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Atmospheric Measurements by Ultra-Light SpEctrometer (AMULSE) Dedicated to Vertical Profile in Situ Measurements of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Under Weather Balloons: Instrumental Development and Field Application

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Groupe de Spectrométrie Moléculaire et Atmosphérique GSMA, Université de Reims—Champagne Ardenne, UMR CNRS 7331, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 Cedex 2 Reims, France
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Groupe d’étude de l’Atmosphère Météorologique, Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques, UMR 3589, Météo-France/CNRS, 42 Avenue G. Coriolis, 31057 Cedex 1 Toulouse, France
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Manuel Gasulla and Ferran Reverter
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16101609
Received: 9 May 2016 / Revised: 20 September 2016 / Accepted: 24 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autonomous Sensors)
The concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere plays an important role in the radiative effects in the Earth’s climate system. Therefore, it is crucial to increase the number of atmospheric observations in order to quantify the natural sinks and emission sources. We report in this paper the development of a new compact lightweight spectrometer (1.8 kg) called AMULSE based on near infrared laser technology at 2.04 µm coupled to a 6-m open-path multipass cell. The measurements were made using the Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (WMS) technique and the spectrometer is hence dedicated to in situ measuring the vertical profiles of the CO2 at high precision levels (σAllan = 0.96 ppm in 1 s integration time (1σ)) and with high temporal/spatial resolution (1 Hz/5 m) using meteorological balloons. The instrument is compact, robust, cost-effective, fully autonomous, has low-power consumption, a non-intrusive probe and is plug & play. It was first calibrated and validated in the laboratory and then used for 17 successful flights up to 10 km altitude in the region Champagne—Ardenne, France in 2014. A rate of 100% of instrument recovery was validated due to the pre-localization prediction of the Météo—France based on the flight simulation software. View Full-Text
Keywords: greenhouse gases; atmosphere; lightweight spectrometer; meteorological balloons; flights; vertical profiles; in situ greenhouse gases; atmosphere; lightweight spectrometer; meteorological balloons; flights; vertical profiles; in situ
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Joly, L.; Maamary, R.; Decarpenterie, T.; Cousin, J.; Dumelié, N.; Chauvin, N.; Legain, D.; Tzanos, D.; Durry, G. Atmospheric Measurements by Ultra-Light SpEctrometer (AMULSE) Dedicated to Vertical Profile in Situ Measurements of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Under Weather Balloons: Instrumental Development and Field Application. Sensors 2016, 16, 1609.

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