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Molecules, Volume 17, Issue 3 (March 2012), Pages 2271-3598

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Open AccessArticle Effects of a Natural Prolyl Oligopeptidase Inhibitor, Rosmarinic Acid, on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3586-3598; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033586
Received: 11 February 2012 / Revised: 6 March 2012 / Accepted: 9 March 2012 / Published: 22 March 2012
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (1746 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rosmarinic acid (RA), a polyphenolic phytochemical, is a natural prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitor. In the present study, we found that RA exerted potent anti-inflammatory effects in in vivo models of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were pretreated with RA one
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Rosmarinic acid (RA), a polyphenolic phytochemical, is a natural prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitor. In the present study, we found that RA exerted potent anti-inflammatory effects in in vivo models of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were pretreated with RA one hour before challenge with a dose of 0.5 mg/kg LPS. Twenty-four hours after LPS was given, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was obtained to measure pro-inflammatory mediator and total cell counts. RA significantly decreased the production of LPS-induced TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1β compare with the LPS group. When pretreated with RA (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) the lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio of the lung tissue and the number of total cells, neutrophils and macrophages in the BALF were decreased significantly. Furthermore, RA may enhance oxidase dimutase (SOD) activity during the inflammatory response to LPS-induced ALI. And we further demonstrated that RA exerts anti-inflammation effect in vivo models of ALI through suppresses ERK/MAPK signaling in a dose dependent manner. These studies have important implications for RA administration as a potential treatment for ALI. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Regulation of Inflammatory Cytokines in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophage by 7-O-Methyl-naringenin
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3574-3585; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033574
Received: 4 January 2012 / Revised: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 15 March 2012 / Published: 22 March 2012
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
7-O-Methylnaringenin, extracted from Rhododendron speciferum, belongs to the flavanone class of polyphenols. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of 7-O-methylnaringenin on cytokine production by lipopoly-saccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro. The results showed
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7-O-Methylnaringenin, extracted from Rhododendron speciferum, belongs to the flavanone class of polyphenols. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of 7-O-methylnaringenin on cytokine production by lipopoly-saccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro. The results showed that pretreatment with 10, 20 or 40 μg/mL of 7-O-methylnaringenin could downregulate tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin (IL-6) and interleukin (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we investigated the signal transduction mechanisms to determine how 7-O-methylnaringenin affects RAW 264.7 macrophages. The activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and IκBα were measured by Western blotting. The data showed that 7-O-methylnaringenin could downregulate LPS-induced levels of phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK and IκBα. These observations indicated that 7-O-methylnaringenin modulated inflammatory cytokine responses by blocking NF-қB, ERK1/2 and JNK/MAPKs activation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of a New Group of Aliphatic Hydrazide Derivatives and the Correlations between Their Molecular Structure and Biological Activity
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3560-3573; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033560
Received: 25 January 2012 / Revised: 24 February 2012 / Accepted: 14 March 2012 / Published: 22 March 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (250 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In view of the growing demand for new compounds showing biological activity against pathogenic microorganisms, such as pathogenic and phytopathogenic fungi, the objective of this study was to synthesize a new group of aliphatic and aromatic derivatives of hydrazide. In consequence of the
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In view of the growing demand for new compounds showing biological activity against pathogenic microorganisms, such as pathogenic and phytopathogenic fungi, the objective of this study was to synthesize a new group of aliphatic and aromatic derivatives of hydrazide. In consequence of the reactions observed during synthesis, the resulting compounds retained their linear structure. Their structure and lipophilicity, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were analyzed. Correlations were determined between the compounds’ molecular parameters and biological activity against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum fungi. The investigated compounds were also examined for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus. The obtained results indicate that compounds with fluorine-containing substituents penetrate the cell structure more effectively and are characterized by higher antifungal potential than analogues with different substituents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Medicinal Chemistry of Antifungals)
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Open AccessArticle Acute Toxicity Evaluation, Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Effects of Melastoma malabathricum
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3547-3559; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033547
Received: 6 February 2012 / Revised: 12 March 2012 / Accepted: 14 March 2012 / Published: 20 March 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (614 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Melastoma malabathricum (MM) is a well-known plant in Malaysian traditional medicine, locally known as senduduk. Its ethanol and aqueous extracts have been used in the present investigation to study the immunomodulatory role on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), and the DPPH, ABTS
[...] Read more.
Melastoma malabathricum (MM) is a well-known plant in Malaysian traditional medicine, locally known as senduduk. Its ethanol and aqueous extracts have been used in the present investigation to study the immunomodulatory role on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), and the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP free radical scavenging activities were also measured. Total flavonoids and total phenolic contents were assayed and the antibacterial effect was tested against four species of bacteria; two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsilla pneumonia). The tests were carried out using the disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods. Moreover, the acute toxicity was evaluated in vivo on the ethanol extract of MM to establish its safety when administered orally. In our results, both extracts of MM showed abilities to scavenge DPPH and ABTS free radicals, IC50 values: (11.599 ± 0.84, 10.573 ± 0.58 µmol/L) and (62.657 ± 0.78, 63.939 ± 0.48 µmol/L) for ethanol and aqueous extracts respectively. Indeed the ethanol extract evidenced high phenolic content (384.33 ± 0.005 mg/g), flavonoids contents (85.8 ± 0.009 mg/g) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (33,590 ± 0.038 mmol/g), with high activity against S. aureus and S. agalactiae (11 ± 0.3 and 12 ± 0.6 mm inhibition zones). Likewise, the percentage of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) viability was increased in response to MM, IC50 values (1.781 ± 1.2 and 6.545 ± 0.93 µg/mL) for ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. In addition, our results showed that the MM extract is safe even at a high dose of 5,000 mg/kg and has no oral toxicity. These findings suggest the excellent medicinal bioactivity of MM and explain the popularity of this plant in the folk medicine as a remedy for different illnesses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A New Norisoprenoid and Other Compounds from Fuzhuan Brick Tea
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3539-3546; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033539
Received: 20 December 2011 / Revised: 8 March 2012 / Accepted: 14 March 2012 / Published: 19 March 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Fuzhuan brick tea, a kind of dark tea consumed mainly in the border regions of Southwestern and Northwestern China since the 1860s, is produced from the leaves of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis by microbial fermentation. From this special fermented tea, a new norisoprenoid,
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Fuzhuan brick tea, a kind of dark tea consumed mainly in the border regions of Southwestern and Northwestern China since the 1860s, is produced from the leaves of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis by microbial fermentation. From this special fermented tea, a new norisoprenoid, 3R,9R-oxido-5-megastigmene, was isolated, together with α-linolenic acid, strictin, isovitexin, astragalin, (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, (−)-epicatechin gallate, (+)-gallocatechin, (−)-epigallocatechin, (−)-epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid. The structures of the compounds were identified by spectroscopic means. The new compound didn’t show any inhibition activity against the tested enteric pathogenic microorganisms at a concentration of 800 μg/mL by the hole plate diffusion method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Terpenoids as Potential Anti-Alzheimer’s Disease Therapeutics
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3524-3538; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033524
Received: 7 December 2011 / Revised: 12 March 2012 / Accepted: 16 March 2012 / Published: 19 March 2012
Cited by 47 | PDF Full-text (646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most well-known neurodegenerative diseases and explains 50–60% of dementia in patients. The prevalence rate of AD is positively correlated with age and AD affects ≥ 40% of those over 85 years old. The major AD therapeutics
[...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most well-known neurodegenerative diseases and explains 50–60% of dementia in patients. The prevalence rate of AD is positively correlated with age and AD affects ≥ 40% of those over 85 years old. The major AD therapeutics available on the market are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as tacrine and donepezil. New therapeutic agents that can block the disease-inducing mechanisms are essential. Diverse efforts have been made to discover anti-AD agents from natural sources. In this review article, we describe some representative terpenoids such as ginsenosides, gingkolides, and canabinoids as potential anti-AD agents. These compounds exhibit promising in vitro and in vivo biological activities, but are still waiting clinical trials. Additionally, we also discuss some terpenoids including cornel iridoid glycoside, oleanolic acid, tenuifolin, cryptotanshinone, and ursolic acid, which are under investigation for their in vitro and in vivo animal studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Enrichment and Purification of Deoxyschizandrin and γ-Schizandrin from the Extract of Schisandra chinensis Fruit by Macroporous Resins
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3510-3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033510
Received: 6 February 2012 / Revised: 7 March 2012 / Accepted: 12 March 2012 / Published: 19 March 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In present study, the performance and separation characteristics of 21 macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of deoxyschizandrin and γ-schizandrin, the two major lignans from Schisandra chinensis extracts, were evaluated. According to our results, HPD5000, which adsorbs by the molecular tiers model,
[...] Read more.
In present study, the performance and separation characteristics of 21 macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of deoxyschizandrin and γ-schizandrin, the two major lignans from Schisandra chinensis extracts, were evaluated. According to our results, HPD5000, which adsorbs by the molecular tiers model, was the best macroporous resin, offering higher adsorption and desorption capacities and higher adsorption speed for deoxyschizandrin and γ-schizandrin than other resins. Columns packed with HPD5000 resin were used to perform dynamic adsorption and desorption tests to optimize the technical parameters of the separation process. The results showed that the best adsorption time is 4 h, the rate of adsorption is 0.85 mL/min (4 BV/h) and the rate of desorption is 0.43 mL/min (2 BV/h). After elution with 90% ethanol, the purity of deoxy-schizandrin increased 12.62-fold from 0.37% to 4.67%, the purity of γ-schizandrin increased 15.8-fold from 0.65% to 10.27%, and the recovery rate was more than 80%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Structural Determination of Novel 5-Arylidene-3-N(2-alkyloxyaryl)-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-ones
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3501-3509; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033501
Received: 5 January 2012 / Revised: 26 February 2012 / Accepted: 1 March 2012 / Published: 19 March 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As part of our project devoted to the synthesis of heterocycles including thiazole rings, some new 5-arylidene-2-thioxo-3-N-arylthiazolidin-4-ones were synthesized by Knoevenagel condensation. An interesting feature of these compounds is that their chirality is induced by that of their 3-N-(2-alkyloxyaryl)-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one
[...] Read more.
As part of our project devoted to the synthesis of heterocycles including thiazole rings, some new 5-arylidene-2-thioxo-3-N-arylthiazolidin-4-ones were synthesized by Knoevenagel condensation. An interesting feature of these compounds is that their chirality is induced by that of their 3-N-(2-alkyloxyaryl)-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one precursors, which in turn is due to the presence of a C2 axis of chirality. These new compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods (IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR). The structure of compound (Z)-(2g) was further determined by X-ray diffraction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Preliminary Investigations of the siRNA Delivery Potential of Novel, Single-Chain Rigid Cationic Carotenoid Lipids
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3484-3500; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033484
Received: 29 February 2012 / Revised: 12 March 2012 / Accepted: 12 March 2012 / Published: 16 March 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The success of nucleic acid delivery requires the development of safe and efficient delivery vectors that overcome cellular barriers for effective transport. Herein we describe the synthesis of a series of novel, single-chain rigid cationic carotenoid lipids and a study of their preliminary
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The success of nucleic acid delivery requires the development of safe and efficient delivery vectors that overcome cellular barriers for effective transport. Herein we describe the synthesis of a series of novel, single-chain rigid cationic carotenoid lipids and a study of their preliminary in vitro siRNA delivery effectiveness and cellular toxicity. The efficiency of siRNA delivery by the single-chain lipid series was compared with that of known cationic lipid vectors, 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)carbamoyl]-cholesterol (DC-Chol) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphoethanolamine (EPC) as positive controls. All cationic lipids (controls and single-chain lipids) were co-formulated into liposomes with the neutral co-lipid, 1,2-dioleolyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE). Cationic lipid-siRNA complexes of varying (+/−) molar charge ratios were formulated for delivery into HR5-CL11 cells. Of the five single-chain carotenoid lipids investigated, lipids 1, 2, 3 and 5 displayed significant knockdown efficiency with HR5-CL11 cells. In addition, lipid 1 exhibited the lowest levels of cytotoxicity with cell viability greater than 80% at all (+/−) molar charge ratios studied. This novel, single-chain rigid carotenoid-based cationic lipid represents a new class of transfection vector with excellent cell tolerance, accompanied with encouraging siRNA delivery efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of N′-Heteroarylidene-1-adamantylcarbohydrazides and (±)-2-(1-Adamantyl)-4-acetyl-5-[5-(4-substituted phenyl-3-isoxazolyl)]-1,3,4-oxadiazolines
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3475-3483; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033475
Received: 13 January 2012 / Revised: 16 February 2012 / Accepted: 6 March 2012 / Published: 16 March 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The reaction of adamantane-1-carbohydrazide (1) with heterocyclic aldehydes, namely 5-(4-chlorophenyl)isoxazole-3-carboxaldehyde (2a), 5-(4-methylphenyl)isoxazole-3-carboxaldehyde (2b), 5-(4-methoxyphenyl)isoxazole-3-carboxaldehyde (2c), 1H-imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde and 2-butyl-4-chloro-1H-imidazole-5-carboxaldehyde, in ethanol, yielded the corresponding N′-heteroarylidene-1-adamantylcarbohydrazides 3a, 3b, 3c, 4 and 5, respectively, in good yields. The 4-acetyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoline analogues 6a‑c
[...] Read more.
The reaction of adamantane-1-carbohydrazide (1) with heterocyclic aldehydes, namely 5-(4-chlorophenyl)isoxazole-3-carboxaldehyde (2a), 5-(4-methylphenyl)isoxazole-3-carboxaldehyde (2b), 5-(4-methoxyphenyl)isoxazole-3-carboxaldehyde (2c), 1H-imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde and 2-butyl-4-chloro-1H-imidazole-5-carboxaldehyde, in ethanol, yielded the corresponding N′-heteroarylidene-1-adamantylcarbohydrazides 3a, 3b, 3c, 4 and 5, respectively, in good yields. The 4-acetyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoline analogues 6a‑c were prepared in 48–55% yields by heating their corresponding N′-heteroarylidene-1-adamantylcarbohydrazides 3a–c with acetic anhydride for two hours. Compounds 3a–c, 4, 5 and 6a–c were tested for in vitro activities against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the yeast-like pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Compounds 4 and 5 displayed potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, while compounds 3a–c showed good activity against the Gram-positive bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Analysis of Irbesartan and Hydrochlorothiazide: An Improved HPLC Method with the Aid of a Chemometric Protocol
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3461-3474; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033461
Received: 23 February 2012 / Revised: 12 March 2012 / Accepted: 13 March 2012 / Published: 16 March 2012
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (819 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Experimental design method was used for HPLC determination of irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide in combined dosage forms. The traditional approach for optimization of experiments is time-consuming, involves a large number of runs and does not allow establishing the multiple interacting parameters. The main advantages
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Experimental design method was used for HPLC determination of irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide in combined dosage forms. The traditional approach for optimization of experiments is time-consuming, involves a large number of runs and does not allow establishing the multiple interacting parameters. The main advantages of the experimental design method include the simultaneous screening of a larger number of factors affecting response and the estimation of possible interactions. On the basis of preliminary experiments, three factors-independent variables were selected as inputs (methanol content, pH of the mobile phase and temperature) and as dependent variables, five responses (resolution, symmetry of irbesartan peak, symmetry of hydrochlorothiazide peak, retention factor of irbesartan and retention factor of hydrochlorothiazide) were chosen. A full 23 factorial design, where factors were examined at two different levels (“low” and “high”) was used to determine which factors had an effect on the studied response. Afterwards, experimental design was used to optimize these influent parameters in the previously selected experimental domain. The novelty of our method lies in the optimization step accomplished by Derringer¢s desirability function. After optimizing the experimental conditions a separation was conducted on a Supelcosil C18 (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 mm particle size) column with a mobile phase consisting of methanol-tetrahydrofuran-acetate buffer 47:10:43 v/v/v, pH 6.5 and a column temperature of 25 °C. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous separation of these drug-active compounds in their commercial pharmaceutical dosage forms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling Chemical Interaction Profiles: II. Molecular Docking, Spectral Data-Activity Relationship, and Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Potent and Weak Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 Isozyme
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3407-3460; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033407
Received: 20 January 2012 / Revised: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Polypharmacy increasingly has become a topic of public health concern, particularly as the U.S. population ages. Drug labels often contain insufficient information to enable the clinician to safely use multiple drugs. Because many of the drugs are bio-transformed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes,
[...] Read more.
Polypharmacy increasingly has become a topic of public health concern, particularly as the U.S. population ages. Drug labels often contain insufficient information to enable the clinician to safely use multiple drugs. Because many of the drugs are bio-transformed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, inhibition of CYP activity has long been associated with potentially adverse health effects. In an attempt to reduce the uncertainty pertaining to CYP-mediated drug-drug/chemical interactions, an interagency collaborative group developed a consensus approach to prioritizing information concerning CYP inhibition. The consensus involved computational molecular docking, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR), and structure-activity relationship (SAR) models that addressed the clinical potency of CYP inhibition. The models were built upon chemicals that were categorized as either potent or weak inhibitors of the CYP3A4 isozyme. The categorization was carried out using information from clinical trials because currently available in vitro high-throughput screening data were not fully representative of the in vivo potency of inhibition. During categorization it was found that compounds, which break the Lipinski rule of five by molecular weight, were about twice more likely to be inhibitors of CYP3A4 compared to those, which obey the rule. Similarly, among inhibitors that break the rule, potent inhibitors were 2–3 times more frequent. The molecular docking classification relied on logistic regression, by which the docking scores from different docking algorithms, CYP3A4 three-dimensional structures, and binding sites on them were combined in a unified probabilistic model. The SDAR models employed a multiple linear regression approach applied to binned 1D 13C-NMR and 1D 15N-NMR spectral descriptors. Structure-based and physical-chemical descriptors were used as the basis for developing SAR models by the decision forest method. Thirty-three potent inhibitors and 88 weak inhibitors of CYP3A4 were used to train the models. Using these models, a synthetic majority rules consensus classifier was implemented, while the confidence of estimation was assigned following the percent agreement strategy. The classifier was applied to a testing set of 120 inhibitors not included in the development of the models. Five compounds of the test set, including known strong inhibitors dalfopristin and tioconazole, were classified as probable potent inhibitors of CYP3A4. Other known strong inhibitors, such as lopinavir, oltipraz, quercetin, raloxifene, and troglitazone, were among 18 compounds classified as plausible potent inhibitors of CYP3A4. The consensus estimation of inhibition potency is expected to aid in the nomination of pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements, environmental pollutants, and occupational and other chemicals for in-depth evaluation of the CYP3A4 inhibitory activity. It may serve also as an estimate of chemical interactions via CYP3A4 metabolic pharmacokinetic pathways occurring through polypharmacy and nutritional and environmental exposures to chemical mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QSAR and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling Chemical Interaction Profiles: I. Spectral Data-Activity Relationship and Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Inhibitors and Non-inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 Isozymes
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3383-3406; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033383
Received: 20 January 2012 / Revised: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An interagency collaboration was established to model chemical interactions that may cause adverse health effects when an exposure to a mixture of chemicals occurs. Many of these chemicals—drugs, pesticides, and environmental pollutants—interact at the level of metabolic biotransformations mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP)
[...] Read more.
An interagency collaboration was established to model chemical interactions that may cause adverse health effects when an exposure to a mixture of chemicals occurs. Many of these chemicals—drugs, pesticides, and environmental pollutants—interact at the level of metabolic biotransformations mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. In the present work, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR) and structure-activity relationship (SAR) approaches were used to develop machine-learning classifiers of inhibitors and non-inhibitors of the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes. The models were built upon 602 reference pharmaceutical compounds whose interactions have been deduced from clinical data, and 100 additional chemicals that were used to evaluate model performance in an external validation (EV) test. SDAR is an innovative modeling approach that relies on discriminant analysis applied to binned nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral descriptors. In the present work, both 1D 13C and 1D 15N-NMR spectra were used together in a novel implementation of the SDAR technique. It was found that increasing the binning size of 1D 13C-NMR and 15N-NMR spectra caused an increase in the tenfold cross-validation (CV) performance in terms of both the rate of correct classification and sensitivity. The results of SDAR modeling were verified using SAR. For SAR modeling, a decision forest approach involving from 6 to 17 Mold2 descriptors in a tree was used. Average rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in a hundred CV tests were 60% and 61% for CYP3A4, and 62% and 70% for CYP2D6, respectively. The rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in the EV test were 73% and 86% for CYP3A4, and 76% and 90% for CYP2D6, respectively. Thus, both SDAR and SAR methods demonstrated a comparable performance in modeling a large set of structurally diverse data. Based on unique NMR structural descriptors, the new SDAR modeling method complements the existing SAR techniques, providing an independent estimator that can increase confidence in a structure-activity assessment. When modeling was applied to hazardous environmental chemicals, it was found that up to 20% of them may be substrates and up to 10% of them may be inhibitors of the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isoforms. The developed models provide a rare opportunity for the environmental health branch of the public health service to extrapolate to hazardous chemicals directly from human clinical data. Therefore, the pharmacological and environmental health branches are both expected to benefit from these reported models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QSAR and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Oxime Esters of 2,6-Diazaanthracene-9,10-dione and 4,5-Diazafluoren-9-one as Photo-induced DNA-Cleaving Agents
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3370-3382; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033370
Received: 29 January 2012 / Revised: 10 March 2012 / Accepted: 12 March 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two series of oxime esters containing the 2,6-diazaanthracene-9,10-dione bis-(O-benzoyloxime) and 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one O-9-benzoyloxime moieties have been synthesized and tested as photo-induced DNA cleaving agents. All these compounds were found to cleave DNA upon irradiation with 312 nm UV light. The structure-activity
[...] Read more.
Two series of oxime esters containing the 2,6-diazaanthracene-9,10-dione bis-(O-benzoyloxime) and 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one O-9-benzoyloxime moieties have been synthesized and tested as photo-induced DNA cleaving agents. All these compounds were found to cleave DNA upon irradiation with 312 nm UV light. The structure-activity relationship of these molecules for DNA cleavage was established. A plausible reaction mechanism is also proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Azanucleosides through Regioselective Ring-Opening of Epoxides Catalyzed by Sulphated Zirconia under Microwave and Solvent-Free Conditions
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3359-3369; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033359
Received: 10 February 2012 / Revised: 7 March 2012 / Accepted: 9 March 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New azanucleosides were obtained using sulphated zirconia (ZS) as catalyst in the nucleophilic oxirane ring opening reaction of 1-allyl-3-(oxiran-2-ylmethyl) pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione and 1-allyl-5-methyl-3-(oxiran-2-ylmethyl)-pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, with (S)-prolinol. The new templates were obtained with good yields following
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New azanucleosides were obtained using sulphated zirconia (ZS) as catalyst in the nucleophilic oxirane ring opening reaction of 1-allyl-3-(oxiran-2-ylmethyl) pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione and 1-allyl-5-methyl-3-(oxiran-2-ylmethyl)-pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, with (S)-prolinol. The new templates were obtained with good yields following a route which exploits the reactivity of epoxides in the presence of sulphated zirconia as catalyst. The key step was carried out using microwave and solvent-free conditions and proceeds with high selectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Synthesis of Tetrasubstituted Alkenes via Metathesis
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3348-3358; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033348
Received: 28 February 2012 / Revised: 7 March 2012 / Accepted: 13 March 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (463 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fully substituted olefin generation via metathesis is presented. Catalyst development, optimization of reaction conditions and substrate screening are included. In addition, asymmetric alkene metathesis, the cross metathesis reaction for this transformation and its application in natural products will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olefin Metathesis and Its Application)
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Open AccessArticle Salvianolic Acid A Inhibits PDGF-BB Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration and Proliferation While Does Not Constrain Endothelial Cell Proliferation and Nitric Oxide Biosynthesis
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3333-3347; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033333
Received: 31 January 2012 / Revised: 3 March 2012 / Accepted: 6 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (849 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are critical events in the initiation and development of restenosis upon percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Polyphenols have been suggested to ameliorate post-angioplasty restenosis. Salvianolic A (SalA) is one of the most abundant polyphenols
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Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are critical events in the initiation and development of restenosis upon percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Polyphenols have been suggested to ameliorate post-angioplasty restenosis. Salvianolic A (SalA) is one of the most abundant polyphenols extracted from salvia. In this study, we investigated the effect of salvianolic A (SalA) on the migration and proliferation of VSMCs. We found a preferential interaction of SalA with cellular systems that rely on the PDGF signal, but not on the EGF and bFGF signal. SalA inhibits PDGF-BB induced VSMC proliferation and migration in the concentration range from 0.01 to 0.1 μM. The inhibition of SalA on VSMC proliferation is associated with cell cycle arrest. We also found that SalA inhibits the PDGFRβ-ERK1/2 signaling cascade activated by PDGF-BB in VSMCs. In addition, SalA does not influence the proliferation of endothelial cells, the synthesis of NO and eNOS protein expression. Our results suggest that SalA inhibits migration and proliferation of VSMCs induced by PDGF-BB via the inhibition of the PDGFRβ-ERK1/2 cascade, but that it does not constrain endothelial cell proliferation and nitric oxide biosynthesis. Thus, the present study suggests a novel adjunct pharmacological strategy to prevent angioplasty-related restenosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phytoecdysteroids from the Roots of Achyranthes bidentata Blume
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3324-3332; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033324
Received: 23 February 2012 / Revised: 8 March 2012 / Accepted: 12 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two new phytoecdysteroids, (25S)-20,22-O-(R-ethylidene)inokosterone (1) and 20,22-O-(R-3-methoxycarbonyl)propylidene-20-hydroxyecdysone (2), together with six known phytoecdysteroids 3–8 were isolated from the roots of Achyranthes bidentata Blume. The new structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic
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Two new phytoecdysteroids, (25S)-20,22-O-(R-ethylidene)inokosterone (1) and 20,22-O-(R-3-methoxycarbonyl)propylidene-20-hydroxyecdysone (2), together with six known phytoecdysteroids 3–8 were isolated from the roots of Achyranthes bidentata Blume. The new structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic studies and chemical evidences. The absolute configuration at C-25 in the structure of known compound 3 was determined by chemical and spectroscopic means. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phenolic Concentrations and Antioxidant Properties of Wines Made from North American Grapes Grown in China
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3304-3323; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033304
Received: 4 January 2012 / Revised: 17 February 2012 / Accepted: 21 February 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The characteristics of wine phenolics found in several North American and (for comparison) European grape cultivars grown in China were analyzed. This was done to find non-Vitis vinifera wines with prominent features in order to diversify the kinds of wines. The phenolic
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The characteristics of wine phenolics found in several North American and (for comparison) European grape cultivars grown in China were analyzed. This was done to find non-Vitis vinifera wines with prominent features in order to diversify the kinds of wines. The phenolic richness and antioxidant activity decreased in the order: red > rose > white wines. In the red wines, the American grape ‘Cynthiana’ had the highest total concentrations of phenols, anthocyanins, flavonols and phenolic acids, as well as antioxidant capacity, followed by the French hybrid ‘Chambourcin’, the lowest were detected in two European grape varieties, ‘Merlot’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, while the total flavon-3-ols levels were reversed among these red grape cultivars. The highest concentration of stilbenes out of all the wines analyzed was found in the ‘Merlot’ variety. There were significant differences among wine phenolic compositions between North American and European grape cultivars. The antioxidant activities were significantly related to the concentrations of total phenols (r2 = 0.996), anthocyanins (r2 = 0.984), flavonols (r2 = 0.850) and gallic acid (r2 = 0.797). The prominent features of wine aroma and nutrition could make the American grape wines attractive to consumers. It is therefore necessary to perform further research on cultural practices and wine making involving these grapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Antiproliferative, Antimicrobial and Apoptosis Inducing Effects of Compounds Isolated from Inula viscosa
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3291-3303; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033291
Received: 29 January 2012 / Revised: 22 February 2012 / Accepted: 9 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (568 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The antiproliferative and antimicrobial effects of thirteen compounds isolated from Inula viscosa (L.) were tested in this study. The antiproliferative activity was tested against three cell lines using the MTT assay. The microdilution method was used to study the antimicrobial activity against two
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The antiproliferative and antimicrobial effects of thirteen compounds isolated from Inula viscosa (L.) were tested in this study. The antiproliferative activity was tested against three cell lines using the MTT assay. The microdilution method was used to study the antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive bacteria, two Gram negative bacteria and one fungus. The apoptotic activity was determined using a TUNEL colorimetric assay. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphological changes in treated cancer cells and bacteria. Antiproliferative activity was observed in four flavonoids (nepetin, 3,3′-di-O-methylquercetin, hispidulin, and 3-O-methylquercetin). 3,3′-di-O-Methylquercetin and 3-O-methylquercetin showed selective antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells, with IC50 values of 10.11 and 11.23 µg/mL, respectively. Both compounds exert their antiproliferative effect by inducing apoptosis as indicted by the presence of DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, and formation of apoptotic bodies in treated cancer cells. The antimicrobial effect of Inula viscosa were also noticed in 3,3′-di-O-methylquercetin and 3-O-methyquercetin that inhibited Bacillus cereus at MIC of 62.5 and 125 µg/mL, respectively. Salmonella typhimurium was inhibited by both compounds at MIC of 125 µg/mL. 3,3′-di-O-Methylquercetin induced damage in bacterial cell walls and cytoplasmic membranes. Methylated quercetins isolated from Inula viscosa have improved anticancer and antimicrobial properties compared with other flavonoids and are promising as potential anticancer and antimicrobial agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Effects of a Lectin-Like Substance from Clitoria fairchildiana R. Howard Seeds
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3277-3290; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033277
Received: 8 February 2012 / Revised: 7 March 2012 / Accepted: 9 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lectins are proteins that have the ability to bind specifically and reversibly to carbohydrates and glycoconjugates, without altering the structure of the glycosyl ligand. They are found in organisms such as viruses, plants and humans, and they have been shown to possess important
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Lectins are proteins that have the ability to bind specifically and reversibly to carbohydrates and glycoconjugates, without altering the structure of the glycosyl ligand. They are found in organisms such as viruses, plants and humans, and they have been shown to possess important biological activities. The objective of this study was to purify and characterize lectins in the seeds of Clitoria fairchildiana, as well as to verify their biological activities. The results indicated the presence of a lectin (CFAL) in the glutelin acid protein fraction, which agglutinated native rabbit erythrocytes. CFAL was purified by column chromatography ion-exchange, DEAE-Sephacel, which was obtained from a peak of protein retained in the matrix by applying 0.5 M NaCl using the step-wise method. Electrophoretic analysis of this lectin in SDS-PAGE indicated a two band pattern protein molecular mass of approximately 100 and 116 kDa. CFAL proved to be unspecific to all carbohydrates/glycoconjugates in common use for the sugar inhibition test. This lectin showed no significant cytotoxicity to human red blood cells. It was observed that CFAL has anti-inflammatory activity in the paw edema induced by carrageenan model, in which a 64% diminution in edema was observed. Antinociceptive effects were observed for CFAL in the abdominal writhing test (induced by acetic acid), in which increasing doses of the lectin caused reduction in the number of contortions by up to 72%. It was concluded that the purified and characterized lectin from the seeds of Clitoria fairchildiana has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity, and is not cytotoxic to human erythrocytes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spectral Properties of Substituted Coumarins in Solution and Polymer Matrices
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3259-3276; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033259
Received: 23 January 2012 / Revised: 7 March 2012 / Accepted: 8 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 56 | PDF Full-text (441 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The absorption and fluorescence spectra of substituted coumarins (2-oxo-2H-chromenes) were investigated in solvents and in polymer matrices. The substitutions involved were: (1) by groups with varying electron donating ability such as CH3, OCH3 and N(CH3)2
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The absorption and fluorescence spectra of substituted coumarins (2-oxo-2H-chromenes) were investigated in solvents and in polymer matrices. The substitutions involved were: (1) by groups with varying electron donating ability such as CH3, OCH3 and N(CH3)2, mainly, but not exclusively, in positions 7 and (2), by either CHO or 4-PhNHCONHN=CH- in position 3. While the spectra of non-substituted coumarin-3-carbaldehyde has absorptions at approximately 305 and 350 nm, substitution at position 7 leads to remarkable changes in the shape of the absorption spectrum and shifts the absorption to a longer wavelength. Similarly, the replacement of the formyl group with a semicarbazide group substantially influences the shape of the absorption spectrum, and coumarins which have only N(CH3)2 in position 7 experience small changes. These changes are associated with the increasing intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) character and increasing conjugation length of the chromophoric system, respectively, in the studied molecules. The fluorescence is almost negligible for derivatives which have H in this position. With increasing electron donating ability, and the possibility of a positive mesomeric (+M) effect of the substituent in position 7 of the coumarin moiety, the fluorescence increases, and this increase is most intense when N(CH3)2 substitutes in this position, for both 3-substituted derivatives. Spectral measurements of the studied coumarins in polymer matrices revealed that the absorption and fluorescence maxima lay within the maxima for solvents, and that coumarins yield more intense fluorescence in polymer matrices than when they are in solution. The quantum yield of derivatives which have a dimethylamino group in position 7 in polymer matrices approaches 1, and the fluorescence lifetime is within the range of 0.5–4 ns. The high quantum yield of 7-dimethylamino derivatives qualifies them as laser dyes which have kF higher than knr in the given medium. This is caused by stiffening of the coumarin structure in polar polymer matrices, such as PMMA and PVC, due to higher micro-viscosity than in solution and intermolecular dipole-dipole interaction between chromophore (dopant) and matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Biodegradability and Biocompatibility Study of Poly(Chitosan-g-lactic Acid) Scaffolds
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3243-3258; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033243
Received: 6 February 2012 / Revised: 26 February 2012 / Accepted: 12 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (942 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A biodegradable, biocompatible poly(chitosan-g-lactic acid) (PCLA) scaffold was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The PCLA scaffold was obtained by grafting lactic acid (LA) onto the amino groups on chitosan (CS) without a catalyst. The PCLA scaffolds were
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A biodegradable, biocompatible poly(chitosan-g-lactic acid) (PCLA) scaffold was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The PCLA scaffold was obtained by grafting lactic acid (LA) onto the amino groups on chitosan (CS) without a catalyst. The PCLA scaffolds were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The biodegradabilty was determined by mass loss in vitro, and degradation in vivo as a function of feed ratio of LA/CS. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) culture experiments and histological examination were performed to evaluate the PCLA scaffolds’ biocompatibility. The results indicated that PCLA was promising for tissue engineering application. Full article
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Open AccessReview Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3202-3242; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033202
Received: 22 December 2011 / Revised: 15 February 2012 / Accepted: 6 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 197 | PDF Full-text (684 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carotenoids are natural fat-soluble pigments that provide bright coloration to plants and animals. Dietary intake of carotenoids is inversely associated with the risk of a variety of cancers in different tissues. Preclinical studies have shown that some carotenoids have potent antitumor effects both
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Carotenoids are natural fat-soluble pigments that provide bright coloration to plants and animals. Dietary intake of carotenoids is inversely associated with the risk of a variety of cancers in different tissues. Preclinical studies have shown that some carotenoids have potent antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles for the compounds. Since chemoprevention is one of the most important strategies in the control of cancer development, molecular mechanism-based cancer chemoprevention using carotenoids seems to be an attractive approach. Various carotenoids, such as β-carotene, a-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, have been proven to have anti-carcinogenic activity in several tissues, although high doses of β-carotene failed to exhibit chemopreventive activity in clinical trials. In this review, cancer prevention using carotenoids are reviewed and the possible mechanisms of action are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Facile Synthesis and Herbicidal Evaluation of 4H-3,1-Benzoxazin-4-ones and 3H-Quinazolin-4-ones with 2-Phenoxymethyl Substituents
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3181-3201; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033181
Received: 18 January 2012 / Revised: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 1 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Series of 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones and 3H-quinazolin-4-ones with phenoxy-methyl substituents were rationally designed and easily synthesized via one-pot N-acylation/ring closure reactions of anthranilic acids with 2-phenoxyacetyl chlorides to yield the 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones, and subsequently substituted with amino derivatives to
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Series of 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones and 3H-quinazolin-4-ones with phenoxy-methyl substituents were rationally designed and easily synthesized via one-pot N-acylation/ring closure reactions of anthranilic acids with 2-phenoxyacetyl chlorides to yield the 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones, and subsequently substituted with amino derivatives to obtain the 3H-quinazolin-4-ones. The herbicidal evaluation was performed on the model plants barnyard grass (a monocotyledon) and rape (a dicotyledon), and most of the title compounds displayed high levels of phytotoxicity. The active substructure and inhibitory phenotype analysis indicated that these compounds could be attributed to the class of plant hormone inhibitors. A docking study of several representative compounds with the hormone receptor TIR1 revealed an appreciable conformational match in the active site, implicating these compounds are potential lead hits targeting this receptor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Variation in Antioxidant Attributes at Three Ripening Stages of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Fruit from Different Geographical Regions of Pakistan
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3165-3180; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033165
Received: 20 January 2012 / Revised: 3 March 2012 / Accepted: 10 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out to appraise the levels of total phenols and vitamin C as well as antioxidant potential at three different ripening stages (un-ripe, semi-ripe and fully-ripe) of guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit collected from three different geographical regions
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The present investigation was carried out to appraise the levels of total phenols and vitamin C as well as antioxidant potential at three different ripening stages (un-ripe, semi-ripe and fully-ripe) of guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit collected from three different geographical regions of Pakistan (Islamabad, Faisalabad and Bhakkar). The antioxidant potential of guava fruit extracts was assessed by means of different in-vitro antioxidant assays, namely inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, reducing power and radical scavenging capability. Overall, fruit at the un-ripe stage (G1) exhibited the highest levels of TPC, TFC, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity, followed by the semi-ripe (G2) and fully-ripe (G3) stages. On the other hand, vitamin C content increased as the fruit maturity progressed, with highest value seen at the fully-ripe stage (G3) followed by the semi-ripe (G2) and un-ripe stage (G1). The concentration of vitamin C in fruits varied as: Faisalabad (136.4–247.9 mg 100 g−1), Islamabad (89.7–149.7 mg 100 g−1) and Bhakkar (73.1–129.5 mg 100 g−1). The results showed that different stages of maturation and geographical locations had profound effects on the antioxidant activity and vitamin C contents of guava fruit. Full article
Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effect of Astragalus Polysaccharides on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced TNF-a and IL-1β Production in THP-1 Cells
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3155-3164; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033155
Received: 6 February 2012 / Revised: 28 February 2012 / Accepted: 2 March 2012 / Published: 12 March 2012
Cited by 53 | PDF Full-text (414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), one of main bioactive components in Astragalus membranaceus Bunge, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activities, but the molecular mechanisms behind this activity are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate expression of inflammatory cytokines and the MAPK/NF-κB pathway in
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Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), one of main bioactive components in Astragalus membranaceus Bunge, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activities, but the molecular mechanisms behind this activity are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate expression of inflammatory cytokines and the MAPK/NF-κB pathway in human THP-1 macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results showed that the concentrations of TNF-a and IL-1β released from LPS stimulated THP-1 cells increased significantly compared to control (p < 0.01). After treatment with APS, the TNF-a and IL-1β levels were significantly lower than those in the LPS group (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of TNF-a and IL-1β were also inhibited. Mechanistic studies indicated that APS strongly suppressed NF-κB activation and down-regulated the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK, which are important signaling pathways involved in the production of TNF-a and IL-1β, demonstrating that APS could suppress the production of TNF-a and IL-1β by LPS stimulated macrophages by inhibiting NF-κB activation and ERK and JNK phosphorylation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hydrolysis of Ibuprofen Nitrile and Ibuprofen Amide and Deracemisation of Ibuprofen Using Nocardia corallina B-276
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3148-3154; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033148
Received: 31 January 2012 / Revised: 6 March 2012 / Accepted: 7 March 2012 / Published: 12 March 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel application of whole cells of Nocardia corallina B-276 for the deracemisation of ibuprofen is reported. This microorganism successfully hydrolysed ibuprofen nitrile to ibuprofen amide, and ibuprofen amide to ibuprofen, using a suspension of cells in a potassium phosphate buffer solution (0.1
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A novel application of whole cells of Nocardia corallina B-276 for the deracemisation of ibuprofen is reported. This microorganism successfully hydrolysed ibuprofen nitrile to ibuprofen amide, and ibuprofen amide to ibuprofen, using a suspension of cells in a potassium phosphate buffer solution (0.1 M, pH = 7.0). These results can be explained by the presence of NHase and amidase enzymes, but the reactions are not enantioselective and low ee values were obtained. However, (R)-ibuprofen was isolated with >99% ee by a deracemisation process catalysed by N. corallina B-276. This is the first report of this kind of catalysis with this microorganism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Use of Spectroscopic, Zeta Potential and Molecular Dynamic Techniques to Study the Interaction between Human Holo-Transferrin and Two Antagonist Drugs: Comparison of Binary and Ternary Systems
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3114-3147; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033114
Received: 1 December 2011 / Revised: 24 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published: 12 March 2012
Cited by 48 | PDF Full-text (983 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For the first time, the binding of ropinirole hydrochloride (ROP) and aspirin (ASA) to human holo-transferrin (hTf) has been investigated by spectroscopic approaches (fluorescence quenching, synchronous fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism, resonance light scattering), as well as zeta potential
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For the first time, the binding of ropinirole hydrochloride (ROP) and aspirin (ASA) to human holo-transferrin (hTf) has been investigated by spectroscopic approaches (fluorescence quenching, synchronous fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism, resonance light scattering), as well as zeta potential and molecular modeling techniques, under simulated physiological conditions. Fluorescence analysis was used to estimate the effect of the ROP and ASA drugs on the fluorescence of hTf as well as to define the binding and quenching properties of binary and ternary complexes. The synchronized fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra demonstrated some micro-environmental and conformational changes around the Trp and Tyr residues with a faint red shift. Thermodynamic analysis displayed the van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds interactions are the major acting forces in stabilizing the complexes. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of complexes are static mechanism. The effect of the drugs aggregating on the hTf resulted in an enhancement of the resonance light scattering (RLS) intensity. The average binding distance between were computed according to the forster non-radiation energy transfer theory. The circular dichroism (CD) spectral examinations indicated that the binding of the drugs induced a conformational change of hTf. Measurements of the zeta potential indicated that the combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between ROP, ASA and hTf formed micelle-like clusters. The molecular modeling confirmed the experimental results. This study is expected to provide important insight into the interaction of hTf with ROP and ASA to use in various toxicological and therapeutic processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Profiling of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Dry Extracts from the Selected Sorbus Species
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3093-3113; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033093
Received: 15 February 2012 / Revised: 5 March 2012 / Accepted: 6 March 2012 / Published: 12 March 2012
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (490 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The antioxidant efficiency of dry extracts from inflorescences and/or leaves of seven Sorbus species was studied using four in vitro tests of SET (single electron transfer) and HAT-type (hydrogen atom transfer) mechanisms. The 70% methanol extracts and its diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, n
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The antioxidant efficiency of dry extracts from inflorescences and/or leaves of seven Sorbus species was studied using four in vitro tests of SET (single electron transfer) and HAT-type (hydrogen atom transfer) mechanisms. The 70% methanol extracts and its diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions were tested in parallel with the phenolic standards, e.g., caffeic acid, quercetin, BHA, BHT, and TroloxÒ. The SET-type activity of the extracts depended primarily on the extraction solvent. The most valuable extracts were n-butanol and ethyl acetate ones, which activity was high in the DPPH (EC50 = 3.2–5.2 μg/mL), TEAC (2.8–4.0 mmol Trolox®/g), and FRAP (9.8–13.7 mmol Fe2+/g) tests, and strongly correlated with the total phenolic levels (39.6–58.2% of gallic acid equivalents). The HPLC-PDA analysis of the extracts led to the identification of chlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, quercetin 3-O-sophoroside, and sexangularetin 3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside as the main components. Apart from flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids, proanthocyanidins have also a significant impact on the SET-type activity. The HAT-reactivity of the extracts in the linoleic acid peroxidation test (IC50 = 36.9–228.3 μg/mL) depended more strongly on the plant tissue than on the extraction solvent, and its correlation with the phenolic content was weak. Both SET and HAT-type activity of the most potent Sorbus extracts was comparable with the activity of the standards, indicating their great potential as effective sources for health products. Full article
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