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Open AccessArticle

6-Shogaol Inhibits Advanced Glycation End-Products-Induced IL-6 and ICAM-1 Expression by Regulating Oxidative Responses in Human Gingival Fibroblasts

Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504, Japan
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Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3705; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203705
Received: 4 September 2019 / Revised: 2 October 2019 / Accepted: 12 October 2019 / Published: 15 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) cause diabetes mellitus (DM) complications and accumulate more highly in periodontal tissues of patients with periodontitis and DM. AGEs aggravate periodontitis with DM by increasing the expression of inflammation-related factors in periodontal tissues. 6-Shogaol, a major compound in ginger, has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. However, the influence of shogaol on DM-associated periodontitis is not well known. In this study, the effects of 6-shogaol on AGEs-induced oxidative and anti-oxidative responses, and IL-6 and ICAM-1 expression in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were investigated. When HGFs were cultured with 6-shogaol and AGEs, the activities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzymes (heme oxygenase-1 [HO-1] and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 [NQO1]), and IL-6 and ICAM-1 expressions were investigated. RAGE expression and phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF-κB were examined by western blotting. 6-Shogaol significantly inhibited AGEs-induced ROS activity, and increased HO-1 and NQO1 levels compared with the AGEs-treated cells. The AGEs-stimulated expression levels of receptor of AGE (RAGE), IL-6 and ICAM-1 and the phosphorylation of p38, ERK and p65 were attenuated by 6-shogaol. These results suggested that 6-shogaol inhibits AGEs-induced inflammatory responses by regulating oxidative and anti-oxidative activities and may have protective effects on periodontitis with DM. View Full-Text
Keywords: advanced glycation end-products; 6-shogaol; ROS; antioxidant enzyme; IL-6; ICAM-1; human gingival fibroblasts advanced glycation end-products; 6-shogaol; ROS; antioxidant enzyme; IL-6; ICAM-1; human gingival fibroblasts
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nonaka, K.; Bando, M.; Sakamoto, E.; Inagaki, Y.; Naruishi, K.; Yumoto, H.; Kido, J.-i. 6-Shogaol Inhibits Advanced Glycation End-Products-Induced IL-6 and ICAM-1 Expression by Regulating Oxidative Responses in Human Gingival Fibroblasts. Molecules 2019, 24, 3705. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203705

AMA Style

Nonaka K, Bando M, Sakamoto E, Inagaki Y, Naruishi K, Yumoto H, Kido J-i. 6-Shogaol Inhibits Advanced Glycation End-Products-Induced IL-6 and ICAM-1 Expression by Regulating Oxidative Responses in Human Gingival Fibroblasts. Molecules. 2019; 24(20):3705. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203705

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nonaka, Kohei; Bando, Mika; Sakamoto, Eijiro; Inagaki, Yuji; Naruishi, Koji; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Kido, Jun-ichi. 2019. "6-Shogaol Inhibits Advanced Glycation End-Products-Induced IL-6 and ICAM-1 Expression by Regulating Oxidative Responses in Human Gingival Fibroblasts" Molecules 24, no. 20: 3705. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203705

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