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Sensors, Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2016)

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Open AccessArticle Reduced Graphene Oxide/Au Nanocomposite for NO2 Sensing at Low Operating Temperature
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071152
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 20 July 2016 / Accepted: 21 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (5084 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A reduced grapheme oxide (rGO)/Au hybrid nanocomposite has been synthesized by hydrothermal treatment using graphite and HAuCl4 as the precursors. Characterization, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, X-ray photoelecton spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), indicates the formation of rGO/Au. A
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A reduced grapheme oxide (rGO)/Au hybrid nanocomposite has been synthesized by hydrothermal treatment using graphite and HAuCl4 as the precursors. Characterization, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, X-ray photoelecton spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), indicates the formation of rGO/Au. A gas sensor fabricated with rGO/Au nanocomposite was applied for NO2 detection at 50 °C. Compared with pure rGO, rGO/Au nanocomposite exhibits higher sensitivity, a more rapid response–recovery process and excellent reproducibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Nanosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling and Assessment of GPS/BDS Combined Precise Point Positioning
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071151
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 12 July 2016 / Accepted: 15 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3341 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique enables stand-alone receivers to obtain cm-level positioning accuracy. Observations from multi-GNSS systems can augment users with improved positioning accuracy, reliability and availability. In this paper, we present and evaluate the GPS/BDS combined PPP models, including the traditional model
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Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique enables stand-alone receivers to obtain cm-level positioning accuracy. Observations from multi-GNSS systems can augment users with improved positioning accuracy, reliability and availability. In this paper, we present and evaluate the GPS/BDS combined PPP models, including the traditional model and a simplified model, where the inter-system bias (ISB) is treated in different way. To evaluate the performance of combined GPS/BDS PPP, kinematic and static PPP positions are compared to the IGS daily estimates, where 1 month GPS/BDS data of 11 IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations are used. The results indicate apparent improvement of GPS/BDS combined PPP solutions in both static and kinematic cases, where much smaller standard deviations are presented in the magnitude distribution of coordinates RMS statistics. Comparisons between the traditional and simplified combined PPP models show no difference in coordinate estimations, and the inter system biases between the GPS/BDS system are assimilated into receiver clock, ambiguities and pseudo-range residuals accordingly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A High-Gain Passive UHF-RFID Tag with Increased Read Range
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071150
Received: 14 June 2016 / Revised: 19 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, a passive ultra-high frequency radio-frequency identification UHF-RFID tag based on a 1.25 wavelengths thin dipole antenna is presented for the first time. The length of the antenna is properly chosen in order to maximize the tag read range, while maintaining
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In this work, a passive ultra-high frequency radio-frequency identification UHF-RFID tag based on a 1.25 wavelengths thin dipole antenna is presented for the first time. The length of the antenna is properly chosen in order to maximize the tag read range, while maintaining a reasonable tag size and radiation pattern. The antenna is matched to the RFID chip by means of a very simple matching network based on a shunt inductance. A tag prototype, based on the Alien Higgs-3 chip, is designed and fabricated. The overall dimensions are 400 mm × 14.6 mm, but the tag width for most of its length is delimited by the wire diameter (0.8 mm). The measured read range exhibits a maximum value of 17.5 m at the 902–928 MHz frequency band. This represents an important improvement over state-of-the-art passive UHF-RFID tags. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Piezoresistive Membrane Surface Stress Sensors for Characterization of Breath Samples of Head and Neck Cancer Patients
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071149
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 9 July 2016 / Accepted: 14 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (7734 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For many diseases, where a particular organ is affected, chemical by-products can be found in the patient’s exhaled breath. Breath analysis is often done using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, but interpretation of results is difficult and time-consuming. We performed characterization of patients’
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For many diseases, where a particular organ is affected, chemical by-products can be found in the patient’s exhaled breath. Breath analysis is often done using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, but interpretation of results is difficult and time-consuming. We performed characterization of patients’ exhaled breath samples by an electronic nose technique based on an array of nanomechanical membrane sensors. Each membrane is coated with a different thin polymer layer. By pumping the exhaled breath into a measurement chamber, volatile organic compounds present in patients’ breath diffuse into the polymer layers and deform the membranes by changes in surface stress. The bending of the membranes is measured piezoresistively and the signals are converted into voltages. The sensor deflection pattern allows one to characterize the condition of the patient. In a clinical pilot study, we investigated breath samples from head and neck cancer patients and healthy control persons. Evaluation using principal component analysis (PCA) allowed a clear distinction between the two groups. As head and neck cancer can be completely removed by surgery, the breath of cured patients was investigated after surgery again and the results were similar to those of the healthy control group, indicating that surgery was successful. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Improved Otsu Threshold Segmentation Method for Underwater Simultaneous Localization and Mapping-Based Navigation
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1148; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071148
Received: 25 April 2016 / Revised: 7 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (4456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main focus of this paper is on extracting features with SOund Navigation And Ranging (SONAR) sensing for further underwater landmark-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). According to the characteristics of sonar images, in this paper, an improved Otsu threshold segmentation method (TSM)
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The main focus of this paper is on extracting features with SOund Navigation And Ranging (SONAR) sensing for further underwater landmark-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). According to the characteristics of sonar images, in this paper, an improved Otsu threshold segmentation method (TSM) has been developed for feature detection. In combination with a contour detection algorithm, the foreground objects, although presenting different feature shapes, are separated much faster and more precisely than by other segmentation methods. Tests have been made with side-scan sonar (SSS) and forward-looking sonar (FLS) images in comparison with other four TSMs, namely the traditional Otsu method, the local TSM, the iterative TSM and the maximum entropy TSM. For all the sonar images presented in this work, the computational time of the improved Otsu TSM is much lower than that of the maximum entropy TSM, which achieves the highest segmentation precision among the four above mentioned TSMs. As a result of the segmentations, the centroids of the main extracted regions have been computed to represent point landmarks which can be used for navigation, e.g., with the help of an Augmented Extended Kalman Filter (AEKF)-based SLAM algorithm. The AEKF-SLAM approach is a recursive and iterative estimation-update process, which besides a prediction and an update stage (as in classical Extended Kalman Filter (EKF)), includes an augmentation stage. During navigation, the robot localizes the centroids of different segments of features in sonar images, which are detected by our improved Otsu TSM, as point landmarks. Using them with the AEKF achieves more accurate and robust estimations of the robot pose and the landmark positions, than with those detected by the maximum entropy TSM. Together with the landmarks identified by the proposed segmentation algorithm, the AEKF-SLAM has achieved reliable detection of cycles in the map and consistent map update on loop closure, which is shown in simulated experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vision-Based Sensors in Field Robotics)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Field Experimentation of a Cooperative ITS Architecture Based on Distributed RSUs
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1147; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071147
Received: 29 April 2016 / Revised: 18 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
This paper describes a new cooperative Intelligent Transportation System architecture that aims to enable collaborative sensing services. The main goal of this architecture is to improve transportation efficiency and performance. The system, which has been proven within the participation in the ICSI (Intelligent
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This paper describes a new cooperative Intelligent Transportation System architecture that aims to enable collaborative sensing services. The main goal of this architecture is to improve transportation efficiency and performance. The system, which has been proven within the participation in the ICSI (Intelligent Cooperative Sensing for Improved traffic efficiency) European project, encompasses the entire process of capture and management of available road data. For this purpose, it applies a combination of cooperative services and methods for data sensing, acquisition, processing and communication amongst road users, vehicles, infrastructures and related stakeholders. Additionally, the advantages of using the proposed system are exposed. The most important of these advantages is the use of a distributed architecture, moving the system intelligence from the control centre to the peripheral devices. The global architecture of the system is presented, as well as the software design and the interaction between its main components. Finally, functional and operational results observed through the experimentation are described. This experimentation has been carried out in two real scenarios, in Lisbon (Portugal) and Pisa (Italy). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from UCAmI, IWAAL and AmIHEALTH 2015)
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Open AccessArticle Vibration Sensitivity Reduction of Micromachined Tuning Fork Gyroscopes through Stiffness Match Method with Negative Electrostatic Spring Effect
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071146
Received: 15 June 2016 / Revised: 19 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a stiffness match method is proposed to reduce the vibration sensitivity of micromachined tuning fork gyroscopes. Taking advantage of the coordinate transformation method, a theoretical model is established to analyze the anti-phase vibration output caused by the stiffness mismatch due
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In this paper, a stiffness match method is proposed to reduce the vibration sensitivity of micromachined tuning fork gyroscopes. Taking advantage of the coordinate transformation method, a theoretical model is established to analyze the anti-phase vibration output caused by the stiffness mismatch due to the fabrication imperfections. The analytical solutions demonstrate that the stiffness mismatch is proportional to the output induced by the external linear vibration from the sense direction in the anti-phase mode frequency. In order to verify the proposed stiffness match method, a tuning fork gyroscope (TFG) with the stiffness match electrodes is designed and implemented using the micromachining technology and the experimental study is carried out. The experimental tests illustrate that the vibration output can be reduced by 73.8% through the stiffness match method than the structure without the stiffness match. Therefore, the proposed stiffness match method is experimentally validated to be applicable to vibration sensitivity reduction in the Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) tuning fork gyroscopes without sacrificing the scale factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Design of a Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Method Used for an Automatic Bearing Tracking System
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071145
Received: 1 June 2016 / Revised: 17 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (13354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we introduce a sub-band direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation method suitable for employment within an automatic bearing tracking system. Inspired by the magnitude-squared coherence (MSC), we extend the MSC to the sub-band and propose the sub-band magnitude-squared coherence (SMSC) to measure the
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In this paper, we introduce a sub-band direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation method suitable for employment within an automatic bearing tracking system. Inspired by the magnitude-squared coherence (MSC), we extend the MSC to the sub-band and propose the sub-band magnitude-squared coherence (SMSC) to measure the coherence between the frequency sub-bands of wideband signals. Then, we design a sub-band DOA estimation method which chooses a sub-band from the wideband signals by SMSC for the bearing tracking system. The simulations demonstrate that the sub-band method has a good tradeoff between the wideband methods and narrowband methods in terms of the estimation accuracy, spatial resolution, and computational cost. The proposed method was also tested in the field environment with the bearing tracking system, which also showed a good performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessReview Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071144
Received: 8 June 2016 / Revised: 15 July 2016 / Accepted: 18 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (1763 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
During recent decades, minimally invasive thermal treatments (i.e., Radiofrequency ablation, Laser ablation, Microwave ablation, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation, and Cryo-ablation) have gained widespread recognition in the field of tumor removal. These techniques induce a localized temperature increase or decrease to remove the
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During recent decades, minimally invasive thermal treatments (i.e., Radiofrequency ablation, Laser ablation, Microwave ablation, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation, and Cryo-ablation) have gained widespread recognition in the field of tumor removal. These techniques induce a localized temperature increase or decrease to remove the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue remains intact. An accurate measurement of tissue temperature may be particularly beneficial to improve treatment outcomes, because it can be used as a clear end-point to achieve complete tumor ablation and minimize recurrence. Among the several thermometric techniques used in this field, fiber optic sensors (FOSs) have several attractive features: high flexibility and small size of both sensor and cabling, allowing insertion of FOSs within deep-seated tissue; metrological characteristics, such as accuracy (better than 1 °C), sensitivity (e.g., 10 pm·°C−1 for Fiber Bragg Gratings), and frequency response (hundreds of kHz), are adequate for this application; immunity to electromagnetic interference allows the use of FOSs during Magnetic Resonance- or Computed Tomography-guided thermal procedures. In this review the current status of the most used FOSs for temperature monitoring during thermal procedure (e.g., fiber Bragg Grating sensors; fluoroptic sensors) is presented, with emphasis placed on their working principles and metrological characteristics. The essential physics of the common ablation techniques are included to explain the advantages of using FOSs during these procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Fiber Sensors 2016)
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Open AccessLetter Localisation of Sensor Nodes with Hybrid Measurements in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071143
Received: 25 April 2016 / Revised: 29 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Localisation in wireless networks faces challenges such as high levels of signal attenuation and unknown path-loss exponents, especially in urban environments. In response to these challenges, this paper proposes solutions to localisation problems in noisy environments. A new observation model for localisation of
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Localisation in wireless networks faces challenges such as high levels of signal attenuation and unknown path-loss exponents, especially in urban environments. In response to these challenges, this paper proposes solutions to localisation problems in noisy environments. A new observation model for localisation of static nodes is developed based on hybrid measurements, namely angle of arrival and received signal strength data. An approach for localisation of sensor nodes is proposed as a weighted linear least squares algorithm. The unknown path-loss exponent associated with the received signal strength is estimated jointly with the coordinates of the sensor nodes via the generalised pattern search method. The algorithm’s performance validation is conducted both theoretically and by simulation. A theoretical mean square error expression is derived, followed by the derivation of the linear Cramer-Rao bound which serves as a benchmark for the proposed location estimators. Accurate results are demonstrated with 25%–30% improvement in estimation accuracy with a weighted linear least squares algorithm as compared to linear least squares solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scalable Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Passive Resistor Temperature Compensation for a High-Temperature Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1142; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071142
Received: 17 June 2016 / Revised: 10 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3922 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main limitation of high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensors is the variation of output voltage with operating temperature, which seriously reduces their measurement accuracy. This paper presents a passive resistor temperature compensation technique whose parameters are calculated using differential equations. Unlike traditional experiential arithmetic,
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The main limitation of high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensors is the variation of output voltage with operating temperature, which seriously reduces their measurement accuracy. This paper presents a passive resistor temperature compensation technique whose parameters are calculated using differential equations. Unlike traditional experiential arithmetic, the differential equations are independent of the parameter deviation among the piezoresistors of the microelectromechanical pressure sensor and the residual stress caused by the fabrication process or a mismatch in the thermal expansion coefficients. The differential equations are solved using calibration data from uncompensated high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensors. Tests conducted on the calibrated equipment at various temperatures and pressures show that the passive resistor temperature compensation produces a remarkable effect. Additionally, a high-temperature signal-conditioning circuit is used to improve the output sensitivity of the sensor, which can be reduced by the temperature compensation. Compared to traditional experiential arithmetic, the proposed passive resistor temperature compensation technique exhibits less temperature drift and is expected to be highly applicable for pressure measurements in harsh environments with large temperature variations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Developing Ubiquitous Sensor Network Platform Using Internet of Things: Application in Precision Agriculture
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1141; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071141
Received: 29 April 2016 / Revised: 17 July 2016 / Accepted: 18 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (8791 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The application of Information Technologies into Precision Agriculture methods has clear benefits. Precision Agriculture optimises production efficiency, increases quality, minimises environmental impact and reduces the use of resources (energy, water); however, there are different barriers that have delayed its wide development. Some of
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The application of Information Technologies into Precision Agriculture methods has clear benefits. Precision Agriculture optimises production efficiency, increases quality, minimises environmental impact and reduces the use of resources (energy, water); however, there are different barriers that have delayed its wide development. Some of these main barriers are expensive equipment, the difficulty to operate and maintain and the standard for sensor networks are still under development. Nowadays, new technological development in embedded devices (hardware and communication protocols), the evolution of Internet technologies (Internet of Things) and ubiquitous computing (Ubiquitous Sensor Networks) allow developing less expensive systems, easier to control, install and maintain, using standard protocols with low-power consumption. This work develops and test a low-cost sensor/actuator network platform, based in Internet of Things, integrating machine-to-machine and human-machine-interface protocols. Edge computing uses this multi-protocol approach to develop control processes on Precision Agriculture scenarios. A greenhouse with hydroponic crop production was developed and tested using Ubiquitous Sensor Network monitoring and edge control on Internet of Things paradigm. The experimental results showed that the Internet technologies and Smart Object Communication Patterns can be combined to encourage development of Precision Agriculture. They demonstrated added benefits (cost, energy, smart developing, acceptance by agricultural specialists) when a project is launched. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from UCAmI, IWAAL and AmIHEALTH 2015)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Deployment Challenges of Wireless Sensor Networks at Signalized Intersections
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071140
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 4 July 2016 / Accepted: 11 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (29101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the growing demand of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) for safer and more efficient transportation, research on and development of such vehicular communication systems have increased considerably in the last years. The use of wireless networks in vehicular environments has grown exponentially. However,
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With the growing demand of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) for safer and more efficient transportation, research on and development of such vehicular communication systems have increased considerably in the last years. The use of wireless networks in vehicular environments has grown exponentially. However, it is highly important to analyze radio propagation prior to the deployment of a wireless sensor network in such complex scenarios. In this work, the radio wave characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) deployed taking advantage of the existence of traffic light infrastructure has been assessed. By means of an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm, the impact of topology as well as urban morphology of the environment has been analyzed, emulating the realistic operation in the framework of the scenario. The complexity of the scenario, which is an intersection city area with traffic lights, vehicles, people, buildings, vegetation and urban environment, makes necessary the channel characterization with accurate models before the deployment of wireless networks. A measurement campaign has been conducted emulating the interaction of the system, in the vicinity of pedestrians as well as nearby vehicles. A real time interactive application has been developed and tested in order to visualize and monitor traffic as well as pedestrian user location and behavior. Results show that the use of deterministic tools in WSN deployment can aid in providing optimal layouts in terms of coverage, capacity and energy efficiency of the network. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A High Precision Terahertz Wave Image Reconstruction Algorithm
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071139
Received: 9 May 2016 / Revised: 20 June 2016 / Accepted: 29 June 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6516 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the development of terahertz (THz) technology, the applications of this spectrum have become increasingly wide-ranging, in areas such as non-destructive testing, security applications and medical scanning, in which one of the most important methods is imaging. Unlike remote sensing applications, THz imaging
[...] Read more.
With the development of terahertz (THz) technology, the applications of this spectrum have become increasingly wide-ranging, in areas such as non-destructive testing, security applications and medical scanning, in which one of the most important methods is imaging. Unlike remote sensing applications, THz imaging features sources of array elements that are almost always supposed to be spherical wave radiators, including single antennae. As such, well-developed methodologies such as Range-Doppler Algorithm (RDA) are not directly applicable in such near-range situations. The Back Projection Algorithm (BPA) can provide products of high precision at the the cost of a high computational burden, while the Range Migration Algorithm (RMA) sacrifices the quality of images for efficiency. The Phase-shift Migration Algorithm (PMA) is a good alternative, the features of which combine both of the classical algorithms mentioned above. In this research, it is used for mechanical scanning, and is extended to array imaging for the first time. In addition, the performances of PMA are studied in detail in contrast to BPA and RMA. It is demonstrated in our simulations and experiments described herein that the algorithm can reconstruct images with high precision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infrared and THz Sensing and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle On Inertial Body Tracking in the Presence of Model Calibration Errors
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071132
Received: 29 April 2016 / Revised: 6 July 2016 / Accepted: 11 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (3353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In inertial body tracking, the human body is commonly represented as a biomechanical model consisting of rigid segments with known lengths and connecting joints. The model state is then estimated via sensor fusion methods based on data from attached inertial measurement units (IMUs).
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In inertial body tracking, the human body is commonly represented as a biomechanical model consisting of rigid segments with known lengths and connecting joints. The model state is then estimated via sensor fusion methods based on data from attached inertial measurement units (IMUs). This requires the relative poses of the IMUs w.r.t. the segments—the IMU-to-segment calibrations, subsequently called I2S calibrations—to be known. Since calibration methods based on static poses, movements and manual measurements are still the most widely used, potentially large human-induced calibration errors have to be expected. This work compares three newly developed/adapted extended Kalman filter (EKF) and optimization-based sensor fusion methods with an existing EKF-based method w.r.t. their segment orientation estimation accuracy in the presence of model calibration errors with and without using magnetometer information. While the existing EKF-based method uses a segment-centered kinematic chain biomechanical model and a constant angular acceleration motion model, the newly developed/adapted methods are all based on a free segments model, where each segment is represented with six degrees of freedom in the global frame. Moreover, these methods differ in the assumed motion model (constant angular acceleration, constant angular velocity, inertial data as control input), the state representation (segment-centered, IMU-centered) and the estimation method (EKF, sliding window optimization). In addition to the free segments representation, the optimization-based method also represents each IMU with six degrees of freedom in the global frame. In the evaluation on simulated and real data from a three segment model (an arm), the optimization-based method showed the smallest mean errors, standard deviations and maximum errors throughout all tests. It also showed the lowest dependency on magnetometer information and motion agility. Moreover, it was insensitive w.r.t. I2S position and segment length errors in the tested ranges. Errors in the I2S orientations were, however, linearly propagated into the estimated segment orientations. In the absence of magnetic disturbances, severe model calibration errors and fast motion changes, the newly developed IMU centered EKF-based method yielded comparable results with lower computational complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inertial Sensors and Systems 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Incentives for Delay-Constrained Data Query and Feedback in Mobile Opportunistic Crowdsensing
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071138
Received: 19 April 2016 / Revised: 26 June 2016 / Accepted: 12 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (419 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we propose effective data collection schemes that stimulate cooperation between selfish users in mobile opportunistic crowdsensing. A query issuer generates a query and requests replies within a given delay budget. When a data provider receives the query for the first
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In this paper, we propose effective data collection schemes that stimulate cooperation between selfish users in mobile opportunistic crowdsensing. A query issuer generates a query and requests replies within a given delay budget. When a data provider receives the query for the first time from an intermediate user, the former replies to it and authorizes the latter as the owner of the reply. Different data providers can reply to the same query. When a user that owns a reply meets the query issuer that generates the query, it requests the query issuer to pay credits. The query issuer pays credits and provides feedback to the data provider, which gives the reply. When a user that carries a feedback meets the data provider, the data provider pays credits to the user in order to adjust its claimed expertise. Queries, replies and feedbacks can be traded between mobile users. We propose an effective mechanism to define rewards for queries, replies and feedbacks. We formulate the bargain process as a two-person cooperative game, whose solution is found by using the Nash theorem. To improve the credit circulation, we design an online auction process, in which the wealthy user can buy replies and feedbacks from the starving one using credits. We have carried out extensive simulations based on real-world traces to evaluate the proposed schemes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Evaluation of Unicast and Multicast CoAP Group Communication
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071137
Received: 20 March 2016 / Revised: 20 June 2016 / Accepted: 9 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1138 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is expanding rapidly to new domains in which embedded devices play a key role and gradually outnumber traditionally-connected devices. These devices are often constrained in their resources and are thus unable to run standard Internet protocols. The Constrained
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The Internet of Things (IoT) is expanding rapidly to new domains in which embedded devices play a key role and gradually outnumber traditionally-connected devices. These devices are often constrained in their resources and are thus unable to run standard Internet protocols. The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a new alternative standard protocol that implements the same principals as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), but is tailored towards constrained devices. In many IoT application domains, devices need to be addressed in groups in addition to being addressable individually. Two main approaches are currently being proposed in the IoT community for CoAP-based group communication. The main difference between the two approaches lies in the underlying communication type: multicast versus unicast. In this article, we experimentally evaluate those two approaches using two wireless sensor testbeds and under different test conditions. We highlight the pros and cons of each of them and propose combining these approaches in a hybrid solution to better suit certain use case requirements. Additionally, we provide a solution for multicast-based group membership management using CoAP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Internet of Things (IoT) Networks)
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Open AccessArticle A Smart Spoofing Face Detector by Display Features Analysis
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071136
Received: 16 May 2016 / Revised: 7 July 2016 / Accepted: 18 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6715 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a smart face liveness detector is proposed to prevent the biometric system from being “deceived” by the video or picture of a valid user that the counterfeiter took with a high definition handheld device (e.g., iPad with retina display). By
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In this paper, a smart face liveness detector is proposed to prevent the biometric system from being “deceived” by the video or picture of a valid user that the counterfeiter took with a high definition handheld device (e.g., iPad with retina display). By analyzing the characteristics of the display platform and using an expert decision-making core, we can effectively detect whether a spoofing action comes from a fake face displayed in the high definition display by verifying the chromaticity regions in the captured face. That is, a live or spoof face can be distinguished precisely by the designed optical image sensor. To sum up, by the proposed method/system, a normal optical image sensor can be upgraded to a powerful version to detect the spoofing actions. The experimental results prove that the proposed detection system can achieve very high detection rate compared to the existing methods and thus be practical to implement directly in the authentication systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design and Development for Capacitive Humidity Sensor Applications of Lead-Free Ca,Mg,Fe,Ti-Oxides-Based Electro-Ceramics with Improved Sensing Properties via Physisorption
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1135; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071135
Received: 25 February 2016 / Revised: 3 April 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (6002 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Despite the many attractive potential uses of ceramic materials as humidity sensors, some unavoidable drawbacks, including toxicity, poor biocompatibility, long response and recovery times, low sensitivity and high hysteresis have stymied the use of these materials in advanced applications. Therefore, in present investigation,
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Despite the many attractive potential uses of ceramic materials as humidity sensors, some unavoidable drawbacks, including toxicity, poor biocompatibility, long response and recovery times, low sensitivity and high hysteresis have stymied the use of these materials in advanced applications. Therefore, in present investigation, we developed a capacitive humidity sensor using lead-free Ca,Mg,Fe,Ti-Oxide (CMFTO)-based electro-ceramics with perovskite structures synthesized by solid-state step-sintering. This technique helps maintain the submicron size porous morphology of the developed lead-free CMFTO electro-ceramics while providing enhanced water physisorption behaviour. In comparison with conventional capacitive humidity sensors, the presented CMFTO-based humidity sensor shows a high sensitivity of up to 3000% compared to other materials, even at lower signal frequency. The best also shows a rapid response (14.5 s) and recovery (34.27 s), and very low hysteresis (3.2%) in a 33%–95% relative humidity range which are much lower values than those of existing conventional sensors. Therefore, CMFTO nano-electro-ceramics appear to be very promising materials for fabricating high-performance capacitive humidity sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Gender Recognition System Using an Improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) Feature from Quality Assessment of Visible Light and Thermal Images of the Human Body
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071134
Received: 12 May 2016 / Revised: 6 July 2016 / Accepted: 15 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3995 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With higher demand from users, surveillance systems are currently being designed to provide more information about the observed scene, such as the appearance of objects, types of objects, and other information extracted from detected objects. Although the recognition of gender of an observed
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With higher demand from users, surveillance systems are currently being designed to provide more information about the observed scene, such as the appearance of objects, types of objects, and other information extracted from detected objects. Although the recognition of gender of an observed human can be easily performed using human perception, it remains a difficult task when using computer vision system images. In this paper, we propose a new human gender recognition method that can be applied to surveillance systems based on quality assessment of human areas in visible light and thermal camera images. Our research is novel in the following two ways: First, we utilize the combination of visible light and thermal images of the human body for a recognition task based on quality assessment. We propose a quality measurement method to assess the quality of image regions so as to remove the effects of background regions in the recognition system. Second, by combining the features extracted using the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) method and the measured qualities of image regions, we form a new image features, called the weighted HOG (wHOG), which is used for efficient gender recognition. Experimental results show that our method produces more accurate estimation results than the state-of-the-art recognition method that uses human body images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Force-Sensing Silicone Retractor for Attachment to Surgical Suction Pipes
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071133
Received: 2 June 2016 / Revised: 13 July 2016 / Accepted: 15 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9419 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a novel force-sensing silicone retractor that can be attached to a surgical suction pipe to improve the usability of the suction and retraction functions during neurosurgery. The retractor enables simultaneous utilization of three functions: suction, retraction, and retraction-force sensing. The
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This paper presents a novel force-sensing silicone retractor that can be attached to a surgical suction pipe to improve the usability of the suction and retraction functions during neurosurgery. The retractor enables simultaneous utilization of three functions: suction, retraction, and retraction-force sensing. The retractor also reduces the number of tool changes and ensures safe retraction through visualization of the magnitude of the retraction force. The proposed force-sensing system is based on a force visualization mechanism through which the force is displayed in the form of motion of a colored pole. This enables surgeons to estimate the retraction force. When a fiberscope or camera is present, the retractor enables measurement of the retraction force with a resolution of 0.05 N. The retractor has advantages of being disposable, inexpensive, and easy to sterilize or disinfect. Finite element analysis and experiments demonstrate the validity of the proposed force-sensing system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling for IFOG Vibration Error Based on the Strain Distribution of Quadrupolar Fiber Coil
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071131
Received: 24 May 2016 / Revised: 1 July 2016 / Accepted: 1 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
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Abstract
Improving the performance of interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG) in harsh environment, especially in vibrational environment, is necessary for its practical applications. This paper presents a mathematical model for IFOG to theoretically compute the short-term rate errors caused by mechanical vibration. The computational
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Improving the performance of interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG) in harsh environment, especially in vibrational environment, is necessary for its practical applications. This paper presents a mathematical model for IFOG to theoretically compute the short-term rate errors caused by mechanical vibration. The computational procedures are mainly based on the strain distribution of quadrupolar fiber coil measured by stress analyzer. The definition of asymmetry of strain distribution (ASD) is given in the paper to evaluate the winding quality of the coil. The established model reveals that the high ASD and the variable fiber elastic modulus in large strain situation are two dominant reasons that give rise to nonreciprocity phase shift in IFOG under vibration. Furthermore, theoretical analysis and computational results indicate that vibration errors of both open-loop and closed-loop IFOG increase with the raise of vibrational amplitude, vibrational frequency and ASD. Finally, an estimation of vibration-induced IFOG errors in aircraft is done according to the proposed model. Our work is meaningful in designing IFOG coils to achieve a better anti-vibration performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Beamforming Based Full-Duplex for Millimeter-Wave Communication
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071130
Received: 26 April 2016 / Revised: 9 July 2016 / Accepted: 14 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we study beamforming based full-duplex (FD) systems in millimeter-wave (mmWave) communications. A joint transmission and reception (Tx/Rx) beamforming problem is formulated to maximize the achievable rate by mitigating self-interference (SI). Since the optimal solution is difficult to find due to
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In this paper, we study beamforming based full-duplex (FD) systems in millimeter-wave (mmWave) communications. A joint transmission and reception (Tx/Rx) beamforming problem is formulated to maximize the achievable rate by mitigating self-interference (SI). Since the optimal solution is difficult to find due to the non-convexity of the objective function, suboptimal schemes are proposed in this paper. A low-complexity algorithm, which iteratively maximizes signal power while suppressing SI, is proposed and its convergence is proven. Moreover, two closed-form solutions, which do not require iterations, are also derived under minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE), zero-forcing (ZF), and maximum-ratio transmission (MRT) criteria. Performance evaluations show that the proposed iterative scheme converges fast (within only two iterations on average) and approaches an upper-bound performance, while the two closed-form solutions also achieve appealing performances, although there are noticeable differences from the upper bound depending on channel conditions. Interestingly, these three schemes show different robustness against the geometry of Tx/Rx antenna arrays and channel estimation errors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications and Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Efficient Preamble Design Technique for Millimeter-Wave Cellular Systems with Beamforming
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071129
Received: 29 April 2016 / Revised: 13 July 2016 / Accepted: 18 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
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Abstract
The processing time for beam training in millimeter-wave (mmWave) cellular systems can be significantly reduced by a code division multiplexing (CDM)-based technique, where multiple beams are transmitted simultaneously with their corresponding Tx beam IDs (BIDs) in the preamble. However, mmWave cellular systems with
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The processing time for beam training in millimeter-wave (mmWave) cellular systems can be significantly reduced by a code division multiplexing (CDM)-based technique, where multiple beams are transmitted simultaneously with their corresponding Tx beam IDs (BIDs) in the preamble. However, mmWave cellular systems with CDM-based preambles require a large number of cell IDs (CIDs) and BIDs, and a high computational complexity for CID and BID (CBID) searches. In this paper, a new preamble design technique that can increase the number of CBIDs significantly is proposed, using a preamble sequence constructed by a combination of two Zadoff-Chu (ZC) sequences. An efficient technique for the CBID detection is also described for the proposed preamble. It is shown by simulations using a simple model of an mmWave cellular system that the proposed technique can obtain a significant reduction in the complexity of the CBID detection without a noticeable performance degradation, compared to the previous technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications and Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Generalized Theory and Decoupled Evaluation Criteria for Unmatched Despreading of Modernized GNSS Signals
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071128
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 5 June 2016 / Accepted: 12 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to provide better navigation service for a wide range of applications, modernized global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) employs increasingly advanced and complicated techniques in modulation and multiplexing of signals. This trend correspondingly increases the complexity of signal despreading at the receiver
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In order to provide better navigation service for a wide range of applications, modernized global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) employs increasingly advanced and complicated techniques in modulation and multiplexing of signals. This trend correspondingly increases the complexity of signal despreading at the receiver when matched receiving is used. Considering the numerous low-end receiver who can hardly afford such receiving complexity, it is feasible to apply some receiving strategies, which uses simplified forms of local despreading signals, which is termed unmatched despreading. However, the mismatch between local signal and received signal causes performance loss in code tracking, which is necessary to be considered in the theoretical evaluation methods of signals. In this context, we generalize the theoretical signal evaluation model for unmatched receiving. Then, a series of evaluation criteria are proposed, which are decoupled from unrelated influencing factors and concentrates on the key factors related to the signal and its receiving, thus better revealing the inherent performance of signals. The proposed evaluation criteria are used to study two GNSS signals, from which constructive guidance are derived for receivers and signal designer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Spectrum Handoffs Based on Preemptive Repeat Priority Queue in Cognitive Radio Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071127
Received: 29 May 2016 / Revised: 16 July 2016 / Accepted: 18 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
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Abstract
Cognitive radio can significantly improve the spectrum efficiency, and spectrum handoff is considered as an important functionality to guarantee the quality of service (QoS) of primary users (PUs) and the continuity of data transmission of secondary users (SUs). In this paper, we propose
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Cognitive radio can significantly improve the spectrum efficiency, and spectrum handoff is considered as an important functionality to guarantee the quality of service (QoS) of primary users (PUs) and the continuity of data transmission of secondary users (SUs). In this paper, we propose an analytical framework based on a preemptive repeat identical (PRI) M/G/1 queuing network model to characterize spectrum handoff behaviors with general service time distribution of both primary and secondary connections, multiple interruptions and transmission delay resulting from the appearance of primary connections. Then, we derive the close-expression of the extended data delivery and the system sojourn time in both staying and changing scenarios. In addition, based on analysis of spectrum handoff behaviors resulting from multiple interruptions caused by the appearance of the primary connections, we investigate the traffic-adaptive policy, by which the considered SU will optimally adjust its handoff spectrum policy. Moreover, we investigate the admissible region and provide the reference for designing the admission control rule for the arriving secondary connection requests. Finally, simulation results verify that our proposed analytical framework is reasonable and can provide the reference for executing the optimal spectrum handoff strategy and designing the admission control rule for the SU in cognitive radio networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle The Evaluation of Physical Stillness with Wearable Chest and Arm Accelerometer during Chan Ding Practice
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071126
Received: 11 April 2016 / Revised: 18 June 2016 / Accepted: 4 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
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Abstract
Chan Ding training is beneficial to health and emotional wellbeing. More and more people have taken up this practice over the past few years. A major training method of Chan Ding is to focus on the ten Mailuns, i.e., energy points, and to
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Chan Ding training is beneficial to health and emotional wellbeing. More and more people have taken up this practice over the past few years. A major training method of Chan Ding is to focus on the ten Mailuns, i.e., energy points, and to maintain physical stillness. In this article, wireless wearable accelerometers were used to detect physical stillness, and the created physical stillness index (PSI) was also shown. Ninety college students participated in this study. Primarily, accelerometers used on the arms and chest were examined. The results showed that the PSI values on the arms were higher than that of the chest, when participants moved their bodies in three different ways, left-right, anterior-posterior, and hand, movements with natural breathing. Then, they were divided into three groups to practice Chan Ding for approximately thirty minutes. Participants without any Chan Ding experience were in Group I. Participants with one year of Chan Ding experience were in Group II, and participants with over three year of experience were in Group III. The Chinese Happiness Inventory (CHI) was also conducted. Results showed that the PSI of the three groups measured during 20–30 min were 0.123 ± 0.155, 0.012 ± 0.013, and 0.001 ± 0.0003, respectively (p < 0.001 ***). The averaged CHI scores of the three groups were 10.13, 17.17, and 25.53, respectively (p < 0.001 ***). Correlation coefficients between PSI and CHI of the three groups were −0.440, −0.369, and −0.537, respectively (p < 0.01 **). PSI value and the wearable accelerometer that are presently available on the market could be used to evaluate the quality of the physical stillness of the participants during Chan Ding practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Biomedical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Uncertainty Comparison of Visual Sensing in Adverse Weather Conditions
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071125
Received: 28 April 2016 / Revised: 5 July 2016 / Accepted: 15 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
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Abstract
This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules—namely, GrowCut and
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This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules—namely, GrowCut and RegGro. For each growing rule, several tests on adverse weather and lens-stained scenes were performed, taking into account and analyzing different weather conditions with the outdoor visual sensing system. The influence of several weather conditions was analyzed, highlighting their effect on the outdoor visual sensing system with different growing rules. Furthermore, experimental errors and uncertainties obtained with the growing rules were compared. The segmentation accuracy of flood regions yielded by the GrowCut, RegGro, and hybrid methods was 75%, 85%, and 87.7%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging: Sensors and Technologies) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Facile Fabrication of a Gold Nanocluster-Based Membrane for the Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071124
Received: 20 May 2016 / Revised: 13 July 2016 / Accepted: 15 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (9641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, we present a simple and rapid method to synthesize red luminescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with high quantum yield (QY, ~16%), excellent photostability and biocompatibility. Next, we fabricated a solid membrane by loading the as-prepared AuNCs in an agar matrix. Different
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In this work, we present a simple and rapid method to synthesize red luminescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with high quantum yield (QY, ~16%), excellent photostability and biocompatibility. Next, we fabricated a solid membrane by loading the as-prepared AuNCs in an agar matrix. Different from nanomaterials dispersed in solution, the AuNCs-based solid membrane has distinct advantages including convenience of transportation, while still maintaining strong red luminescence, and relatively long duration storage without aggregation. Taking hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a typical example, we then employed the AuNCs as a luminescent probe and investigated their sensing performance, either in solution phase or on a solid substrate. The detection of H2O2 could be achieved in wide concentration ranges over 805 nM–1.61 mM and 161 μM–19.32 mM in solution and on a solid membrane, respectively, with limits of detection (LOD) of 80 nM and 20 μM. Moreover, the AuNCs-based membrane could also be used for visual detection of H2O2 in the range of 0–3.22 mM. In view of the convenient synthesis route and attractive luminescent properties, the AuNCs-based membrane presented in this work is quite promising for applications such as optical sensing, fluorescent imaging, and photovoltaics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Intersection Type Recognition for Autonomous Vehicles Using a Multi-Layer Laser Scanner
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071123
Received: 21 April 2016 / Revised: 14 July 2016 / Accepted: 15 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There are several types of intersections such as merge-roads, diverge-roads, plus-shape intersections and two types of T-shape junctions in urban roads. When an autonomous vehicle encounters new intersections, it is crucial to recognize the types of intersections for safe navigation. In this paper,
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There are several types of intersections such as merge-roads, diverge-roads, plus-shape intersections and two types of T-shape junctions in urban roads. When an autonomous vehicle encounters new intersections, it is crucial to recognize the types of intersections for safe navigation. In this paper, a novel intersection type recognition method is proposed for an autonomous vehicle using a multi-layer laser scanner. The proposed method consists of two steps: (1) static local coordinate occupancy grid map (SLOGM) building and (2) intersection classification. In the first step, the SLOGM is built relative to the local coordinate using the dynamic binary Bayes filter. In the second step, the SLOGM is used as an attribute for the classification. The proposed method is applied to a real-world environment and its validity is demonstrated through experimentation. Full article
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