Special Issue "Water Pollution Control Using Clay Minerals and Agricultural Biomass-Based Adsorbents"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and Wastewater Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 October 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tushar Kanti Sen Website E-Mail
Chemical Engineering, WA School of Mines: Minerals, Energy and Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, GPO Box U1987, 6845 Western Australia
Interests: water research; wastewater treatment; adsorption at solid/liquid interface; biosorption; anaerobic digestion and dewatering of wastewater sludge; rheology of slurry/sludge

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues

Water pollution occurs when potential pollutants from various industrial and other human activities are directly and indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment. These pollutants may be inorganic or organic contaminations, such as heavy metal ions, radioactive elements, dyes, surfactants and other hydrocarbons. Among the various separation techniques in water pollution control, adsorption is considered to be a superior technique because of its simple design, universal nature, high effectiveness, ease of operation and regeneration. When our water is polluted it is not only devastating to the environment but also to human health. Further there are various federal and state government and environmental protection agencies who strictly enforce regulations on minimizing pollutants from liquid discharge effluent streams. Therefore sustainable cost-effective development of removal techniques to alleviate such water pollution has been a challenging and demanding task for engineers, scientists, academics and researchers. In view of the importance of water quality and the environmental aspect, it is considered worthwhile to address the state-of-the-art of adsorption for the removal of water pollutants using various sustainable cost-effective alternative adsorbents. The nature and types of adsorbents are the main controlling parameters for effectiveness of the adsorption process. Therefore, the present Special Issue entitled “Water Pollution Control Using Clay Minerals and Agricultural Biomass-Based Adsorbents” aims at the publication of original research or review papers on the removal of inorganic/organic pollutants from water using various non-conventional, alternative, cost-effective adsorbents derived from natural biomass and clay minerals. The overall scope includes up-to-date developments on the current state of knowledge of clay minerals and various agricultural biomass-based adsorbents and their applications in the broad field of separation and purifications of water pollutants. Specifically, the topics of this special issue include, but are not restricted to:

  • Occurrence and sources of pollutants in water and wastewaters and their implications in health/environment
  • The synthesis, characteristics of biomass adsorbents, clay minerals and new emerging alternative adsorbents, composite adsorbents and their adsorptive effectiveness in water purification under various physicochemical process parameters
  • Kinetics, thermodynamics and equilibrium: experimental data, novel theories, and models
  • Adsorption calculations and modelling
  • Continuous column process and process design: packed bed and moving bed systems, experiments and dynamic modelling

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tushar Kanti Sen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Water pollution
  • Adsorptive separation technique
  • Agricultural by-product solid waste adsorbents
  • Clay minerals
  • Wastewater treatment
  • Nanomaterials in wastewater treatment
  • Anaerobic digestion
  • Conditioning agents in dewatering
  • Sludge rheology

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The-Proof-of-Concept of Biochar Floating Cover Influence on Water pH
Water 2019, 11(9), 1802; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091802 - 29 Aug 2019
Abstract
Studies have shown that biochar has the potential to remove organic and inorganic contaminants from wastewater. pH is known to have a crucial role in the transformation of pollutants. In this research, we explore the feasibility of using biochars properties to control the [...] Read more.
Studies have shown that biochar has the potential to remove organic and inorganic contaminants from wastewater. pH is known to have a crucial role in the transformation of pollutants. In this research, we explore the feasibility of using biochars properties to control the pH near the water–air interface, so the gaseous emissions from water (or wastewater) could be mitigated. This study aimed to test the effects of a thin layer biochar addition on the spatial and temporal variation of water pH. Two types of biochar and water were tested. Highly alkaline porous (HAP; pH 9.2) biochars made of corn stover and red oak (RO; pH 7.5) were applied surficially to tap (pH 9.5) and deionized water (DI) (pH 5.4). The spatial pH of solutions was measured every 1 mm of depth on days 0, 2, and 4 after biochar application. The results showed that HAP biochar increased the pH of both tap and DI water, while RO decreased tap water pH and increased DI water pH. On day 0, there was no effect on tap water pH, while a pH change in DI water was observed due to its lower buffer capacity. In addition, the pH (temporal) migration from topically applied biochar into an aqueous solution was visualized using a colorimetric pH indicator and corn starch to increase viscosity (to prevent biochars from sinking). The results prove that the surficial application of biochar to water was able to change both the pH near the water–air interface and the pH of the solution with time. The pH change was dependent on the biochar pH and water buffer capacity. These results warrant further research into the floatability of biochars and into designing biochars with specific pH, which could be a factor influencing gaseous emissions from liquids that are sensitive to pH. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization Study for the Desorption of Methylene Blue Dye from Clay Based Adsorbent Coating
Water 2019, 11(6), 1304; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061304 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Batch desorption experiments of methylene blue (MB) dye from a clay adsorbent coating were carried out to evaluate the maximum desorption conditions. Combination of thermal and chemical regeneration techniques were used for the desorption process. The desorption of MB was found to be [...] Read more.
Batch desorption experiments of methylene blue (MB) dye from a clay adsorbent coating were carried out to evaluate the maximum desorption conditions. Combination of thermal and chemical regeneration techniques were used for the desorption process. The desorption of MB was found to be 70% using an HCl solvent after heating adsorbent coating at 160 °C. The optimization study was carried out to identity the optimum desorption conditions using MINITAB 14 software. The individual and interaction effects of three factors, temperature, dye concentration and contact time for desorption of dye were determine by applying response surface methodology (RSM). The optimization results showed that all three factors have main effects whereas the interaction of concentration–time is significant as compared to other interactions. The findings exhibit a maximum desorption efficiency 23 mg/g at 60 °C for 100 mg/L of dye and 150 min of contact time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Removal of Cr(VI) from Water by Biochar and Activated Carbon Prepared through Hydrothermal Carbonization and Pyrolysis: Adsorption-Coupled Reduction Mechanism
Water 2019, 11(6), 1164; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061164 - 03 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Three carbonaceous porous materials (biochar and activated carbon) were developed from the Tectona grandis tree sawdust. The applied process of two-stage preparation included pre-treatment through hydrothermal carbonization at 190 °C and subsequent pyrolysis at 800 °C. Two chemical activating agents (K2CO [...] Read more.
Three carbonaceous porous materials (biochar and activated carbon) were developed from the Tectona grandis tree sawdust. The applied process of two-stage preparation included pre-treatment through hydrothermal carbonization at 190 °C and subsequent pyrolysis at 800 °C. Two chemical activating agents (K2CO3 and ZnCl2) were used to prepared activated carbons (K2CO3-AC and ZnCl2-AC), respectively. They were characterized by textural property, morphology, and surface element components and applied to remove Cr(VI) from solution at various solution pH values and initial Cr(VI) concentrations. Results showed that the textural parameters (SBET and VTotal) of the prepared material were 1757 m2/g and 1.027 cm3/g for Zn-Cl2-AC, 1013 m2/g and 0.418 cm3/g for K2CO3-AC, and 792 m2/g and 0.345 cm3/g for biochar. The adsorption process reached the highest efficiency at pH 3.0. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity indicated the decreasing order: ZnCl2-AC (127 mg/g) > K2CO3-AC (103 mg/g) > biochar (83.5 mg/g). The removal mechanism of Cr(V) from solution was regarded as an adsorption-coupled reduction, namely (1) partial reduction of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) during the adsorption process and (2) adsorption of the Cr(VI) anions through electrostatic attraction and pore filling and the reduced Cr(III) cations through complexation, Cπ–cation interaction, cation exchange, and pore filing. Therefore, the prepared biochar and activated carbon can server as promising adsorbents to efficiently remove both Cr(VI) and Cr(III) from water. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Process Optimization Study of Zn2+ Adsorption on Biochar-Alginate Composite Adsorbent by Response Surface Methodology (RSM)
Water 2019, 11(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020325 - 14 Feb 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
A novel biochar alginate composite adsorbent was synthesized and applied for removal of Zn2+ ions from aqueous solution. Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies showed the suitability of the adsorbent. From a Langmuir isotherm study, the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of the composite [...] Read more.
A novel biochar alginate composite adsorbent was synthesized and applied for removal of Zn2+ ions from aqueous solution. Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies showed the suitability of the adsorbent. From a Langmuir isotherm study, the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of the composite adsorbent was found to be 120 mg/g. To investigate the effect of process variables like initial Zn2+ concentration (25–100 mg/L), adsorbent dose (0.4–8 g/L) and temperature (298–318 K) on Zn2+ adsorption, response surface methodology (RSM) based on a three independent variables central composite design of experiments was employed. A quadratic model equation was developed to predict the relationship between the independent variables and response for maximum Zn2+ removal. The optimization study reveals that the initial Zn2+ concentration and adsorbent dose were the most effective parameters for removal of Zn2+ due to higher magnitude of F-statistic value which effects to a large extent of Zn2+ removal. The optimum physicochemical condition for maximum removal of Zn2+ was determined from the RSM study. The optimum conditions are 43.18 mg/L initial metal ion concentration, 0.062 g adsorbent dose and a system temperature of 313.5 K. At this particular condition, the removal efficiency of Zn2+ was obtained as 85%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Greener Method for the Removal of Toxic Metal Ions from the Wastewater by Application of Agricultural Waste as an Adsorbent
Water 2018, 10(10), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101316 - 23 Sep 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The presence of inorganic pollutants such as metal ions (Ni2+, Pb2+, Cr6+) in water, probably by long-term geochemical changes and from the effluents of various industries, causes diseases and disorders (e.g., cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, muscular dystrophy, hepatitis, [...] Read more.
The presence of inorganic pollutants such as metal ions (Ni2+, Pb2+, Cr6+) in water, probably by long-term geochemical changes and from the effluents of various industries, causes diseases and disorders (e.g., cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, muscular dystrophy, hepatitis, and multiple sclerosis). Conventional methods for their removal are limited by technical and economic barriers. In biosorption, low-cost and efficient biomaterials are used for this purpose. In this study, Brassica Campestris stems from the agriculture waste and has been used for the removal of Ni2+, Cr6+ and Pb2+ ions from an aqueous solution containing all the ions. Effect of different parameters, e.g., pH, contact time, metal ion initial concentration, adsorbent dose, agitation rate and temperature were analyzed and optimized. The adsorbent worked well for removal of the Pb2+ and Cr6+ as compared to Ni2+. The atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and FTIR investigation of adsorbent before and after shows a clear difference in the adsorbent capability. The highest adsorption percentage was found at 98%, 91%, and 49% respectively, under the optimized parameters. Furthermore, the Langmuir isotherm was found better in fitting to the experimental data than that of the Freundlich isotherm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Formation of Palygorskite Clay from Treated Diatomite and its Application for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solution
Water 2018, 10(9), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091257 - 15 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Environmental contamination by toxic heavy metals is a serious worldwide phenomenon. Thus, their removal is a crucial issue. In this study, we found an efficient adsorbent to remove Cu2+ and Ni2+ from aqueous solution using two materials. Chemical modification was used [...] Read more.
Environmental contamination by toxic heavy metals is a serious worldwide phenomenon. Thus, their removal is a crucial issue. In this study, we found an efficient adsorbent to remove Cu2+ and Ni2+ from aqueous solution using two materials. Chemical modification was used to obtain palygorskite clay from diatomite. The adsorbents were characterized using X-ray florescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effects of contact time, initial concentration, temperature and pH on the adsorption process were investigated. Our results showed that the (%) of maximum adsorption capacity of diatomite was 78.44% for Cu2+ at pH 4 and 77.3% for Ni2+ at pH 7, while the (%) of the maximum adsorption on palygorskite reached 91% for Cu2+ and 87.05% for Ni2+, in the same condition. The results indicate that the pseudo-second-order model can describe the adsorption process. Furthermore, the adsorption isotherms could be adopted by the Langmuir and the Freundlich models with good correlation coefficient (R2). Thus, our results showed that palygorskite prepared from Tunisian diatomite is a good adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from water. Full article
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