongs to the fluorophore group. For its utilization for droplet size measurements, preliminary characterization of the fluorescence of the respective fuel tracer mixtures are mandatory. For this purpose, the fluorescence and absorption behavior of nile red dissolved in the surrogate fuels Toliso and Jet A-1 as well as in biofuel blends was investigated. The fluorescence signal for nile red that was dissolved in the two base fuels Toliso and Jet A-1 showed a linear behavior as a function of dye concentration. The temperature effect on spectral absorption and emission of nile red was investigated in a specially designed test cell. An ethanol admixture to Toliso led to a spectral shift towards higher wavelengths. The absorption and emission bands were shifted towards lower wavelengths with increasing temperature for all fuels. Both absorption and fluorescence decreased with increasing temperature for all fuels, except for E20, which showed an increased fluorescence signal with increasing temperature. Jet A-1 and its blends with hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) and farnesane did not exhibit explicit variations in spectral absorption or emission, but these blends showed a more distinct temperature dependence compared to the Toliso-ethanol-blends. The effect of photo-dissociation of the LIF signal of the fuel tracer mixtures was studied, and all fuel mixtures besides Toliso showed a more or less distinct decay in the fluorescence signal with time. In summary, all investigated fuel-tracer mixtures are suitable for LIF/Mie ratio droplet sizing in combination with nile red at moderate temperatures and low evaporation cooling rates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Trimodal Waveguide Demonstration and Its Implementation as a High Order Mode Interferometer for Sensing Application
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2821; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122821 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 769
Abstract
This work implements and demonstrates an interferometric transducer based on a trimodal optical waveguide concept. The readout signal is generated from the interference between the fundamental and second-order modes propagating on a straight polymer waveguide. Intuitively, the higher the mode order, the larger [...] Read more.
This work implements and demonstrates an interferometric transducer based on a trimodal optical waveguide concept. The readout signal is generated from the interference between the fundamental and second-order modes propagating on a straight polymer waveguide. Intuitively, the higher the mode order, the larger the fraction of power (evanescent field) propagating outside the waveguide core, hence the higher the sensitivity that can be achieved when interfering against the strongly confined fundamental mode. The device is fabricated using the polymer SU-8 over a SiO2 substrate and shows a free spectral range of 20.2 nm and signal visibility of 5.7 dB, reaching a sensitivity to temperature variations of 0.0586 dB/°C. The results indicate that the proposed interferometer is a promising candidate for highly sensitive, compact and low-cost photonic transducer for implementation in different types of sensing applications, among these, point-of-care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Autonomic Nervous System Response during Light Physical Activity in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa Measured by Wearable Devices
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2820; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122820 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1050
Abstract
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with a wide range of disturbances of the autonomic nervous system. The aim of the present study was to monitor the heart rate (HR) and the heart rate variability (HRV) during light physical activity in a group of [...] Read more.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with a wide range of disturbances of the autonomic nervous system. The aim of the present study was to monitor the heart rate (HR) and the heart rate variability (HRV) during light physical activity in a group of adolescent girls with AN and in age-matched controls using a wearable, minimally obtrusive device. For the study, we enrolled a sample of 23 adolescents with AN and 17 controls. After performing a 12-lead electrocardiogram and echocardiography, we used a wearable device to record a one-lead electrocardiogram for 5 min at baseline for 5 min during light physical exercise (Task) and for 5 min during recovery. From the recording, we extracted HR and HRV indices. Among subjects with AN, the HR increased at task and decreased at recovery, whereas among controls it did not change between the test phases. HRV features showed a different trend between the two groups, with an increased low-to-high frequency ratio (LF/HF) in the AN group due to increased LF and decreased HF, differently from controls that, otherwise, slightly increased their standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD). The response in the AN group during the task as compared to that of healthy adolescents suggests a possible sympathetic activation or parasympathetic withdrawal, differently from controls. This result could be related to the low energy availability associated to the excessive loss of fat and lean mass in subjects with AN, that could drive to autonomic imbalance even during light physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and Devices for Healthcare Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
An Investigation on a Quantitative Tomographic SHM Technique for a Containment Liner Plate in a Nuclear Power Plant with Guided Wave Mode Selection
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2819; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122819 - 24 Jun 2019
Viewed by 969
Abstract
The containment liner plate (CLP) in a nuclear power plant is the most critical part of the structure of a power plant, as it prevents the radioactive contamination of the surrounding area. This paper presents feasibility of structural health monitoring (SHM) and an [...] Read more.
The containment liner plate (CLP) in a nuclear power plant is the most critical part of the structure of a power plant, as it prevents the radioactive contamination of the surrounding area. This paper presents feasibility of structural health monitoring (SHM) and an elastic wave tomography method based on ultrasonic guided waves (GW), for evaluating the integrity of CLP. It aims to check the integrity for a dynamic response to a damaged isotropic structure. The proposed SHM technique relies on sensors and, therefore, it can be placed on the structure permanently and can monitor either passively or actively. For applying this method, a suitable guided wave mode tuning is required to verify wave propagation. A finite element analysis (FEA) is performed to figure out the suitable GW mode for a CLP by considering geometric and material condition. Furthermore, elastic wave tomography technique is modified to evaluate the CLP condition and its visualization. A modified reconstruction algorithm for the probabilistic inspection of damage tomography algorithm is used to quantify corrosion defects in the CLP. The location and shape of the wall-thinning defects are successfully obtained by using elastic GW based SHM. Making full use of verified GW mode to Omni-directional transducer, it can be expected to improve utilization of the SHM based evaluation technique for CLP. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Exact Closed-Form Multitarget Bayes Filters
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2818; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122818 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 817
Abstract
The finite-set statistics (FISST) foundational approach to multitarget tracking and information fusion has inspired work by dozens of research groups in at least 20 nations; and FISST publications have been cited tens of thousands of times. This review paper addresses a recent and [...] Read more.
The finite-set statistics (FISST) foundational approach to multitarget tracking and information fusion has inspired work by dozens of research groups in at least 20 nations; and FISST publications have been cited tens of thousands of times. This review paper addresses a recent and cutting-edge aspect of this research: exact closed-form—and, therefore, provably Bayes-optimal—approximations of the multitarget Bayes filter. The five proposed such filters—generalized labeled multi-Bernoulli (GLMB), labeled multi-Bernoulli mixture (LMBM), and three Poisson multi-Bernoulli mixture (PMBM) filter variants—are assessed in depth. This assessment includes a theoretically rigorous, but intuitive, statistical theory of “undetected targets”, and concrete formulas for the posterior undetected-target densities for the “standard” multitarget measurement model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
A Secure and Efficient Digital-Data-Sharing System for Cloud Environments
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2817; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122817 - 24 Jun 2019
Viewed by 819
Abstract
“Education Cloud” is a cloud-computing application used in educational contexts to facilitate the use of comprehensive digital technologies and establish data-based learning environments. The immense amount of digital resources, data, and teaching materials involved in these environments must be stored in robust data-access [...] Read more.
“Education Cloud” is a cloud-computing application used in educational contexts to facilitate the use of comprehensive digital technologies and establish data-based learning environments. The immense amount of digital resources, data, and teaching materials involved in these environments must be stored in robust data-access systems. These systems must be equipped with effective security mechanisms to guarantee confidentiality and ensure the integrity of the cloud-computing environment. To minimize the potential risk of privacy exposure, digital sharing service providers must encrypt their digital resources, data, and teaching materials, and digital-resource owners must have complete control over what data or materials they share. In addition, the data in these systems must be accessible to e-learners. In other words, data-access systems should not only encrypt data, but also provide access control mechanisms by which users may access the data. In cloud environments, digital sharing systems no longer target single users, and the access control by numerous users may overload a system and increase management burden and complexity. This study addressed these challenges to create a system that preserves the benefits of combining digital sharing systems and cloud computing. A cloud-based and learner-centered access control mechanism suitable for multi-user digital sharing was developed. The proposed mechanism resolves the problems concerning multi-user access requests in cloud environments and dynamic updating in digital-sharing systems, thereby reducing the complexity of security management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from TIKI IEEE ICASI 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
An Approach to Measure Tilt Motion, Straightness and Position of Precision Linear Stage with a 3D Sinusoidal-Groove Linear Reflective Grating and Triangular Wave-Based Subdivision Method
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2816; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122816 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
This work presents a novel and compact method for simultaneously measuring errors in linear displacement and vertical straightness of a moving linear air-bearing stage using 3D sinusoidal-groove linear reflective grating and a novel triangular wave-based sequence signal analysis method. The new scheme is [...] Read more.
This work presents a novel and compact method for simultaneously measuring errors in linear displacement and vertical straightness of a moving linear air-bearing stage using 3D sinusoidal-groove linear reflective grating and a novel triangular wave-based sequence signal analysis method. The new scheme is distinct from the previous studies as it considers two signals to analyze linear displacement and vertical straightness. In addition, the tilt motion of the precision linear stage could also be measured using the 3D sinusoidal-groove linear reflective grating. The proposed system is similar to a linear encoder and can make online measurements of stage errors to analyze automatic processes and also be used for real-time monitoring. The performance of the proposed method and its reliability have been verified by experiments. The experiments show that the maximum error of measured tilt angle, linear displacement, and vertical straightness error is less than 0.058°, 0.239 μm, and 0.188 μm, respectively. The maximum repeatability error on measurement of tilt angle, linear displacement, and vertical straightness error is less than ±0.189o, ±0.093 μm, and ±0.016 μm, respectively. The proposed system is suitable for error compensation in the multi-axis system and finds application in most industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICKII 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Photoacoustic/Ultrasound/Optical Coherence Tomography Evaluation of Melanoma Lesion and Healthy Skin in a Swine Model
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2815; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122815 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
The marked increase in the incidence of melanoma coupled with the rapid drop in the survival rate after metastasis has promoted the investigation into improved diagnostic methods for melanoma. High-frequency ultrasound (US), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) are three potential [...] Read more.
The marked increase in the incidence of melanoma coupled with the rapid drop in the survival rate after metastasis has promoted the investigation into improved diagnostic methods for melanoma. High-frequency ultrasound (US), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) are three potential modalities that can assist a dermatologist by providing extra information beyond dermoscopic features. In this study, we imaged a swine model with spontaneous melanoma using these modalities and compared the images with images of nearby healthy skin. Histology images were used for validation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Approach to Fall Detection Based on Improved Dual Parallel Channels Convolutional Neural Network
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2814; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122814 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 829
Abstract
Falls are the major cause of fatal and non-fatal injury among people aged more than 65 years. Due to the grave consequences of the occurrence of falls, it is necessary to conduct thorough research on falls. This paper presents a method for the [...] Read more.
Falls are the major cause of fatal and non-fatal injury among people aged more than 65 years. Due to the grave consequences of the occurrence of falls, it is necessary to conduct thorough research on falls. This paper presents a method for the study of fall detection using surface electromyography (sEMG) based on an improved dual parallel channels convolutional neural network (IDPC-CNN). The proposed IDPC-CNN model is designed to identify falls from daily activities using the spectral features of sEMG. Firstly, the classification accuracy of time domain features and spectrograms are compared using linear discriminant analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and support vector machine (SVM). Results show that spectrograms provide a richer way to extract pattern information and better classification performance. Therefore, the spectrogram features of sEMG are selected as the input of IDPC-CNN to distinguish between daily activities and falls. Finally, The IDPC-CNN is compared with SVM and three different structure CNNs under the same conditions. Experimental results show that the proposed IDPC-CNN achieves 92.55% accuracy, 95.71% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity. Overall, The IDPC-CNN is more effective than the comparison in accuracy, efficiency, training and generalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Traffic Estimation for Large Urban Road Network with High Missing Data Ratio
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2813; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122813 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Intelligent transportation systems require the knowledge of current and forecasted traffic states for effective control of road networks. The actual traffic state has to be estimated as the existing sensors does not capture the needed state. Sensor measurements often contain missing or incomplete [...] Read more.
Intelligent transportation systems require the knowledge of current and forecasted traffic states for effective control of road networks. The actual traffic state has to be estimated as the existing sensors does not capture the needed state. Sensor measurements often contain missing or incomplete data as a result of communication issues, faulty sensors or cost leading to incomplete monitoring of the entire road network. This missing data poses challenges to traffic estimation approaches. In this work, a robust spatio-temporal traffic imputation approach capable of withstanding high missing data rate is presented. A particle based approach with Kriging interpolation is proposed. The performance of the particle based Kriging interpolation for different missing data ratios was investigated for a large road network comprising 1000 segments. Results indicate that the effect of missing data in a large road network can be mitigated by the Kriging interpolation within the particle filter framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Intelligent Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding Collective Human Mobility Spatiotemporal Patterns on Weekdays from Taxi Origin-Destination Point Data
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2812; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122812 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
With the availability of large geospatial datasets, the study of collective human mobility spatiotemporal patterns provides a new way to explore urban spatial environments from the perspective of residents. In this paper, we constructed a classification model for mobility patterns that is suitable [...] Read more.
With the availability of large geospatial datasets, the study of collective human mobility spatiotemporal patterns provides a new way to explore urban spatial environments from the perspective of residents. In this paper, we constructed a classification model for mobility patterns that is suitable for taxi OD (Origin-Destination) point data, and it is comprised of three parts. First, a new aggregate unit, which uses a road intersection as the constraint condition, is designed for the analysis of the taxi OD point data. Second, the time series similarity measurement is improved by adding a normalization procedure and time windows to address the particular characteristics of the taxi time series data. Finally, the DBSCAN algorithm is used to classify the time series into different mobility patterns based on a proximity index that is calculated using the improved similarity measurement. In addition, we used the random forest algorithm to establish a correlation model between the mobility patterns and the regional functional characteristics. Based on the taxi OD point data from Nanjing, we delimited seven mobility patterns and illustrated that the regional functions have obvious driving effects on these mobility patterns. These findings are applicable to urban planning, traffic management and planning, and land use analyses in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile Sensing: Platforms, Technologies and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
A Low-Cost, Wireless, 3-D-Printed Custom Armband for sEMG Hand Gesture Recognition
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2811; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122811 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1904
Abstract
Wearable technology can be employed to elevate the abilities of humans to perform demanding and complex tasks more efficiently. Armbands capable of surface electromyography (sEMG) are attractive and noninvasive devices from which human intent can be derived by leveraging machine learning. However, the [...] Read more.
Wearable technology can be employed to elevate the abilities of humans to perform demanding and complex tasks more efficiently. Armbands capable of surface electromyography (sEMG) are attractive and noninvasive devices from which human intent can be derived by leveraging machine learning. However, the sEMG acquisition systems currently available tend to be prohibitively costly for personal use or sacrifice wearability or signal quality to be more affordable. This work introduces the 3DC Armband designed by the Biomedical Microsystems Laboratory in Laval University; a wireless, 10-channel, 1000 sps, dry-electrode, low-cost (∼150 USD) myoelectric armband that also includes a 9-axis inertial measurement unit. The proposed system is compared with the Myo Armband by Thalmic Labs, one of the most popular sEMG acquisition systems. The comparison is made by employing a new offline dataset featuring 22 able-bodied participants performing eleven hand/wrist gestures while wearing the two armbands simultaneously. The 3DC Armband systematically and significantly ( p < 0.05 ) outperforms the Myo Armband, with three different classifiers employing three different input modalities when using ten seconds or more of training data per gesture. This new dataset, alongside the source code, Altium project and 3-D models are made readily available for download within a Github repository. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue EMG Sensors and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
An Implantable Inductive Near-Field Communication System with 64 Channels for Acquisition of Gastrointestinal Bioelectrical Activity
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2810; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122810 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1614
Abstract
High-resolution (HR) mapping of the gastrointestinal (GI) bioelectrical activity is an emerging method to define the GI dysrhythmias such as gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia. Currently, there is no solution available to conduct HR mapping in long-term studies. We have developed an implantable 64-channel [...] Read more.
High-resolution (HR) mapping of the gastrointestinal (GI) bioelectrical activity is an emerging method to define the GI dysrhythmias such as gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia. Currently, there is no solution available to conduct HR mapping in long-term studies. We have developed an implantable 64-channel closed-loop near-field communication system for real-time monitoring of gastric electrical activity. The system is composed of an implantable unit (IU), a wearable unit (WU), and a stationary unit (SU) connected to a computer. Simultaneous data telemetry and power transfer between the IU and WU is carried out through a radio-frequency identification (RFID) link operating at 13.56 MHz. Data at the IU are encoded according to a self-clocking differential pulse position algorithm, and load shift keying modulated with only 6.25% duty cycle to be back scattered to the WU over the inductive path. The retrieved data at the WU are then either transmitted to the SU for real-time monitoring through an ISM-band RF transceiver or stored locally on a micro SD memory card. The measurement results demonstrated successful data communication at the rate of 125 kb/s when the distance between the IU and WU is less than 5 cm. The signals recorded in vitro at IU and received by SU were verified by a graphical user interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Near-Field Communication (NFC) Sensors)
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Open AccessReview
A Literature Review: Geometric Methods and Their Applications in Human-Related Analysis
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2809; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122809 - 23 Jun 2019
Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Geometric features, such as the topological and manifold properties, are utilized to extract geometric properties. Geometric methods that exploit the applications of geometrics, e.g., geometric features, are widely used in computer graphics and computer vision problems. This review presents a literature review on [...] Read more.
Geometric features, such as the topological and manifold properties, are utilized to extract geometric properties. Geometric methods that exploit the applications of geometrics, e.g., geometric features, are widely used in computer graphics and computer vision problems. This review presents a literature review on geometric concepts, geometric methods, and their applications in human-related analysis, e.g., human shape analysis, human pose analysis, and human action analysis. This review proposes to categorize geometric methods based on the scope of the geometric properties that are extracted: object-oriented geometric methods, feature-oriented geometric methods, and routine-based geometric methods. Considering the broad applications of deep learning methods, this review also studies geometric deep learning, which has recently become a popular topic of research. Validation datasets are collected, and method performances are collected and compared. Finally, research trends and possible research topics are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Intelligent Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of Electroencephalographic Recordings Obtained with a Consumer-Grade, Single Dry Electrode, Low-Cost Device: A Comparative Study
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2808; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122808 - 23 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1435
Abstract
The functional validity of the signal obtained with low-cost electroencephalography (EEG) devices is still under debate. Here, we have conducted an in-depth comparison of the EEG-recordings obtained with a medical-grade golden-cup electrodes ambulatory device, the SOMNOwatch + EEG-6, vs those obtained with a [...] Read more.
The functional validity of the signal obtained with low-cost electroencephalography (EEG) devices is still under debate. Here, we have conducted an in-depth comparison of the EEG-recordings obtained with a medical-grade golden-cup electrodes ambulatory device, the SOMNOwatch + EEG-6, vs those obtained with a consumer-grade, single dry electrode low-cost device, the NeuroSky MindWave, one of the most affordable devices currently available. We recorded EEG signals at Fp1 using the two different devices simultaneously on 21 participants who underwent two experimental phases: a 12-minute resting state task (alternating two cycles of closed/open eyes periods), followed by 60-minute virtual-driving task. We evaluated the EEG recording quality by comparing the similarity between the temporal data series, their spectra, their signal-to-noise ratio, the reliability of EEG measurements (comparing the closed eyes periods), as well as their blink detection rate. We found substantial agreement between signals: whereas, qualitatively, the NeuroSky MindWave presented higher levels of noise and a biphasic shape of blinks, the similarity metric indicated that signals from both recording devices were significantly correlated. While the NeuroSky MindWave was less reliable, both devices had a similar blink detection rate. Overall, the NeuroSky MindWave is noise-limited, but provides stable recordings even through long periods of time. Furthermore, its data would be of adequate quality compared to that of conventional wet electrode EEG devices, except for a potential calibration error and spectral differences at low frequencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Wearable and Unobtrusive Biomedical Monitoring)
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