Landslides and Sediment Disasters Prevention

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2023) | Viewed by 7220

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region, Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, Xi’an, China
2. School of Water and Environment, Chang’an University, Xi’an, China
Interests: soil environmental quality; soil erosion; hydrology ecology; geological disaster
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region, Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, 710064 Xi’an, China
2. School of Water and Environment, Chang’an University, 710064 Xi’an, China
Interests: urban flood; flood management; hydrological modeling; water quality analysis; statistical analysis; sustainable water resource management; ecohydrology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Soil erosion caused by climate change or human activity poses worrying threats to cities, settlements and life in areas developing near slopes. Understanding the changes of in soil moisture, sediment and landslide activity in key regions is helpful to establish an early warning system for key regions of secondary geological disasters. However, complete risk reduction seems impractical in such a framework, especially since delocalization of anthropogenic activities is not feasible in most cases, and co-existence with landslide risk is acceptable. In these cases, robust approaches such as modelling based on observed data, such as rainfall and soil hydrology, or off-site or laboratory experiments, appear to be the most promising approaches to reducing risk and improving societal resilience.

Given this scientific framework, we would like to invite scientists involved in this research topic field to contribute to this Special Issue, which will focus broadly on the analysis, experimentation, or modeling of hydrological processes leading to landslides and sediment movement, as well as the analysis of early warning definitions based on rainfall or soil hydrological monitoring. Therefore, manuscripts dealing with case studies of analysis, monitoring, and modelling of hydrological processes leading to landslides triggering, as well as studies aimed at assessing human-induced changes in sediment, soil moisture, and other indicators that can reflect landslides, will also be welcomed.

Prof. Dr. Aidi Huo
Prof. Dr. Pingping Luo
Dr. Chunli Zheng
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • soil erosion
  • landslides
  • sediment
  • hydrological simulation
  • human activity
  • experiments and models
  • soil moisture

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 5546 KiB  
Article
Double Strength Reduction Method for Slope Stability Analysis Based on Water Content Variation: A Study and Engineering Application
by Xiaoliang Liu and Mei Su
Water 2023, 15(6), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061194 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
Soil moisture content changes caused by rainfall and other factors can significantly affect slope stability and potentially lead to geological disasters, such as landslides and debris flows. However, conventional finite element methods for strength reduction do not consider the impact of water content [...] Read more.
Soil moisture content changes caused by rainfall and other factors can significantly affect slope stability and potentially lead to geological disasters, such as landslides and debris flows. However, conventional finite element methods for strength reduction do not consider the impact of water content on slope stability. This paper examines classical finite element methods for reducing the double strength coefficient and then introduces a novel approach using changes in moisture content. The new method is implemented through the use of an ABAQUS FE program’s USDFLD user-defined subroutine. This paper concludes by contrasting the outcomes derived from the limit equilibrium technique and other techniques and verifying the accuracy of the suggested approach through theoretical and numerical simulations. The numerical calculations for the stability evaluation of the Azhuoluo slope in the Chinese province of Guizhou, Shuicheng county were performed utilizing the ABAQUS FE platform’s USDFLD user-defined subroutine based on the double-strength discounting method, in response to the large landslide disaster in the region. The results show that the red clay, formed from the weathering of basalt in the area, experiences asynchronous decay in both friction angle and cohesion as the water content increases, with a significantly higher decay rate in the internal friction angle compared to cohesion. This indicates that traditional finite element methods that synchronously discount the internal friction angle and cohesion do not correspond to reality, whereas this proposed double-strength discounting method, based on water content changes, accurately reflects the essential characteristics of slope instability and has clear physical meaning and practical engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslides and Sediment Disasters Prevention)
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21 pages, 5456 KiB  
Article
Capillary Imbibition in Layered Sandstone
by Hailiang Jia, Biwen Dong, Di Wu, Qingmin Shi and Yao Wei
Water 2023, 15(4), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040737 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1698
Abstract
Spontaneous capillary imbibition in rocks is fundamental to numerous geomorphological processes and has caused numerous engineering problems. Sedimentary rocks are widely distributed across the Earth’s surface and usually bear layer structures that make the pore structure anisotropic. Understanding the effects of the anisotropic [...] Read more.
Spontaneous capillary imbibition in rocks is fundamental to numerous geomorphological processes and has caused numerous engineering problems. Sedimentary rocks are widely distributed across the Earth’s surface and usually bear layer structures that make the pore structure anisotropic. Understanding the effects of the anisotropic pore structure on capillary imbibition in sedimentary rocks is crucially important but remains inadequate, especially on larger scales than a single tube. In this study, the capillary imbibition process in sandstone was monitored by measuring the water absorption mass, height of the water absorption front, NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) T2 spectra, and stratified moisture distribution. The results demonstrate that (1) the layer structure had a significant effect on the capillary imbibition process by altering water absorption rate and water redistribution mode, as the time of the water front reaching the top of Sample A1 lagged behind Sample A2 by 500 min; (2) vapor diffusion and condensation occurred ahead of the water-absorption front, which was more obvious in samples with well-developed beddings; (3) in sandstone samples with bedding planes perpendicular to the height (Per samples), internal water migration lagged behind superficial water migration and was longer in sandstones with well-developed beddings, such as the case of Sample A2, for which the time lag was as large as 280min. Based on a combination of observations of the sandstone structure at pore scale and layer scale with results calculated from the Lucas–Washburn equation, we propose the concept of the representative pore-structure element (RPE). Based on analysis on water migration in RPEs, we suggest that the effects of the layer structure on capillary imbibition in sandstone are embedded in the different water migration modes in Par (samples with bedding planes parallel to the height) and Per samples. The water migration mode in Par samples can be simplified as primary upward intra-layer migration followed by intra-layer horizontal migration, while that in Per samples is primary intra-layer horizontal migration followed by intra-layer upward migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslides and Sediment Disasters Prevention)
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12 pages, 2346 KiB  
Article
Identification of Potential Landslide Hazards Using Time-Series InSAR in Xiji County, Ningxia
by Jia Zhang, Yongfeng Gong, Wei Huang, Xing Wang, Zhongyan Ke, Yanran Liu, Aidi Huo, Ahmed Adnan and Mohamed EL-Sayed Abuarab
Water 2023, 15(2), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020300 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
Potential landslide identification and monitoring are essential to prevent geological disasters. However, in mountainous areas where the surface gradient changes significantly, the leveling effect is not completely removed, affecting the deformation results. In this paper, the SBAS-InSAR and PS-InSAR time-series processing methods were [...] Read more.
Potential landslide identification and monitoring are essential to prevent geological disasters. However, in mountainous areas where the surface gradient changes significantly, the leveling effect is not completely removed, affecting the deformation results. In this paper, the SBAS-InSAR and PS-InSAR time-series processing methods were combined to interfere with the SAR image data of the ascending orbit in the southern mountainous area of Ningxia and its surrounding regions. Based on the obtained surface deformation monitoring results and optical images, landslide hazard identification was successfully carried out within the coverage area of 3130 km2 in Xiji County. The results show that the whole study area presented a relatively stable state, most of the deformation rates were concentrated in the range of 0 mm/a to −10 mm/a, and the deformation in the southwest area was larger. A total of 11 large potential landslides (which were already registered potential danger points of geological disasters) were identified in the study area, including three historical collapses. The landslide identification results were highly consistent with the field survey results after verification. The timing analysis of the typical landslide point of the Jiaowan landslide was further carried out, which showed that the Jiaowan landslide produced new deformation during the monitoring time, but it was still in a basically stable state. It can do a good job in disaster prevention and reduction while strengthening monitoring. The results of this study have a guiding effect on landslide prevention and mitigation in the mountainous areas of southern Ningxia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslides and Sediment Disasters Prevention)
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13 pages, 2329 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Moisture in the Critical Zone of Gully Consolidation and Highland Protection
by Aidi Huo, Zhixin Zhao, Pingping Luo, Chunli Zheng, Jianbing Peng and Mohamed EL-Sayed Abuarab
Water 2022, 14(22), 3674; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223674 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
The Gully Consolidation and Highland Protection (GCHP) project (such as for gully head landfills), a consideration of soil and water conservation measures, has been explored and developed continuously in recent decades in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Using high-precision images taken by drones to [...] Read more.
The Gully Consolidation and Highland Protection (GCHP) project (such as for gully head landfills), a consideration of soil and water conservation measures, has been explored and developed continuously in recent decades in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Using high-precision images taken by drones to extract the topography of the basin, the changes in vegetation and land use were also analyzed. The observation of soil moisture in the critical gully head area of the GCHP was carried out. The results indicated that the critical zones of the GCHP project implementation include the gully head landfill, the gully, and the highland farming area. The soil moisture of the landfill area was 6.91% and 23.61% higher than that of the gully and farming area, respectively, with obvious spatial heterogeneity. The soil sand content in the gully head landfill area was higher than that in the gully area and the agricultural area of the plateau. The main reason for the high soil moisture in the gully head landfill area is that the terrain at the outlet is low, and it is at the lowest point of the whole basin. Analyzing the spatial distribution of soil moisture can point out the direction for the monitoring, prevention, and treatment of geological disasters, such as landslides and debris flow, induced by water erosion. This study will help to understand in detail the spatial heterogeneity and influencing factors of soil moisture under the implementation of the GCHP and improve the GCHP project management system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslides and Sediment Disasters Prevention)
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