Managing for Sustainability: The Development of Environmental Flows Implementation in China
2.4. Consolidation and Challenges
3. Management System
3.1. Responsible Institutions
3.2. Legal Instruments
4. Scientific Basis and Validation
4.1. Common Methods
4.2. Validation Practices
4.3. Pilot of the Three Gorges Reservoir
Conflicts of Interest
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|Ministry||Responsibilities||Plan Period||Design Period||Construction Period||Operation Period|
|MEP||E-flows release determination in Plan-EIA and EIA of water relevant projects, and water pollution prevention. E-flows release supervision in operation period||Plan-EIA||EIA||Three simultaneities||Post-project EIA|
|MWR||E-flows release pre-assessment before Plan-EIA and EIA of water conservancy projects, along with e-flows recovery in river ecosystem protection and restoration||Watershed planning||Assessment of water-draw and utilization||Environmental protection measures design and construction||Green small hydropower stations|
|NEA||E-flows release pre-assessment before Plan-EIA and EIA of hydropower projects||River hydropower development plan and approval||Hydropower projects approval||Engineering construction supervision||Sustainable hydropower assessment|
|The State Council||2006||Regulations on Water Regulation of the Yellow River||Order No.472|
|The State Council||2015||Notice of the State Council on Issuing the Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Water Pollution||GF (2015) No.17|
|NPCSC||2016||Water Law of the People’s Republic of China (2016 Amendment)||Order No.48 of the President|
|NDRC||2007||Specification for environmental protection design of water conservancy and hydropower project||DL/T 5402|
|NEA||2010||Specification on compiling hydropower planning of river||DL/T 5042|
|NEA||2015||Code for post assessment of environmental impacts of river hydropower development||NB/T 35059|
|2003||Code for environmental impact assessment of water conservancy and hydropower projects||HJ/T 88|
|SEPA||2006||Technical guide for environmental impact assessment of river ecological flow, cold water, and fish passage facilities for water conservation construction projects (trial)||EIA Letter (2006) No.4|
|MEP||2012||Notice on Further Enhancing Environmental Protection of Hydropower Construction||MEP General Office Document (2012) No.4|
|2014||Notice on Deepening Implementation of Ecological Environmental Protection for Hydropower Development||MEP Document (2014) No.65|
|MWR||2005||Environmental impact assessment code hydroelectric station project for rural area||SL 315|
|MWR||2006||Code of practice for computation on permissible pollution bearing capacity of water bodies||SL 348|
|MWR||2006||Regulation for Environmental Impact Assessment of River Basin Planning||SL 45|
|MWR||2008||Technical specification for the analysis of supply and demand balance of water resources||SL 429|
|MWR||2009||Specification on compiling hydropower development planning of medium and small rivers||SL 221|
|MWR||2010||Guidelines for assessment of rivers and lakes eco-water demands||SL/Z 479|
|MWR||2011||Regulation for environment protection design of water resources and hydropower projects||SL 492|
|MWR||2011||Guidelines for assessment of water-draw and utilization in construction projects of water resources and hydropower||SL 525|
|MWR||2013||Specification for compiling preliminary design report of water resources and hydropower projects||SL 619|
|MWR||2013||The guidelines for water resources assessment of construction projects||SL 322|
|MWR||2013||Code of practice for water resources protection planning||SL 613|
|MWR||2014||Specification for calculation of environmental flow in rivers and lakes||SL/Z 712|
|MWR||2015||Code for river basin planning||SL 201|
|MWR||2015||Guidelines for aquatic ecological protection and restoration planning||SL 709|
|MWR||2015||Guidelines for post environmental impact assessment of water project||SL/Z 705|
|MWR||2017||Standard for evaluation of green small hydropower stations||SL 752|
|Project Name||Project Type||Operation Year||E-flows|
|Duobu||Hydropower||2012||No peak load regulation from November to the next September.|
E-flows release equals reservoir inflow, while inflow is less than 80 m3/s.
|Xiasajiang I||Hydropower||2014||>28 m3/s in April to July.|
22 m3/s from August to the next March.
E-flows release equals reservoir inflow while inflow is less than e-flows.
|Yebatan||Hydropower||2016||>132 m3/s in normal period.|
>272 m3/s in March and April.
>405 m3/s in August and September.
In fish spawning period (March, April, August and September), generate 10 days ecological operation and release e-flows as reservoir inflow without inner day peak regulation.
|Ma’erdang||Hydropower||2016||>145 m3/s from January to March, and July to November.|
Maintaining natural flow from April to June (spawning period of Gymnocypris eckloni Herzensten, Gymnodiptychus pachycheilus, Triplophysa pappenheimi), without inner day peak regulation.
>74 m3/s in December (normal water use period).
|Batang||Hydropower||2017||>138 m3/s in normal period.|
>277 m3/s from March to April, and >413 m3/s from August to September, with at least 1-time ecological operation (lasting 10 days longer) every month.
|Pingtan and Minjiang Estuary||Water Resources Allocation Project||2016||>13.8 m3/s from October to the next March.|
>23.2 m3/s from April to September.
|Huangshui North Canal Phase II||Irrigation project||2016||>4.0 m3/s from November to the next April.|
>1.69 m3/s from May to October.
|A’gang||Reservoir Project||2016||>2.08 m3/s from November to the next May.|
>6.23 m3/s from June to October.
|Nalinggele||Water control project||2017||>5.48 m3/s in normal period.|
>11.82 m3/s from May to September.
Generate 1-time flood peak in June and September.
|Chao’er River to Xiliaohe River Water Transfer Project||Water transfer project||2017||Wendegen Reservoir: 14.27–22.65 m3/s.|
Chaole Reservoir: 15.46–24.54 m3/s (April to September), >5.2 m3/s (October to the next March). Release reservoir inflow while inflow is less than e-flows, the minimum flow is 1.28 m3/s.
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Chen, A.; Wu, M. Managing for Sustainability: The Development of Environmental Flows Implementation in China. Water 2019, 11, 433. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030433
Chen A, Wu M. Managing for Sustainability: The Development of Environmental Flows Implementation in China. Water. 2019; 11(3):433. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030433Chicago/Turabian Style
Chen, Ang, and Miao Wu. 2019. "Managing for Sustainability: The Development of Environmental Flows Implementation in China" Water 11, no. 3: 433. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030433