Special Issue "Advances in Modeling and Management of Urban Water Networks"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Alberto Campisano
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
Interests: urban water systems; water supply and distribution; urban drainage; sewer systems; rainwater harvesting; real time control; sediment transport
Prof. Dr. Enrico Creaco
Website
Guest Editor
DICAr, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 3, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Interests: water distribution modelling; urban drainage modelling; real-time control; sediment transport in sewers; sustainable solutions for urban drainage systems; flood control in urban areas
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, the modelling of urban water networks has experienced a boost for coping with the new challenges coming from modern society. Both water distribution and urban drainage systems are experiencing new trends for improved management.  The challenges include, among others, the analysis of the behaviour of water distribution systems under “non-standard” operating conditions, as well as the improvement of network performances through the introduction of smart system solutions. With regard to urban drainage systems, new approaches and methods have been developed to model sustainable solutions for runoff control and peak flow mitigation. The aim of this Special Issue is to provide an overview of the recent trends in hydraulic modelling of urban water networks. Topics will concern new findings and developments in the modelling and management of urban water networks, including intermittent water supply, real time control for pressure and leakage management in water distribution networks, sustainable solutions and green/blue infrastructures for urban drainage systems, flood control, and flood risk assessment especially in urban areas.

Prof. Alberto Campisano
Prof. Enrico Creaco
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Water network modelling
  • Numerical models
  • Hydraulic software
  • Intermittent water distribution systems modelling
  • Real-time control
  • Smart water networks
  • Sustainable urban drainage systems
  • Flood control
  • Flood risk assessment in urban areas

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Advances in Modeling and Management of Urban Water Networks
Water 2020, 12(11), 2956; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12112956 - 22 Oct 2020
Abstract
This Editorial presents a representative collection of 15 papers, presented in the Special Issue on Advances in Modeling and Management of Urban Water Networks (UWNs), and frames them in the current research trends. The most analyzed systems in the Special Issue are the [...] Read more.
This Editorial presents a representative collection of 15 papers, presented in the Special Issue on Advances in Modeling and Management of Urban Water Networks (UWNs), and frames them in the current research trends. The most analyzed systems in the Special Issue are the Water Distribution Systems (WDSs), with the following four topics explored: asset management, modelling of demand and hydraulics, energy recovery, and pipe burst identification and leakage reduction. In the first topic, the multi-objective optimization of interventions on the network is presented to find trade-off solutions between costs and efficiency. In the second topic, methodologies are presented to simulate and predict demand and to simulate network behavior in emergency scenarios. In the third topic, a methodology is presented for the multi-objective optimization of pump-as-turbine (PAT) installation sites in transmission mains. In the fourth topic, methodologies for pipe burst identification and leakage reduction are presented. As for the Urban Drainage Systems (UDSs), the two explored topics are asset management, with a system upgrade to reduce flooding, and modelling of flow and water quality, with analyses on the transition from surface to pressurized flow, impact of water use reduction on the operation of UDSs and sediment transport in pressurized pipes. The Special Issue also includes one paper dealing with the hydraulic modelling of an urban river with a complex cross-section. Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Hydraulic Simulation and Analysis of an Urban Center’s Aqueducts Using Emergency Scenarios for Network Operation: The Case of Thessaloniki City in Greece
Water 2020, 12(6), 1627; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061627 - 06 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The present work aims at developing a hydraulic simulation model for the aqueducts of Thessaloniki city in Greece to model the current operating state of the network, as well as its response to emergency conditions resulting from failure in one of them. Hydraulic [...] Read more.
The present work aims at developing a hydraulic simulation model for the aqueducts of Thessaloniki city in Greece to model the current operating state of the network, as well as its response to emergency conditions resulting from failure in one of them. Hydraulic simulations performed using WaterGEMS software in an extended period simulation (EPS) mode entail estimating water demand in all areas of the conurbation and calibrating the model under both normal and abnormal conditions. Calibration parameters set include the pipes’ roughness coefficients and head loss characteristics of throttle control valves (TCVs). Failure in the city’s aqueducts is confronted with the development and hydraulic simulation of five emergency scenarios of network operation, two of which consider possible interconnections of the studied aqueducts. These scenarios, which include appropriately defined intermittent water supply schedules for the aqueducts, are created on the basis of fair and equitable management of water among the different areas of the city, also assuming a small number of interventions/operations during the crisis. The simulations performed reveal quite a satisfactory compliance of the system’s operation with the defined schedules, and an improved management of limited water reserves in some areas of the network when considering interconnections of the city’s aqueducts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Suppress Numerical Oscillations in Transient Mixed Flow Simulations with a Modified HLL Solver
Water 2020, 12(5), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051245 - 27 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Transition between free-surface and pressurized flows is a crucial phenomenon in many hydraulic systems. During simulation of such phenomenon, severe numerical oscillations may appear behind filling-bores, causing unphysical pressure variations and computation failure. This paper reviews existing oscillation-suppressing methods, while only one of [...] Read more.
Transition between free-surface and pressurized flows is a crucial phenomenon in many hydraulic systems. During simulation of such phenomenon, severe numerical oscillations may appear behind filling-bores, causing unphysical pressure variations and computation failure. This paper reviews existing oscillation-suppressing methods, while only one of them can obtain a stable result under a realistic acoustic wave speed. We derive a new oscillation-suppressing method with first-order accuracy. This simple method contains two parameters, Pa and Pb, and their values can be determined easily. It can sufficiently suppress numerical oscillations under an acoustic wave speed of 1000 ms−1. Good agreement is found between simulation results and analytical results or experimental data. This paper can help readers to choose an appropriate oscillation-suppressing method for numerical simulations of flow regime transition under a realistic acoustic wave speed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Stochastic Model to Predict Flow, Nutrient and Temperature Changes in a Sewer under Water Conservation Scenarios
Water 2020, 12(4), 1187; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041187 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Reducing water use could impact existing sewer systems but this is not currently well understood. This work describes a new flow and wastewater quality model developed to investigate this impact. SIMDEUM WW® was used to generate stochastic appliance-specific discharge profiles for wastewater [...] Read more.
Reducing water use could impact existing sewer systems but this is not currently well understood. This work describes a new flow and wastewater quality model developed to investigate this impact. SIMDEUM WW® was used to generate stochastic appliance-specific discharge profiles for wastewater flow and concentration, which were fed into InfoWorks® ICM to quantify the impacts within the sewer network. The model was validated using measured field data from a sewer system in Amsterdam serving 418 households. Wastewater concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and total phosphorus (TPH) were sampled on an hourly basis, for one week. The results obtained showed that the InfoWorks® model predicted the mass flow of pollutants well (R-values 0.69, 0.72 and 0.75 for COD, TKN and TPH respectively) but, due to the current lack of a time-varying solids transport model within InfoWorks®, the prediction for wastewater concentration parameters was less reliable. Still, the model was deemed capable of analysing the effects of three water conservation strategies (greywater reuse, rainwater harvesting and water-saving appliances) on flow, nutrient concentrations, and temperature in sewer networks. Results show through a 62% reduction in sewer flow, COD, TKN and TPH concentrations increased by up to 111%, 84% and 75% respectively, offering more favourable conditions for nutrient recovery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulating Flow of An Urban River Course with Complex Cross Sections Based on the MIKE21 FM Model
Water 2020, 12(3), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030761 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this case study, the method of unsteady flow was used to study the flow characteristics of a planned urban river course, River A, with complex cross sections, based on the MIKE21 FM hydrodynamic module, which is an important tool for analyzing and [...] Read more.
In this case study, the method of unsteady flow was used to study the flow characteristics of a planned urban river course, River A, with complex cross sections, based on the MIKE21 FM hydrodynamic module, which is an important tool for analyzing and solving hydrodynamic problems. First, the rationality and feasibility of the planning scheme were verified by building a two-dimensional numerical model, which can provide a scientific basis for the river course planning. Then, the flow characteristic of the river course was analyzed and summarized, to give several suggestions and improvement measures for follow-up river planning. Finally, on the basis of the case study, the general rules of hydraulic factors in river courses with complex cross sections were summarized, which can facilitate the understanding of the genesis and evolution of river courses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling of Urban Water Consumption Using Chaotic Approach (Case Study: City of Kelowna)
Water 2020, 12(3), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030753 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study investigated urban water consumption complexity using chaos theory to improve forecasting performance to help optimize system management, reduce costs and improve reliability. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate urban water distribution consumption complexity and its role in forecasting [...] Read more.
This study investigated urban water consumption complexity using chaos theory to improve forecasting performance to help optimize system management, reduce costs and improve reliability. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate urban water distribution consumption complexity and its role in forecasting technique performance, (2) evaluate forecasting models by periodicity and lead time, and (3) propose a suitable forecasting technique based on operator applications and performance through various time scales. An urban consumption dataset obtained from the City of Kelowna (British Columbia, Canada) was used as a test case to forecast future consumption values using varying lead times under different temporal scales to identify models which may improve forecasting performance. Chaos theory techniques were employed to inform model optimization. This study attempted to address the paucity of studies on chaos theory applications in water consumption forecasting. This was accomplished by applying non-linear approximation, dynamic investigation, and phase space reconstruction for input variables, to improve the accuracy in various periodicity and lead time. To reconstruct the phase space, lag time was calculated using average mutual information for daily resolution as 17 days to reconstruct the phase space. The optimum embedding dimension and correlation exponent for the phase space were 18 and 3.5, respectively. Comparing the results, the non-linear local approximation model provided the best performance. The forecasting horizon for the models was 122 days. Moreover, phase space reconstruction improved the accuracy of the models for the different lead times. The findings of this study may improve forecasting performance and provide evidence to support further investigation of the chaotic behaviour of water consumption values over different time scales. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Bi-Objective Approach for Optimizing the Installation of PATs in Systems of Transmission Mains
Water 2020, 12(2), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020330 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
This paper proposes the bi-objective optimization for the installation of pumps operating as turbines (PATs) in systems of transmission mains, which typically operate at steady flow conditions to cater to tanks in the service of water distribution networks. The methodology aims to find [...] Read more.
This paper proposes the bi-objective optimization for the installation of pumps operating as turbines (PATs) in systems of transmission mains, which typically operate at steady flow conditions to cater to tanks in the service of water distribution networks. The methodology aims to find optimal solutions in the trade-off between installation costs and generated hydropower, which are to be minimized and maximized, respectively. While the bi-objective optimization is carried out by means of a genetic algorithm, an inner optimization sub-algorithm provides for the regulation of PAT settings. The applications concerned a real Italian case study, made up of nine systems of transmission mains. The methodology proved able to thoroughly explore the trade-off between the two objective functions, offering solutions able to recover hydropower up to 83 KW. In each system considered, the optimal solutions obtained were postprocessed in terms of long-life net profit. Due to the large geodesic elevation variations available in the case study, this analysis showed that, in all systems, the optimal solution with the highest value of generated hydropower was the most profitable under usual economic scenarios, with payback periods always lower than 3 years. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sediment Transport in Sewage Pressure Pipes, Part II: 1 D Numerical Simulation
Water 2020, 12(1), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010282 - 18 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Urban drainage modelling is a state-of-the-art tool to understand urban water cycles. Nevertheless, there are gaps in knowledge of urban water modelling. In particular pressure drainage systems are hardly considered in the scientific investigation of urban drainage systems, although they represent an important [...] Read more.
Urban drainage modelling is a state-of-the-art tool to understand urban water cycles. Nevertheless, there are gaps in knowledge of urban water modelling. In particular pressure drainage systems are hardly considered in the scientific investigation of urban drainage systems, although they represent an important link in its network structure. This work is the conclusion of a series of investigations that have dealt intensively with pressure drainage systems. In particular, this involves the transport of sediments in pressure pipes. In a real-world case study, sediment transport inside a pressure pipe in an urban region in northern Germany was monitored by online total suspended solids measurements. This in situ data is used in this study for the development and calibration of a sediment transport model. The model is applied to investigate sediments transport under low flow velocities (due to energy saving intentions). The resulting simulation over 30 days pumping operation shows that a transport of sediments even at very low flow velocities of 0.27 m/s and under various inflow conditions (dry weather and storm water inflow) is feasible. Hence, with the help of the presented sediment transport model, energy-efficient pump controls can be developed without increasing the risk of deposition formation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pattern Recognition and Clustering of Transient Pressure Signals for Burst Location
Water 2019, 11(11), 2279; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112279 - 30 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A large volume of the water produced for public supply is lost in the systems between sources and consumers. An important—in many cases the greatest—fraction of these losses are physical losses, mainly related to leaks and bursts in pipes and in consumer connections. [...] Read more.
A large volume of the water produced for public supply is lost in the systems between sources and consumers. An important—in many cases the greatest—fraction of these losses are physical losses, mainly related to leaks and bursts in pipes and in consumer connections. Fast detection and location of bursts plays an important role in the design of operation strategies for water loss control, since this helps reduce the volume lost from the instant the event occurs until its effective repair (run time). The transient pressure signals caused by bursts contain important information about their location and magnitude, and stamp on any of these events a specific "hydraulic signature". The present work proposes and evaluates three methods to disaggregate transient signals, which are used afterwards to train artificial neural networks (ANNs) to identify burst locations and calculate the leaked flow. In addition, a clustering process is also used to group similar signals, and then train specific ANNs for each group, thus improving both the computational efficiency and the location accuracy. The proposed methods are applied to two real distribution networks, and the results show good accuracy in burst location and characterization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sediment Transport in Sewage Pressure Pipes, Part I: Continuous Determination of Settling and Erosion Characteristics by In-Situ TSS Monitoring Inside a Pressure Pipe in Northern Germany
Water 2019, 11(10), 2125; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102125 - 13 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Continuous measurement systems are widely spread in sewers, especially in non-pressure systems. Due to its relatively low costs, turbidity sensors are often used as a surrogate for other indicators (solids, heavy metals, organic compounds). However, little effort is spent to turbidity sensors in [...] Read more.
Continuous measurement systems are widely spread in sewers, especially in non-pressure systems. Due to its relatively low costs, turbidity sensors are often used as a surrogate for other indicators (solids, heavy metals, organic compounds). However, little effort is spent to turbidity sensors in pressurized systems so far. This work presents the results of one year in-situ turbidity/total suspended solids (TSS) monitoring inside a pressure pipe (600 mm diameter) in an urban region in northern Germany. The high-resolution sensor data (5 s interval) are used for the determination of solids sedimentation (within pump pauses) and erosion behavior (within pump sequences). In-situ results from sensor measurements are similar to laboratory results presented in previous studies. TSS is decreasing exponentially in pump pauses under dry weather inflow with an average of 0.23 mg/(L s). During pump sequences, solids eroded completely at a bed shear stress of 0.5 N/m². Sedimentation and erosion behavior changes with the inflow rate. Solids settle faster with increasing inflow: at storm water inflow with an average of 0.9 mg/(L s) and at diurnal inflow variation up to 0.6 mg/(L s) at 12:00 a.m. The results are used as calibration data for a sediment transport simulation in Part II. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Geospatial Information System-Based Modeling Approach for Leakage Management in Urban Water Distribution Networks
Water 2019, 11(8), 1736; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081736 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to model one of the urban network problems, the issue of water leakage. In order to manage water leakage, the specific area should be partially isolated from the rest of the network. As Geospatial Information System (GIS) [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to model one of the urban network problems, the issue of water leakage. In order to manage water leakage, the specific area should be partially isolated from the rest of the network. As Geospatial Information System (GIS) is a powerful technology in spatial modeling, analysis and visualization of the water network management, a web GIS system for finding optimal valves to close in the event of an incident was developed. The system consists of a new GIS based algorithm for identifying the ideal valves to isolate the desired pipeline. The algorithm is able to identify optimum valves in a water distribution network in the shortest time by using the traceability in GIS web services. The system uses the functions of storing and managing the spatial data by expert users based on web 2.0 technology. The system was implemented and evaluated for Tehran’s district 5 water distribution network using Silverlight, C# and ArcGIS SDK (Software Development Kit). The evaluations demonstrated the accuracy of the algorithm and the operational viability of the system developed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cost–Benefit Prediction of Asset Management Actions on Water Distribution Networks
Water 2019, 11(8), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081542 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The potential costs and benefits of a combination of asset management actions on the water distribution network are predicted. Two types of actions are considered: maintenance actions and renewal actions. Leak detection and reparation of failures on connections and pipes define the set [...] Read more.
The potential costs and benefits of a combination of asset management actions on the water distribution network are predicted. Two types of actions are considered: maintenance actions and renewal actions. Leak detection and reparation of failures on connections and pipes define the set of potential maintenance actions to be carried out. Renewal actions concern connections, pipes, and meters. All these actions represent the model’s decision variables in order to determine a trade-off between two objectives: (i) the maximization of the water efficiency rate and (ii) the minimization of the total cost of actions to be carried out on the water system. The assessment of objective functions is ensured by an artificial neural network (ANN) trained on a French mandatory database «SISPEA». A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is coupled to the ANN to reach the set of compromised solutions representing potential actions to achieve. Applied to a real water distribution system in the southeast of France, the proposed decision model indicates that the improvement of water efficiency rate (WER) in the short term requires increasing operation expenditures (OPEX), which represent 99% of the total cost. Results show the existence of a threshold effect that implies to use the budget in a certain way to improve performance. A potential solution can be chosen by the decision maker among the generated Pareto front with regard to the constraint on the budget and the targeted WER. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Optimal Layout of Flow Meters and Valves in Water Network Partitioning
Water 2019, 11(5), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051087 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The paradigm of “divide and conquer” has been well used in Water Distribution Systems (WDSs) zoning planning in recent years. Indeed, Water Network Partitioning (WNP) has played an irreplaceable role in leakage control and pressure management; meanwhile it also has certain drawbacks, such [...] Read more.
The paradigm of “divide and conquer” has been well used in Water Distribution Systems (WDSs) zoning planning in recent years. Indeed, Water Network Partitioning (WNP) has played an irreplaceable role in leakage control and pressure management; meanwhile it also has certain drawbacks, such as reduction of the supply reliability of the pipe network system and increased terminal dead water, as a result of the closure of the pipe section. In this paper, an improvement is made to the method proposed by Di Nardo et al. (2013) for optimal location of flow meters and valves. Three improvements to the genetic algorithm are proposed in this work for better and faster optimization in the dividing phase of WNP: preliminary hydraulic analysis which reduces the number of decision variables; modifications to the crossover mechanism to protect the superior individuals in the later stage; and boundary pipe grouping and mutation based on the pipe importance. The objective function considers the master–subordinate relationship when minimizing the number of flow meters and the difference of hydraulic state compared to original WDS. Another objective function of minimizing the deterioration of water quality compared to original WDS is also evaluated. The proposed method is applied for the WNP in a real WDS. Results show that it plays an effective role in the optimization of layout of the flow meters and valves in WNP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Objective Optimization for Urban Drainage or Sewer Networks Rehabilitation through Pipes Substitution and Storage Tanks Installation
Water 2019, 11(5), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050935 - 03 May 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
Drainage networks are civil constructions which do not generally attract the attention of decision-makers. However, they are of crucial importance for cities; this can be seen when a city faces floods resulting in extensive and expensive damage. The increase of rain intensity due [...] Read more.
Drainage networks are civil constructions which do not generally attract the attention of decision-makers. However, they are of crucial importance for cities; this can be seen when a city faces floods resulting in extensive and expensive damage. The increase of rain intensity due to climate change may cause deficiencies in drainage networks built for certain defined flows which are incapable of coping with sudden increases, leading to floods. This problem can be solved using different strategies; one is the adaptation of the network through rehabilitation. A way to adapt the traditional network approach consists of substituting some pipes for others with greater diameters. More recently, the installation of storm tanks makes it possible to temporarily store excess water. Either of these solutions can be expensive, and an economic analysis must be done. Recent studies have related flooding with damage costs. In this work, a novel solution combining both approaches (pipes and tanks) is studied. A multi-objective optimization algorithm based on the NSGA-II is proposed for the rehabilitation of urban drainage networks through the substitution of pipes and the installation of storage tanks. Installation costs will be offset by damage costs associated with flooding. As a result, a set of optimal solutions that can be implemented based on the objectives to be achieved by municipalities or decisions makers. The methodology is finally applied to a real network located in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Urban Drainage Network Rehabilitation Considering Storm Tank Installation and Pipe Substitution
Water 2019, 11(3), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030515 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
The drainage networks of our cities are currently experiencing a growing increase in runoff flows, caused mainly by the waterproofing of the soil and the effects of climate change. Consequently, networks originally designed correctly must endure floods with frequencies much higher than those [...] Read more.
The drainage networks of our cities are currently experiencing a growing increase in runoff flows, caused mainly by the waterproofing of the soil and the effects of climate change. Consequently, networks originally designed correctly must endure floods with frequencies much higher than those considered in the design phase. The solution of such a problem is to improve the network. There are several ways to rehabilitate a network: conduit substitution as a former method or current methods such as storm tank installation or combined use of conduit substitution and storm tank installation. To find an optimal solution, deterministic or heuristic optimization methods are used. In this paper, a methodology for the rehabilitation of these drainage networks based on the combined use of the installation of storm tanks and the substitution of some conduits of the system is presented. For this, a cost-optimization method and a pseudo-genetic heuristic algorithm, whose efficiency has been validated in other fields, are applied. The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) model for hydraulic analysis of drainage and sanitation networks is used. The methodology has been applied to a sector of the drainage network of the city of Bogota in Colombia, showing how the combined use of storm tanks and conduits leads to lower cost rehabilitation solutions. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report
Application of Rehabilitation and Active Pressure Control Strategies for Leakage Reduction in a Case-Study Network
Water 2020, 12(8), 2215; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082215 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The paper discusses the results of a simulation analysis to evaluate the potential of rehabilitation measures and active pressure control strategies for leakage reduction in a water distribution network (WDN) in southern Italy. The analysis was carried out by using a simulation model [...] Read more.
The paper discusses the results of a simulation analysis to evaluate the potential of rehabilitation measures and active pressure control strategies for leakage reduction in a water distribution network (WDN) in southern Italy. The analysis was carried out by using a simulation model developed under the EPANET-MATLAB environment. The model was preliminarily calibrated based on pressure and flow measurements acquired during a field monitoring campaign in two districts of the WDN. Three different scenarios of leakage reduction including (i) pipe rehabilitation (scenario S1), (ii) implementation of pressure local control (S2), and (iii) introduction of remote real-time pressure control (RTC) (S3) were simulated and compared with the current scenario of network operation (S0). Results of the simulations revealed that a combination of the used strategies can improve network performance by a significant reduction of water leakage. Specifically, 16.7%, 35.0%, and 37.5% leakage reductions (as compared to S0) can be obtained under scenarios S1, S2, and S3, respectively. Full article
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