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On the Complexity Analysis and Visualization of Musical Information

UISPA–LAETA/INEGI, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Institute of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2019, 21(7), 669;
Received: 7 June 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Fractional View of Complexity)
PDF [2467 KB, uploaded 10 July 2019]


This paper considers several distinct mathematical and computational tools, namely complexity, dimensionality-reduction, clustering, and visualization techniques, for characterizing music. Digital representations of musical works of four artists are analyzed by means of distinct indices and visualized using the multidimensional scaling technique. The results are then correlated with the artists’ musical production. The patterns found in the data demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach for assessing the complexity of musical information. View Full-Text
Keywords: complexity; information theory; multidimensional scaling; music complexity; information theory; multidimensional scaling; music

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lopes, A.M.; Tenreiro Machado, J.A. On the Complexity Analysis and Visualization of Musical Information. Entropy 2019, 21, 669.

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