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Molecules, Volume 26, Issue 16 (August-2 2021) – 405 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): DNA origami nanostructures are frequently employed as substrates for the single-molecule investigation of biomolecular reactions by in situ atomic force microscopy. This requires their immobilization at atomically flat surfaces such as mica, which is typically achieved by addition of millimolar concentrations of Mg2+ ions. These non-physiological Mg2+ concentrations, however, may interfere with the reactions and processes under investigation. Therefore, in this article, different strategies for efficient DNA origami immobilization at mica surfaces under essentially Mg2+-free conditions have been evaluated. Pre-adsorption of polycations such as spermidine has been identified as a particularly promising strategy, the efficiency of which, however, depends on the employed solution conditions and the DNA origami shape. View this paper.
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Article
α,α-Difluorophosphonohydroxamic Acid Derivatives among the Best Antibacterial Fosmidomycin Analogues
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5111; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165111 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 540
Abstract
Three α,α-difluorophosphonate derivatives of fosmidomycin were synthesized from diethyl 1,1-difluorobut-3-enylphosphonate and were evaluated on Escherichia coli. Two of them are among the best 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase inhibitors, with IC50 in the nM range, much better than fosmidomycin, the reference [...] Read more.
Three α,α-difluorophosphonate derivatives of fosmidomycin were synthesized from diethyl 1,1-difluorobut-3-enylphosphonate and were evaluated on Escherichia coli. Two of them are among the best 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase inhibitors, with IC50 in the nM range, much better than fosmidomycin, the reference compound. They also showed an enhanced antimicrobial activity against E. coli on Petri dishes in comparison with the corresponding phosphates and the non-fluorinated phosphonate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Bioorganic Chemistry)
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Review
Membrane Sensor Histidine Kinases: Insights from Structural, Ligand and Inhibitor Studies of Full-Length Proteins and Signalling Domains for Antibiotic Discovery
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5110; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165110 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 373
Abstract
There is an urgent need to find new antibacterial agents to combat bacterial infections, including agents that inhibit novel, hitherto unexploited targets in bacterial cells. Amongst novel targets are two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) which are the main mechanism by which bacteria sense [...] Read more.
There is an urgent need to find new antibacterial agents to combat bacterial infections, including agents that inhibit novel, hitherto unexploited targets in bacterial cells. Amongst novel targets are two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) which are the main mechanism by which bacteria sense and respond to environmental changes. TCSs typically comprise a membrane-embedded sensory protein (the sensor histidine kinase, SHK) and a partner response regulator protein. Amongst promising targets within SHKs are those involved in environmental signal detection (useful for targeting specific SHKs) and the common themes of signal transmission across the membrane and propagation to catalytic domains (for targeting multiple SHKs). However, the nature of environmental signals for the vast majority of SHKs is still lacking, and there is a paucity of structural information based on full-length membrane-bound SHKs with and without ligand. Reasons for this lack of knowledge lie in the technical challenges associated with investigations of these relatively hydrophobic membrane proteins and the inherent flexibility of these multidomain proteins that reduces the chances of successful crystallisation for structural determination by X-ray crystallography. However, in recent years there has been an explosion of information published on (a) methodology for producing active forms of full-length detergent-, liposome- and nanodisc-solubilised membrane SHKs and their use in structural studies and identification of signalling ligands and inhibitors; and (b) mechanisms of signal sensing and transduction across the membrane obtained using sensory and transmembrane domains in isolation, which reveal some commonalities as well as unique features. Here we review the most recent advances in these areas and highlight those of potential use in future strategies for antibiotic discovery. This Review is part of a Special Issue entitled “Interactions of Bacterial Molecules with Their Ligands and Other Chemical Agents” edited by Mary K. Phillips-Jones. Full article
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Article
Crop Yield and Essential Oil Composition of Two Thymus vulgaris Chemotypes along Three Years of Organic Cultivation in a Hilly Area of Central Italy
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5109; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165109 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Thymus vulgaris L. is one of the most commonly used medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs), owing to a range of therapeutic properties of its essential oil. Plant growth, biomass yield, essential oil content and composition are influenced by chemotype, environmental conditions, cultivation techniques [...] Read more.
Thymus vulgaris L. is one of the most commonly used medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs), owing to a range of therapeutic properties of its essential oil. Plant growth, biomass yield, essential oil content and composition are influenced by chemotype, environmental conditions, cultivation techniques and vegetative development. Since in MAPs cultivation special attention is paid on high quality of raw material, the adoption of sustainable agriculture methods is of pivotal importance. Therefore, we evaluated the agronomic and qualitative performances of two Thymus vulgaris L. chemotypes, organically cultivated under the Mediterranean climate of hilly lands of central Italy for three consecutive years (2017–2019). Along the trial, total above-ground dry biomass significantly increased from the 1st to 3rd year after planting and large variations in the main biological, biometric and productive traits were observed between the two chemotypes. The ‘thymol’ chemotype EO obviously showed thymol as the major constituent (51.26–49.87%) followed by γ-terpinene and p-cymene. The ‘linalool’ chemotype EO showed high percentages of oxygenated monoterpenes (about 90%) with linalool (75%), linalyl acetate (8.15%) and b-caryophyllene (3.2%) as main constituents. This study highlighted that T. vulgaris can be successfully organically grown in the hilly lands of Tuscany, with interesting biomass and essential oil yields, even though the plants were in the initial years of crop establishment (start in 2017). The introduction of this species into organic cultivation systems could contribute to obtain high-quality raw material, as well as to enhance crop rotation diversification, which is of pivotal importance in the management of organic farms. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Volatile Aromatic Compounds in Smoke Tainted Cabernet Sauvignon Wines Using a Low-Cost E-Nose and Machine Learning Modelling
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5108; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165108 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Wine aroma is an important quality trait in wine, influenced by its volatile compounds. Many factors can affect the composition and levels (concentration) of volatile aromatic compounds, including the water status of grapevines, canopy management, and the effects of climate change, such as [...] Read more.
Wine aroma is an important quality trait in wine, influenced by its volatile compounds. Many factors can affect the composition and levels (concentration) of volatile aromatic compounds, including the water status of grapevines, canopy management, and the effects of climate change, such as increases in ambient temperature and drought. In this study, a low-cost and portable electronic nose (e-nose) was used to assess wines produced from grapevines exposed to different levels of smoke contamination. Readings from the e-nose were then used as inputs to develop two machine learning models based on artificial neural networks. Results showed that regression Model 1 displayed high accuracy in predicting the levels of volatile aromatic compounds in wine (R = 0.99). On the other hand, Model 2 also had high accuracy in predicting smoke aroma intensity from sensory evaluation (R = 0.97). Descriptive sensory analysis showed high levels of smoke taint aromas in the high-density smoke-exposed wine sample (HS), followed by the high-density smoke exposure with in-canopy misting treatment (HSM). Principal component analysis further showed that the HS treatment was associated with smoke aroma intensity, while results from the matrix showed significant negative correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between ammonia gas (sensor MQ137) and the volatile aromatic compounds octanoic acid, ethyl ester (r = −0.93), decanoic acid, ethyl ester (r = −0.94), and octanoic acid, 3-methylbutyl ester (r = −0.89). The two models developed in this study may offer winemakers a rapid, cost-effective, and non-destructive tool for assessing levels of volatile aromatic compounds and the aroma qualities of wine for decision making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoke Taint in Grapes and Wine)
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Article
Synthesis, In Silico and In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Toxicity Features of New 4-[(4-Chlorophenyl)sulfonyl]benzoic Acid Derivatives
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5107; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165107 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 460
Abstract
The multi-step synthesis, physico-chemical characterization, and biological activity of novel valine-derived compounds, i.e., N-acyl-α-amino acids, 1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-ones, N-acyl-α-amino ketones, and 1,3-oxazoles derivatives, bearing a 4-[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonyl]phenyl moiety are reported here. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral [...] Read more.
The multi-step synthesis, physico-chemical characterization, and biological activity of novel valine-derived compounds, i.e., N-acyl-α-amino acids, 1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-ones, N-acyl-α-amino ketones, and 1,3-oxazoles derivatives, bearing a 4-[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonyl]phenyl moiety are reported here. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral (UV-Vis, FT-IR, MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR) data and elemental analysis results, and their purity was determined by RP-HPLC. The new compounds were assessed for their antimicrobial activity and toxicity to aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna. Also, in silico studies regarding their potential mechanism of action and toxicity were performed. The antimicrobial evaluation revealed that the 2-{4-[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonyl]benzamido}-3-methylbutanoic acid and the corresponding 1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-one exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacterial strains and the new 1,3-oxazole containing a phenyl group at 5-position against the C. albicans strain. Full article
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Article
Theoretical–Computational Study of Atmospheric DBD Plasma and Its Utility for Nanoscale Biocompatible Plasmonic Coating
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5106; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165106 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 377
Abstract
In this study, time-dependent, one-dimensional modeling of a surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) device, driven by a sinusoidal voltage of amplitude 1–3 kV at 20 kHz, in argon is described. An SDBD device with two Cu-stripe electrodes, covered by the quartz dielectric and [...] Read more.
In this study, time-dependent, one-dimensional modeling of a surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) device, driven by a sinusoidal voltage of amplitude 1–3 kV at 20 kHz, in argon is described. An SDBD device with two Cu-stripe electrodes, covered by the quartz dielectric and with the discharge gap of 20 × 10−3 m, was assumed, and the time-dependent, one-dimensional discharge parameters were simulated versus time across the plasma gap. The plasma device simulated in the given arrangement was constructed and used for biocompatible antibacterial/antimicrobial coating of plasmonic particle aerosol and compared with the coating strategy of the DBD plasma jet. Simulation results showed discharge consists of an electrical breakdown, occurring in each half-cycle of the AC voltage with an electron density of 1.4 × 1010 cm−3 and electric field strength of 4.5 × 105 Vm−1. With SDBD, the surface coating comprises spatially distributed particles of mean size 29 (11) nm, while with argon plasma jet, the nanoparticles are aggregated in clusters that are three times larger in size. Both coatings are crystalline and exhibit plasmonic features in the visible spectral region. It is expected that the particle aerosols are collected under the ionic wind, induced by the plasma electric fields, and it is assumed that this follows the dominant charging mechanisms of ions diffusion. The cold plasma strategy is appealing in a sense; it opens new venues at the nanoscale to deal with biomedical and surgical devices in a flexible processing environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Technologies and Their Medical Applications)
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Article
Efficiency of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles with Different Pretreatments for Enhancing Biogas Yield of Macroalgae Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5105; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165105 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 427
Abstract
In this work, different pretreatment methods for algae proved to be very effective in improving cell wall dissociation for biogas production. In this study, the Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus (U. intestinalis) has been exposed to individual pretreatments of (ultrasonic, ozone, microwave, and [...] Read more.
In this work, different pretreatment methods for algae proved to be very effective in improving cell wall dissociation for biogas production. In this study, the Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus (U. intestinalis) has been exposed to individual pretreatments of (ultrasonic, ozone, microwave, and green synthesized Fe3O4) and in a combination of the first three mentioned pretreatments methods with magnetite (Fe3O4) NPs, (ultrasonic-Fe3O4, ozone-Fe3O4 and microwave-Fe3O4) in different treatment times. Moreover, the green synthesized Fe3O4 NPs has been confirmed by FTIR, TEM, XRD, SEM, EDEX, PSA and BET. The maximum biogas production of 179 and 206 mL/g VS have been attained when U. intestinalis has been treated with ultrasonic only and when combined microwave with Fe3O4 respectively, where sediment were used as inoculum in all pretreatments. From the obtained results, green Fe3O4 NPs enhanced the microwave (MW) treatment to produce a higher biogas yield (206 mL/g VS) when compared with individual MW (84 mL/g VS). The modified Gompertz model (R2 = 0.996 was appropriate model to match the calculated biogas production and could be used more practically to distinguish the kinetics of the anaerobic digestion (AD) period. The assessment of XRD, SEM and FTIR discovered the influence of different treatment techniques on the cell wall structure of U. intestinalis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials in Environmental Chemistry)
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Article
Specificity and Origin of the Stability of the Sr Isotopic Ratio in Champagne Wines
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5104; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165104 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 431
Abstract
The 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 39 Champagnes from six different brands, originating from the whole “Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée” (AOC) Champagne was analyzed to establish a possible relation with the geographical origin. Musts (i.e., grape juice) and base wines were also analyzed [...] Read more.
The 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 39 Champagnes from six different brands, originating from the whole “Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée” (AOC) Champagne was analyzed to establish a possible relation with the geographical origin. Musts (i.e., grape juice) and base wines were also analyzed to study the evolution of the Sr isotopic ratio during the elaboration process of sparkling wine. The results demonstrate that there is a very homogeneous Sr isotopic ratio (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70812, n = 37) and a narrow span of variability (2σ = 0.00007, n = 37). Moreover, the Sr concentrations in Champagnes have also low variability, which can be in part explained by the homogeneity of the bedrock in the AOC Champagne. Measurements of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio from musts and base wines show that blending during Champagne production plays a major role in the limited variability observed. Further, the 87Sr/86Sr of the musts were closely linked to the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of the vineyard soil. It appears that the 87Sr/86Sr of the product does not change during the elaboration process, but its variability decreases throughout the process due to blending. Both the homogeneity of the soil composition in the Champagne AOC and the blending process during the wine making process with several blending steps at different stages account for the unique and stable Sr isotopic signature of the Champagne wines. Full article
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Article
Cancer Cell Membrane-Coated Nanosuspensions for Enhanced Chemotherapeutic Treatment of Glioma
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5103; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165103 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 422
Abstract
Effective intracerebral delivery is key for glioma treatment. However, the drug delivery system within the brain is largely limited by its own adverse physical and chemical properties, low targeting efficiency, the blood–brain barrier and the blood–brain tumor barrier. Herein, we developed a simple, [...] Read more.
Effective intracerebral delivery is key for glioma treatment. However, the drug delivery system within the brain is largely limited by its own adverse physical and chemical properties, low targeting efficiency, the blood–brain barrier and the blood–brain tumor barrier. Herein, we developed a simple, safe and efficient biomimetic nanosuspension. The C6 cell membrane (CCM) was utilized to camouflaged the 10-hydroxycamptothecin nanosuspension (HCPT-NS) in order to obtain HCPT-NS/CCM. Through the use of immune escape and homotypic binding of the cancer cell membrane, HCPT-NS/CCM was able to penetrate the blood–brain barrier and target tumors. The HCPT-NS is only comprised of drugs, as well as a small amount of stabilizers that are characterized by a simple preparation method and high drug loading. Similarly, the HCPT-NS/CCM is able to achieve targeted treatment of glioma without any ligand modification, which leads it to be stable and efficient. Cellular uptake and in vivo imaging experiments demonstrated that HCPT-NS/CCM is able to effectively cross the blood–brain barrier and was concentrated at the glioma site due to the natural homing pathway. Our results reveal that the glioma cancer cell membrane is able to promote drug transport into the brain and enter the tumor via a homologous targeting mechanism. Full article
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Review
Protein Adducts and Protein Oxidation as Molecular Mechanisms of Flavonoid Bioactivity
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5102; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165102 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 343
Abstract
There are tens of thousands of scientific papers about flavonoids and their impacts on human health. However, despite the vast amount of energy that has been put toward studying these compounds, a unified molecular mechanism that explains their bioactivity remains elusive. One contributing [...] Read more.
There are tens of thousands of scientific papers about flavonoids and their impacts on human health. However, despite the vast amount of energy that has been put toward studying these compounds, a unified molecular mechanism that explains their bioactivity remains elusive. One contributing factor to the absence of a general mechanistic explanation of their bioactivity is the complexity of flavonoid chemistry in aqueous solutions at neutral pH. Flavonoids have acidic protons, are redox active, and frequently auto-oxidize to produce an array of degradation products including electrophilic quinones. Flavonoids are also known to interact with specificity and high affinity with a variety of proteins, and there is evidence that some of these interactions may be covalent. This review summarizes the mechanisms of flavonoid oxidation in aqueous solutions at neutral pH and proposes the formation of protein-flavonoid adducts or flavonoid-induced protein oxidation as putative mechanisms of flavonoid bioactivity in cells. Nucleophilic residues in proteins may be able to form covalent bonds with flavonoid quinones; alternatively, specific amino acid residues such as cysteine, methionine, or tyrosine in proteins could be oxidized by flavonoids. In either case, these protein-flavonoid interactions would likely occur at specific binding sites and the formation of these types of products could effectively explain how flavonoids modify proteins in cells to induce downstream biochemical and cellular changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosynthesis and Biological Activities of Flavonoids)
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Article
Guiding Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Design by Pharmacophore Modeling
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5101; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165101 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) combine the selectivity of immunoaffinity chromatography with the robustness of common solid-phase extraction in what is referred to as molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE). This contribution shows how MIP design may be guided by pharmacophore modeling for the example [...] Read more.
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) combine the selectivity of immunoaffinity chromatography with the robustness of common solid-phase extraction in what is referred to as molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE). This contribution shows how MIP design may be guided by pharmacophore modeling for the example of citrinin, which is an emerging mycotoxin from cereals. The obtained pharmacophore model allowed searching public databases for a set of citrinin-mimicking molecular surrogates. Imprinted and non-imprinted polymers were subsequently obtained through bulk and core-shell polymerization in the presence of these surrogates. Evaluation of their binding ability for citrinin and structurally related ochratoxin A revealed a promising MIP derived from rhodizonic acid. A protocol for MISPE of citrinin from cereals was subsequently developed and compared to immunoaffinity chromatography with respect to clean-up efficiency and recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Method Development of Sampling Preparation Techniques)
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Article
Donkey Milk Fermentation by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Affects the Antiviral and Antibacterial Milk Properties
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5100; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165100 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Background: Milk is considered an important source of bioactive peptides, which can be produced by endogenous or starter bacteria, such as lactic acid bacteria, that are considered effective and safe producers of food-grade bioactive peptides. Among the various types of milk, donkey milk [...] Read more.
Background: Milk is considered an important source of bioactive peptides, which can be produced by endogenous or starter bacteria, such as lactic acid bacteria, that are considered effective and safe producers of food-grade bioactive peptides. Among the various types of milk, donkey milk has been gaining more and more attention for its nutraceutical properties. Methods: Lactobacillus rhamnosus 17D10 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris 40FEL3 were selected for their ability to produce peptides from donkey milk. The endogenous peptides and those obtained after bacterial fermentation were assayed for their antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. The peptide mixtures were characterized by means of LC-MS/MS and then analyzed in silico using the Milk Bioactive Peptide DataBase. Results: The peptides produced by the two selected bacteria enhanced the antioxidant activity and reduced E. coli growth. Only the peptides produced by L. rhamnosus 17D10 were able to reduce S. aureus growth. All the peptide mixtures were able to inhibit the replication of HSV-1 by more than 50%. Seventeen peptides were found to have 60% sequence similarity with already known bioactive peptides. Conclusions: A lactic acid bacterium fermentation process is able to enhance the value of donkey milk through bioactivities that are important for human health. Full article
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Article
Development of Highly Sensitive Raman Spectroscopy for Subnano and Single-Atom Detection
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5099; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165099 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Direct detection and characterisation of small materials are fundamental challenges in analytical chemistry. A particle composed of dozens of metallic atoms, a so-called subnano-particle (SNP), and a single-atom catalyst (SAC) are ultimate analysis targets in terms of size, and the topic is now [...] Read more.
Direct detection and characterisation of small materials are fundamental challenges in analytical chemistry. A particle composed of dozens of metallic atoms, a so-called subnano-particle (SNP), and a single-atom catalyst (SAC) are ultimate analysis targets in terms of size, and the topic is now attracting increasing attention as innovative frontier materials in catalysis science. However, characterisation techniques for the SNP and SAC adsorbed on substrates requires sophisticated and large-scale analytical facilities. Here we demonstrate the development of an ultrasensitive, laboratory-scale, vibrational spectroscopic technique to characterise SNPs and SACs. The fine design of nano-spatial local enhancement fields generated by the introduction of anisotropic stellate-shaped signal amplifiers expands the accessibility of small targets on substrates into evanescent electromagnetic fields, achieving not only the detection of isolated small targets but also revealing the effects of intermolecular/interatomic interactions within the subnano configuration under actual experimental conditions. Such a development of “in situ subnano spectroscopy” will facilitate a comprehensive understanding of subnano and SAC science. Full article
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Article
Fluorescent Azasteroids through Ultrasound Assisted Cycloaddition Reactions
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5098; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165098 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 364
Abstract
We report here the synthesis and optical spectral properties of several new azasteroid derivatives. The formation of these compounds was explained based on the most probable mechanism. The luminescent heterocycles were synthesized by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions between benzo[f]quinoline and methylpropiolate or dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate [...] Read more.
We report here the synthesis and optical spectral properties of several new azasteroid derivatives. The formation of these compounds was explained based on the most probable mechanism. The luminescent heterocycles were synthesized by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions between benzo[f]quinoline and methylpropiolate or dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD). A selective and efficient way for [3+2]-dipolar cycloaddition of benzo[f]quinolinium ylides under ultrasound (US) irradiation (20 kHz processing frequency) is presented. We report substantially higher yields under US irradiation, whereas the solvent amounts required are at least three-fold less compared to classical heating. The azasteroid derivatives are blue emitters with λmax of fluorescence around 430–450 nm. A certain influence of the azasteroid substituents concerning absorption and fluorescent properties was observed. Compounds anchored with a bulky pivaloyl group or without a C=O carbonyl group have shown increased fluorescence intensity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ultrasound Chemistry 2021)
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Article
Fungal α-1,3-Glucan as a New Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern in the Insect Model Host Galleria mellonella
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5097; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165097 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 359
Abstract
Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by appropriate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key step in activating the host immune response. The role of a fungal PAMP is attributed to β-1,3-glucan. The role of α-1,3-glucan, another fungal cell wall polysaccharide, in modulating [...] Read more.
Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by appropriate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key step in activating the host immune response. The role of a fungal PAMP is attributed to β-1,3-glucan. The role of α-1,3-glucan, another fungal cell wall polysaccharide, in modulating the host immune response is not clear. This work investigates the potential of α-1,3-glucan as a fungal PAMP by analyzing the humoral immune response of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella to Aspergillus niger α-1,3-glucan. We demonstrated that 57-kDa and 61-kDa hemolymph proteins, identified as β-1,3-glucan recognition proteins, bound to A. niger α-1,3-glucan. Other hemolymph proteins, i.e., apolipophorin I, apolipophorin II, prophenoloxidase, phenoloxidase activating factor, arylphorin, and serine protease, were also identified among α-1,3-glucan-interacting proteins. In response to α-1,3-glucan, a 4.5-fold and 3-fold increase in the gene expression of antifungal peptides galiomicin and gallerimycin was demonstrated, respectively. The significant increase in the level of five defense peptides, including galiomicin, corresponded well with the highest antifungal activity in hemolymph. Our results indicate that A. niger α-1,3-glucan is recognized by the insect immune system, and immune response is triggered by this cell wall component. Thus, the role of a fungal PAMP for α-1,3-glucan can be postulated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Biopolymer Discovery, Characterization and Development)
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Article
Integratomics of Human Dermal Fibroblasts Treated with Low Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acid
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5096; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165096 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan very common in commercial products from pharmaceuticals to cosmetics due to its widespread distribution in humans and its diversified physico-chemical proprieties. Despite its extended use and preliminary evidence showing even also opposite activities to the native form, [...] Read more.
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan very common in commercial products from pharmaceuticals to cosmetics due to its widespread distribution in humans and its diversified physico-chemical proprieties. Despite its extended use and preliminary evidence showing even also opposite activities to the native form, the precise cellular effects of HA at low-molecular-weight (LWM-HA) are currently unclear. The ‘omics sciences currently in development offer a new and combined perspective on the cellular and organismal environment. This work aims to integrate lipidomics analyses to our previous quantitative proteomics one for a multi-omics vision of intra- and extra-cellular impact of different concentrations (0.125, 0.25, and 0.50%) of LMW-HA (20–50 kDa) on normal human dermal fibroblasts by LC-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Untargeted lipidomics allowed us to identify 903 unique lipids mostly represented by triacylglycerols, ceramides, and phosphatidylcholines. According to proteomics analyses, LMW-HA 0.50% was the most effective concentration also in the lipidome rearrangement especially stimulating the synthesis of ceramides involved in skin hydration and reparation, cell signaling, and energy balance. Finally, integrative analyses showed 25 nodes covering several intra- and extra-cellular functions. The more complete comprehension of intra- and extra-cellular effects of LMW-HA here pointed out will be useful to further exploit its features and improve current formulations even though further studies on lipids biosynthesis and degradation are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutricosmetics: A New Area of Cosmetic Product)
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Article
Efficient Use of Carbon Fibers as Heating Elements for Curing of Epoxy Matrix Composites
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5095; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165095 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 326
Abstract
The aim of this study is to achieve a fully cured thermoset matrix that is heated by a direct electric current passing through the reinforcement fibers i.e., the Joule heating effect. Two types of fibers were used as heating elements for curing the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to achieve a fully cured thermoset matrix that is heated by a direct electric current passing through the reinforcement fibers i.e., the Joule heating effect. Two types of fibers were used as heating elements for curing the epoxy resins. Kanthal resistance fibers were used as reference heating elements and subsequently, they were replaced by a Torayca Carbon Tow of the same radius. The specimens were cured by the heat produced by a direct electric current passing through the fibers and achieving temperatures of 50 °C and 70 °C. Specimens cured in a conventional oven were also manufactured, to compare the resistance heating method to the conventional one. Next, all specimens were mechanically characterized in a quasi-static three-point bending mode of loading and experimental results were compared to derive useful conclusions concerning the applicability of the technique to polymer/composite materials mass production. Finally, a preliminary economical study concerning power consumption needed for the application of both the traditional oven curing and the carbon fibers heating elements use for the manufacturing of the same amounts of materials is presented, showing a maximum financial benefit that can be achieved, on the order of 68%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic and Composite Materials and Structures)
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Article
Acanthaster planci Inhibits PCSK9 and Lowers Cholesterol Levels in Rats
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5094; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165094 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 438
Abstract
Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular diseases which in turn, lead to the highest number of mortalities globally. This pathophysiological condition is developed due to a constant elevated level of plasma cholesterols. Statin is currently the widely used treatment in reducing the [...] Read more.
Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular diseases which in turn, lead to the highest number of mortalities globally. This pathophysiological condition is developed due to a constant elevated level of plasma cholesterols. Statin is currently the widely used treatment in reducing the level of cholesterols, however, it may cause adverse side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to search for new alternative treatment. PCSK9 is an enzyme responsible in directing LDL-receptor (LDL-R)/LDL-cholesterols (LDL-C) complex to lysosomal degradation, preventing the receptor from recycling back to the surface of liver cells. Therefore, PCSK9 offers a potential target to search for small molecule inhibitors which inhibit the function of this enzyme. In this study, a marine invertebrate Acanthaster planci, was used to investigate its potential in inhibiting PCSK9 and lowering the levels of cholesterols. Cytotoxicity activity of A. planci on human liver HepG2 cells was carried out using the MTS assay. It was found that methanolic extract and fractions did not exhibit cytotoxicity effect on HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of more than 30 µg/mL. A compound deoxythymidine also did not exert any cytotoxicity activity with IC50 value of more than 4 µg/mL. Transient transfection and luciferase assay were conducted to determine the effects of A. planci on the transcriptional activity of PCSK9 promoter. Methanolic extract and Fraction 2 (EF2) produced the lowest reduction in PCSK9 promoter activity to 70 and 20% of control at 12.5 and 6.25 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, deoxythymidine also decreased PCSK9 promoter activity to the lowest level of 60% control at 3.13 μM. An in vivo study using Sprague Dawley rats demonstrated that 50 and 100 mg/kg of A. planci methanolic extract reduced the total cholesterols and LDL-C levels to almost similar levels of untreated controls. The level of serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) showed that the administration of the extract did not produce any toxicity effect and cause any damage to rat liver. The results strongly indicate that A. planci produced a significant inhibitory activity on PCSK9 gene expression in HepG2 cells which may be responsible for inducing the uptake of cholesterols by liver, thus, reducing the circulating levels of total cholesterols and LDL-C. Interestingly, A. planci also did show any adverse hepato-cytotoxicity and toxic effects on liver. Thus, this study strongly suggests that A. planci has a vast potential to be further developed as a new class of therapeutic agent in lowering the blood cholesterols and reducing the progression of atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds on Health and Disease)
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Article
Fabrication of Membrane Sensitive Electrodes for the Validated Electrochemical Quantification of Anti-Osteoporotic Drug Residues in Pharmaceutical Industrial Wastewater
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5093; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165093 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Accurate and precise application of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) in the quantification of environmental pollutants is a strenuous task. In this work, the electrochemical response of alendronate sodium trihydrate (ALN) was evaluated by the fabrication of two sensitive and delicate membrane electrodes, viz. polyvinyl [...] Read more.
Accurate and precise application of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) in the quantification of environmental pollutants is a strenuous task. In this work, the electrochemical response of alendronate sodium trihydrate (ALN) was evaluated by the fabrication of two sensitive and delicate membrane electrodes, viz. polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. A linear response was obtained at concentrations from 1 × 10−5 to 1 × 10−2 M for both electrodes. A Nernstian slope of 29 mV/decade over a pH range of 8–11 for the PVC and GC membrane electrodes was obtained. All assay settings were carefully adjusted to obtain the best electrochemical response. The proposed technique was effectively applied for the quantification of ALN in pure form and wastewater samples, acquired from manufacturing industries. The proposed electrodes were effectively used for the determination of ALN in real wastewater samples without any prior treatment. The current findings guarantee the applicability of the fabricated ISEs for the environmental monitoring of ALN. Full article
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Article
Interaction between Curcumin and β-Casein: Multi-Spectroscopic and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Methods
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5092; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165092 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Effect of temperature and pH on the interaction of curcumin with β-casein was explored by fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation. The spectroscopic results showed that curcumin could bind to β-casein to form a complex which was driven mainly by electrostatic [...] Read more.
Effect of temperature and pH on the interaction of curcumin with β-casein was explored by fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation. The spectroscopic results showed that curcumin could bind to β-casein to form a complex which was driven mainly by electrostatic interaction. The intrinsic fluorescence of β-casein was quenched by curcumin through static quenching mechanism. The binding constants of curcumin to β-casein were 6.48 × 104 L/mol (298 K), 6.17 × 104 L/mol (305 K) and 5.73 × 104 L/mol (312 K) at pH 2.0, which was greater than that (3.98 × 104 L/mol at 298 K, 3.90 × 104 L/mol at 305 K and 3.41 × 104 L/mol at 312 K) at pH 7.4. Molecular docking study showed that binding energy of β-casein-curcumin complex at pH 2.0 (−7.53 kcal/mol) was lower than that at pH 7.4 (−7.01 kcal/mol). The molecular dynamics simulation study showed that the binding energy (−131.07 kJ/mol) of β-casein-curcumin complex was relatively low at pH 2.0 and 298 K. α-Helix content in β-casein was decreased and random coil content was increased in the presence of curcumin. These results can promote a deep understanding of interaction between curcumin and β-casein and provide a reference for improving the bioavailability of curcumin. Full article
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Review
Significance of Oligomeric and Fibrillar Species in Amyloidosis: Insights into Pathophysiology and Treatment
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5091; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165091 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 584
Abstract
Amyloidosis is a term referring to a group of various protein-misfolding diseases wherein normally soluble proteins form aggregates as insoluble amyloid fibrils. How, or whether, amyloid fibrils contribute to tissue damage in amyloidosis has been the topic of debate. In vitro studies have [...] Read more.
Amyloidosis is a term referring to a group of various protein-misfolding diseases wherein normally soluble proteins form aggregates as insoluble amyloid fibrils. How, or whether, amyloid fibrils contribute to tissue damage in amyloidosis has been the topic of debate. In vitro studies have demonstrated the appearance of small globular oligomeric species during the incubation of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ). Nerve biopsy specimens from patients with systemic amyloidosis have suggested that globular structures similar to Aβ oligomers were generated from amorphous electron-dense materials and later developed into mature amyloid fibrils. Schwann cells adjacent to amyloid fibrils become atrophic and degenerative, suggesting that the direct tissue damage induced by amyloid fibrils plays an important role in systemic amyloidosis. In contrast, there is increasing evidence that oligomers, rather than amyloid fibrils, are responsible for cell death in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer’s disease. Disease-modifying therapies based on the pathophysiology of amyloidosis have now become available. Aducanumab, a human monoclonal antibody against the aggregated form of Aβ, was recently approved for Alzheimer’s disease, and other monoclonal antibodies, including gantenerumab, solanezumab, and lecanemab, could also be up for approval. As many other agents for amyloidosis will be developed in the future, studies to develop sensitive clinical scales for identifying improvement and markers that can act as surrogates for clinical scales should be conducted. Full article
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Article
Effect of Precursor Nature and Sol-Gel Synthesis Conditions on TiO2 Aerogel’s Structure
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5090; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165090 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 369
Abstract
The aim of this investigation was to synthesize high porosity TiO2 aerogel by applying sol-gel and subcritical drying methods and to identify the influence of reagent’s nature and synthesis conditions on their structural and optical properties. Methods of XRD, FT-IR, BET, STA, [...] Read more.
The aim of this investigation was to synthesize high porosity TiO2 aerogel by applying sol-gel and subcritical drying methods and to identify the influence of reagent’s nature and synthesis conditions on their structural and optical properties. Methods of XRD, FT-IR, BET, STA, SEM, and UV-vis were applied to investigate and compare the properties of synthesized TiO2 aerogels and to determine the most effective synthesis route. The structural parameters of the synthesized materials can be varied by changing the precursor type (titanium (IV), isopropoxide (TIP), or tetrabutylorthotitanate (TBOT)) and the nature of the solvent used for additional exchange (n-hexane (nH), cyclohexane (CH), or diethyl ether (DE)). All of the subcritical dried samples show the amorphous structure, which tends to crystallize into the anatase phase after calcination. The number of micro and mesopores and the specific surface area depends on the synthesis conditions. The pores with the highest diameter have been found for additionally nH exchanged and aged aerogel synthesized from precursor TIP. Despite the imperfections in the structure, the produced aerogels show structural and optical properties typical of the TiO2 structures mentioned in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sol-Gel Composites and Aerogels)
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Article
Effects of a Peripherally Restricted Hybrid Inhibitor of CB1 Receptors and iNOS on Alcohol Drinking Behavior and Alcohol-Induced Endotoxemia
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5089; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165089 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Alcohol consumption is associated with gut dysbiosis, increased intestinal permeability, endotoxemia, and a cascade that leads to persistent systemic inflammation, alcoholic liver disease, and other ailments. Craving for alcohol and its consequences depends, among other things, on the endocannabinoid system. We have analyzed [...] Read more.
Alcohol consumption is associated with gut dysbiosis, increased intestinal permeability, endotoxemia, and a cascade that leads to persistent systemic inflammation, alcoholic liver disease, and other ailments. Craving for alcohol and its consequences depends, among other things, on the endocannabinoid system. We have analyzed the relative role of central vs. peripheral cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) using a “two-bottle” as well as a “drinking in the dark” paradigm in mice. The globally acting CB1R antagonist rimonabant and the non-brain penetrant CB1R antagonist JD5037 inhibited voluntary alcohol intake upon systemic but not upon intracerebroventricular administration in doses that elicited anxiogenic-like behavior and blocked CB1R-induced hypothermia and catalepsy. The peripherally restricted hybrid CB1R antagonist/iNOS inhibitor S-MRI-1867 was also effective in reducing alcohol consumption after oral gavage, while its R enantiomer (CB1R inactive/iNOS inhibitor) was not. The two MRI-1867 enantiomers were equally effective in inhibiting an alcohol-induced increase in portal blood endotoxin concentration that was caused by increased gut permeability. We conclude that (i) activation of peripheral CB1R plays a dominant role in promoting alcohol intake and (ii) the iNOS inhibitory function of MRI-1867 helps in mitigating the alcohol-induced increase in endotoxemia. Full article
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Article
Egg Case Protein 3: A Constituent of Black Widow Spider Tubuliform Silk
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5088; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165088 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 370
Abstract
Spider silk has outstanding mechanical properties, rivaling some of the best materials on the planet. Biochemical analyses of tubuliform silk have led to the identification of TuSp1, egg case protein 1, and egg case protein 2. TuSp1 belongs to the spidroin superfamily, containing [...] Read more.
Spider silk has outstanding mechanical properties, rivaling some of the best materials on the planet. Biochemical analyses of tubuliform silk have led to the identification of TuSp1, egg case protein 1, and egg case protein 2. TuSp1 belongs to the spidroin superfamily, containing a non-repetitive N- and C-terminal domain and internal block repeats. ECP1 and ECP2, which lack internal block repeats and sequence similarities to the highly conserved N- and C-terminal domains of spidroins, have cysteine-rich N-terminal domains. In this study, we performed an in-depth proteomic analysis of tubuliform glands, spinning dope, and egg sacs, which led to the identification of a novel molecular constituent of black widow tubuliform silk, referred to as egg case protein 3 or ECP3. Analysis of the translated ECP3 cDNA predicts a low molecular weight protein of 11.8 kDa. Real-time reverse transcription–quantitative PCR analysis performed with different silk-producing glands revealed ECP3 mRNA is predominantly expressed within tubuliform glands of spiders. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel protein that is secreted into black widow spider tubuliform silk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silk Fibroin Materials 2.0)
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Article
Redox Conversions of 5-Methyl-6-nitro-7-oxo-4,7-dihydro-1,2,4triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidinide L-Arginine Monohydrate as a Promising Antiviral Drug
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5087; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165087 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 409
Abstract
This article presents the results of a study of electrochemical transformations in aqueous and aprotic media of 5-methyl-6-nitro-7-oxo-4,7-dihydro-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidinide l-arginine monohydrate (1a, Triazid) obtained by electrochemical methods and ESR spectroscopy. The effect of pH on the current and the reduction potential of [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of a study of electrochemical transformations in aqueous and aprotic media of 5-methyl-6-nitro-7-oxo-4,7-dihydro-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidinide l-arginine monohydrate (1a, Triazid) obtained by electrochemical methods and ESR spectroscopy. The effect of pH on the current and the reduction potential of 1a in an aqueous Britton–Robinson buffer solution was studied. It was found that 1a is irreversibly reduced in aqueous acidic media on a glassy carbon electrode in one stage with the participation of six electrons and the formation of 5-methyl-6-amino-7-oxo-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin. The electroreduction of 1a in DMF on a background of tetrabutylammonium salts proceeds in two stages, controlled by the kinetics of second-order reactions. In the first stage, the reduction of 1a is accompanied by protonation by the initial compound of the basic intermediate products formed in the electrode reaction (self-protonation mechanism). The second quasi-reversible stage of the electroreduction 1a corresponds to the formation of a dianion radical upon the reduction of the heterocyclic anion 5-methyl-6-nitro-7-oxo-4,7-dihydro-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin, which is formed upon the potentials of the first peak. The ESR spectrum of the radical dianion was recorded upon electroreduction of Triazid in the presence of Bu4NOH. The effect of the formation of ion pairs on the reversibility of the second peak of the 1a transformation is shown. A change in the rate and regioselectivity of the protonation of the dianion radical in the presence of Na+ and Li+ ions is assumed. The results of studying the electroreduction of 1a by ESR spectroscopy with a TEMPO trap make it possible to assume the simultaneous formation of both a nitroxyl radical and a radical with the spin density localized on the nitrogen at the 4 position of the six-membered ring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chemistry of Nitrocompounds)
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Article
Synthesis of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Hydrotalcite-Like Materials Intercalated with Duplex Herbicides: The Characterization and Simultaneous Release Properties
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5086; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165086 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 338
Abstract
In this study, a controlled-release formulation of duplex herbicides, namely, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxybutyric acid (TBA) and 3,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (3,4D), was simultaneously embedded into Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides (LDHs). The resulting nanohybrid Zinc-Aluminium-3,4D-TBA (ZADTX) was composed of a well-ordered crystalline layered structure with increasing basal spacing from [...] Read more.
In this study, a controlled-release formulation of duplex herbicides, namely, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxybutyric acid (TBA) and 3,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (3,4D), was simultaneously embedded into Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides (LDHs). The resulting nanohybrid Zinc-Aluminium-3,4D-TBA (ZADTX) was composed of a well-ordered crystalline layered structure with increasing basal spacing from 8.9 Å to 20.0 Å in the Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) with 3,4D and TBA anions located in the gallery of LDHs with bilayer arrangement. The release of 3,4D and TBA fit the pseudo-second-order model. This duplex nanohybrid possessed a well-controlled release property (53.4% release from TBA and 27.8% release from 3,4D), which was highly effective, requiring the use of a small quantity and, hence, environmentally safer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Applications of Layered Double Hydroxide-Based Materials)
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Article
Synergistic Catalysis of SnO2/Reduced Graphene Oxide for VO2+/VO2+ and V2+/V3+ Redox Reactions
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5085; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165085 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 350
Abstract
In spite of their low cost, high activity, and diversity, metal oxide catalysts have not been widely applied in vanadium redox reactions due to their poor conductivity and low surface area. Herein, SnO2/reduced graphene oxide (SnO2/rGO) composite was prepared [...] Read more.
In spite of their low cost, high activity, and diversity, metal oxide catalysts have not been widely applied in vanadium redox reactions due to their poor conductivity and low surface area. Herein, SnO2/reduced graphene oxide (SnO2/rGO) composite was prepared by a sol–gel method followed by high-temperature carbonization. SnO2/rGO shows better electrochemical catalysis for both redox reactions of VO2+/VO2+ and V2+/V3+ couples as compared to SnO2 and graphene oxide. This is attributed to the fact that reduced graphene oxide is employed as carbon support featuring excellent conductivity and a large surface area, which offers fast electron transfer and a large reaction place towards vanadium redox reaction. Moreover, SnO2 has excellent electrochemical activity and wettability, which also boost the electrochemical kinetics of redox reaction. In brief, the electrochemical properties for vanadium redox reactions are boosted in terms of diffusion, charge transfer, and electron transport processes systematically. Next, SnO2/rGO can increase the energy storage performance of cells, including higher discharge electrolyte utilization and lower electrochemical polarization. At 150 mA cm−2, the energy efficiency of a modified cell is 69.8%, which is increased by 5.7% compared with a pristine one. This work provides a promising method to develop composite catalysts of carbon materials and metal oxide for vanadium redox reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Application Based on Versatile Nano-Composites)
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Article
An Efficient Synthesis of 2-CF3-3-Benzylindoles
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5084; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165084 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 557
Abstract
The reaction of α-CF3-β-(2-nitroaryl) enamines with benzaldehydes afforded effectively α,β-diaryl-CF3-enones having nitro group. Subsequent reduction of nitro group by NH4HCO2-Pd/C system initiated intramolecular cyclization to give 2-CF3-3-benzylindoles. Target products can be prepared in [...] Read more.
The reaction of α-CF3-β-(2-nitroaryl) enamines with benzaldehydes afforded effectively α,β-diaryl-CF3-enones having nitro group. Subsequent reduction of nitro group by NH4HCO2-Pd/C system initiated intramolecular cyclization to give 2-CF3-3-benzylindoles. Target products can be prepared in up to quantitative yields. Broad synthetic scope of the reaction was shown. Probable mechanism of indole formation is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chemistry of Nitrocompounds)
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Article
Synthesis of 3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl-Substituted Pyrazole Derivatives as Potent Growth Inhibitors of Drug-Resistant Bacteria
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5083; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165083 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Enterococci and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are among the menacing bacterial pathogens. Novel antibiotics are urgently needed to tackle these antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. This article reports the design, synthesis, and antimicrobial studies of 30 novel pyrazole derivatives. Most of the synthesized compounds are [...] Read more.
Enterococci and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are among the menacing bacterial pathogens. Novel antibiotics are urgently needed to tackle these antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. This article reports the design, synthesis, and antimicrobial studies of 30 novel pyrazole derivatives. Most of the synthesized compounds are potent growth inhibitors of planktonic Gram-positive bacteria with minimum inhibitory concertation (MIC) values as low as 0.25 µg/mL. Further studies led to the discovery of several lead compounds, which are bactericidal and potent against MRSA persisters. Compounds 11, 28, and 29 are potent against S. aureus biofilms with minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values as low as 1 µg/mL. Full article
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Article
Synthesis of Catechol Derived Rosamine Dyes and Their Reactivity toward Biogenic Amines
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 5082; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26165082 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Functional organic dyes play a key role in many fields, namely in biotechnology and medical diagnosis. Herein, we report two novel 2,3- and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl substituted rosamines (3 and 4, respectively) that were successfully synthesized through a microwave-assisted protocol. The best reaction [...] Read more.
Functional organic dyes play a key role in many fields, namely in biotechnology and medical diagnosis. Herein, we report two novel 2,3- and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl substituted rosamines (3 and 4, respectively) that were successfully synthesized through a microwave-assisted protocol. The best reaction yields were obtained for rosamine 4, which also showed the most interesting photophysical properties, specially toward biogenic amines (BAs). Several amines including n- and t-butylamine, cadaverine, and putrescine cause spectral changes of 4, in UV–Vis and fluorescence spectra, which are indicative of their potential application as an effective tool to detect amines in acetonitrile solutions. In the gas phase, the probe response is more expressive for spermine and putrescine. Additionally, we found that methanolic solutions of rosamine 4 and n-butylamine undergo a pink to yellow color change over time, which has been attributed to the formation of a new compound. The latter was isolated and identified as 5 (9−aminopyronin), whose solutions exhibit a remarkable increase in fluorescence intensity together with a shift toward more energetic wavelengths. Other 9-aminopyronins 6a, 6b, 7a, and 7b were obtained from methanolic solutions of 4 with putrescine and cadaverine, demonstrating the potential of this new xanthene entity to react with primary amines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pigment, Dye, and Green Colorant Research in Europe)
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