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Open AccessReview

Domain 4 (D4) of Perfringolysin O to Visualize Cholesterol in Cellular Membranes—The Update

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, Ehime 791-0295, Japan
2
Division of Cell Growth and Tumor Regulation, Proteo-Science Center, Ehime University; Toon, Ehime 791-0295, Japan
Academic Editor: Yong Liu
Sensors 2017, 17(3), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17030504
Received: 21 January 2017 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Whole Cell-Based Biosensors and Application)
The cellular membrane of eukaryotes consists of phospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol and membrane proteins. Among them, cholesterol is crucial for various cellular events (e.g., signaling, viral/bacterial infection, and membrane trafficking) in addition to its essential role as an ingredient of steroid hormones, vitamin D, and bile acids. From a micro-perspective, at the plasma membrane, recent emerging evidence strongly suggests the existence of lipid nanodomains formed with cholesterol and phospholipids (e.g., sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine). Thus, it is important to elucidate how cholesterol behaves in membranes and how the behavior of cholesterol is regulated at the molecular level. To elucidate the complexed characteristics of cholesterol in cellular membranes, a couple of useful biosensors that enable us to visualize cholesterol in cellular membranes have been recently developed by utilizing domain 4 (D4) of Perfringolysin O (PFO, theta toxin), a cholesterol-binding toxin. This review highlights the current progress on development of novel cholesterol biosensors that uncover new insights of cholesterol in cellular membranes. View Full-Text
Keywords: cholesterol probes; visualization; domain 4; D4; Perfringolysin O; theta toxin; microscopy cholesterol probes; visualization; domain 4; D4; Perfringolysin O; theta toxin; microscopy
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Maekawa, M. Domain 4 (D4) of Perfringolysin O to Visualize Cholesterol in Cellular Membranes—The Update. Sensors 2017, 17, 504.

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