Special Issue "Research Progress on Watershed Ecohydrological Processes"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Ecohydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2022) | Viewed by 7315

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Lu Gao
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Geography, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China
Interests: flood and drought modeling; statistical and dynamic downscaling; extreme climate events; water resources management; multihazard; risk interactions
Dr. Haijun Deng
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Geography, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China
Interests: hydrology modeling; climate change; water resources; hydrology cycle
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Bin Guo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Geomatics, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, Xi'an 710054, China
Interests: spatiotemporal data analysis and modeling; pollutant modeling and mapping; hyperspectral remote sensing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Maochuan Hu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, Sun-Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
Interests: hydrology cycle and modeling; flood management; water resources; non-point pollution
Dr. Yuzhu Zhang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Earth Surface System and Environmental Carrying Capacity, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China
Interests: paleohydrology; climate change; paleoflood; geoscience

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Watershed ecological hydrology, a new interdisciplinary subject gradually developed after the 1980s, is an interdisciplinary science for exploring the interaction between plants and hydrological process, and for explaining ecological patterns as well as the hydrological mechanism of ecological process. The purpose of ecohydrological research is to deepen the understanding of ecological and hydrological processes and to provide a theoretical basis for restoring and renovating a harmonious ecohydrological environment. Specifically, exploring the interaction between ice and snow frozen soil precipitation/groundwater ecological environment has been raised concerns globally. A deep understanding of the correlation between watershed ecosystem and hydrological process and designing an integrated ecological restoration technology system needs to be further addressed in the field of watershed management and development.

Thus, this Special Issue aims to disclose novel basis, feasible approaches, and innovative perspectives on hydrology as well as watershed eco-hydrology, to reveal the role and significance of different landscape zones in the hydrological process and in maintaining the ecological environment, to promote the effective control and regulation of the ecological hydrological process and function, to provide the scientific basis for handling the ecological water demand, vegetation restoration, and ecological environment construction issues, and to propose reliable measures and reference for other issues, such as watershed water resources evaluation and management and water consumption efficiency, and finally to realize the sustainable utilization of watershed water resources.

This issue seeks to utilize novel approaches and innovative perspectives to deal with hydrology as well as watershed ecohydrology issues, but not limited to those above. Other hydrology and watershed-related contents are also desired. 

Prof. Dr. Pingping Luo
Prof. Dr. Lu Gao
Dr. Haijun Deng
Dr. Bin Guo
Dr. Maochuan Hu
Dr. Yuzhu Zhang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hyperspectral remote sensing in the environment
  • retrieving air pollutant concentrations through remote sensing
  • machine learning algorithms for modeling based on remote sensing data
  • ecological indicators mapping by remote sensing
  • urban stormwater model
  • hydrologic model
  • flood disaster
  • ecohydrology
  • water pollution
  • carbon cycle
  • nitrogen cycle
  • paleo-flood
  • soil water

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Prioritizing Water Resources for Conservation in a Land of Water Crisis: The Case of Protected Areas of Iran
Water 2022, 14(24), 4121; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14244121 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 565
Abstract
This study examines the distribution of water resources in Protected Areas in Iran and their priority for conservation. The results show that most of the water resources are located in the north and northwest of Iran due to favorable climatic conditions, topography, ambient [...] Read more.
This study examines the distribution of water resources in Protected Areas in Iran and their priority for conservation. The results show that most of the water resources are located in the north and northwest of Iran due to favorable climatic conditions, topography, ambient temperature, and annual rainfall levels. Conversely, the lowest amount of water resources are located in the center and southeast of the country. Water resources were prioritized based on expert ratings of indicators to determine their value for conservation. The wetland with the highest priority for conservation is the Anzali Wetland (Gilan province), which is an international Ramsar Wetland. Conversely, Namak Lake (Qom province) was deemed the least important due to its geographical location, biological sensitivity, and conservation status. Protected Areas were found to support more surface water resources and provide space for the largest percentage of water resources, demonstrating their great value for protecting water resources in Iran. However, the level of protection of these critical resources, although located in Protected Areas, was shown to be insufficient. Therefore, appropriate planning and integrated management approaches are urgently needed to protect water resources and aquatic habitats in Protected Areas in Iran to address the current water crisis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Watershed Ecohydrological Processes)
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Article
An Indirect Inversion Scheme for Retrieving Toxic Metal Concentrations Using Ground-Based Spectral Data in a Reclamation Coal Mine, China
Water 2022, 14(18), 2784; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182784 - 07 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 652
Abstract
A reclamation coal mine in Baishui County of Shaanxi Province, China, was selected as the study area to develop a fast survey method for estimating soil heavy metal concentrations using spectral data. A portable object spectrometer manufactured by Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) was [...] Read more.
A reclamation coal mine in Baishui County of Shaanxi Province, China, was selected as the study area to develop a fast survey method for estimating soil heavy metal concentrations using spectral data. A portable object spectrometer manufactured by Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) was used to measure soil spectral reflectance, and an X-ray fluorescence device was utilized to obtain the content of heavy metals. The Savitzky-Golay filter, first derivative reflectance (FDR), second derivative reflectance (SDR), continuum removal (CR), and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) were used to transform the original reflectance (OR) spectra for enhancing the spectral characteristics, respectively. Furthermore, correlation analysis was introduced to determine the characteristic bands and the correlations of heavy metals. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), extremely learning machine (ELM), random forest (RF), and support vector machine (SVM) were implemented for quantitatively determining relations between heavy metal contents and spectral reflectance. The outcomes demonstrated that the spectral transformation methods could effectively capture the characteristic bands and increase the relations between heavy metal contents and spectral reflectance. The relation between Fe and Ni was close with a relatively high correlation coefficient (r = 0.741). RF combined with CWT at the decomposition scales of 9 demonstrated the best performance with the highest Rv2 (0.71) and the lowest RMSEv (1019.1 mg/kg) for inferring Fe content. Ni content was inferred based on the close relationship between Fe and Ni. The result of RF was better than other methods with the highest Rv2 (0.69) and the lowest RMSEv (1.94 mg/kg) for estimating Ni concentration. Therefore, the RF model was chosen for mapping Fe and Ni contents in the study area. The present study revealed that the indirect inversion methods using spectral data can be effectively used to predict heavy metal concentrations. The outcomes supply a new perspective for retrieving heavy metal content based on hyperspectral remotely sensed technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Watershed Ecohydrological Processes)
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Article
Research on Vegetation Coverage Dynamics and Prediction in the Taitema Lake Region
Water 2022, 14(5), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050725 - 24 Feb 2022
Viewed by 812
Abstract
The Tarim River is the largest inland river in China, which plays a crucial role in maintaining regional ecological security and carbon cycle/dynamic. However, the “green corridor” in the Taitema Lake region at the lower reaches of the Tarim River has unclear environmental [...] Read more.
The Tarim River is the largest inland river in China, which plays a crucial role in maintaining regional ecological security and carbon cycle/dynamic. However, the “green corridor” in the Taitema Lake region at the lower reaches of the Tarim River has unclear environmental changes and future dynamics due to the influence of the ecological water conveyance. Hence, protecting the “green corridor” at the lower reaches of the Tarim River in China is strategically important not only ecologically but also socially and economically. In this paper, the temporal and spatial features of the fractional vegetation coverage (FVC) dynamics in the Taitema Lake region at the lower reaches of the Tarim River in 2000–2018 are analyzed and calculated using Landsat TM/OLI remote sensing images and MODIS data products. Additionally, the future trend of FVC dynamics in the study region are predicted using trend analysis and the pixel-based Hurst index. The results show that FVC in the Taitema Lake region exhibit a positive development after the implementation of ecological water conveyance. Specifically, from 2000 to 2018, the areas of low, medium, and high FVC expanded from 1.28 km2 to 179.87 km2, resulting in an increase of 140.52%. Spatially, the regions around the lake entrance channel of the Tarim River saw a significant increase in FVC of 9.71%. The middle part of the study region, accounting for only 1.96% of the area, displayed relatively high and high fluctuations in FVC. In the future, the regions at the middle part of the lake and around the lake entrance channel of the Tarim River, accounting for 11.33% of the area, will likely show an increasing trend in FVC. The regions with either extremely low or low FVC are predicted to decrease to 14.16% of the overall area. Because the positive effects of ecological water conveyance were more significant on FVC in the study region than the influences of either temperature or precipitation, ecological water conveyance should remain the primary means of ecological restoration for Taitema Lake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Watershed Ecohydrological Processes)
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Article
Spatial Assessment of Hydrochemical Characteristics and Evolution of Inferior Quality Water in Kashi Delta
Water 2021, 13(24), 3557; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243557 - 12 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1388
Abstract
Hydrochemistry is a critical indicator of water quality. We analysed 146 hydrochemical parameters of groundwater and the hydrogeological background of the Kashi region in China, examined their spatial distributions, and elucidated the mechanisms of their occurrence. We used graphical and multivariate statistical methods [...] Read more.
Hydrochemistry is a critical indicator of water quality. We analysed 146 hydrochemical parameters of groundwater and the hydrogeological background of the Kashi region in China, examined their spatial distributions, and elucidated the mechanisms of their occurrence. We used graphical and multivariate statistical methods to distinguish between high- and poor-quality water. In the Kizil-Cakmak River Basin of the northern Kashi region, the primary cations were Ca2+ and Mg2+, and the primary anion was SO42−; their concentrations were four times higher than the Class III water quality standard. Additionally, the salinity was high. In contrast, in the upstream and midstream parts of the Gez-Kushan River Basin in the southern Kashi region, the primary ions were HCO3− and SO42−, and the salinity was low. Downstream of the Gez-Kushan River Basin, the primary ion was Cl, and the salinity was low. There was a wide-ranging spatial variability in the SO42−, Cl, and Ca2+ contents throughout the study area. The present findings can be applied to locate suitable domestic, agricultural, and industrial water sources in the Kashi region and can provide theoretical guidance for the scientific development and management of groundwater in this region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Watershed Ecohydrological Processes)
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Article
Retaining Relative Height Information: An Enhanced Technique for Depression Treatment in Digital Elevation Models
Water 2021, 13(23), 3347; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233347 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
This study presents an enhanced variant of the priority-flood based algorithm proposed by Wang and Liu for treating depressions in digital elevation models (DEMs). The enhanced variant redefines spill elevation, the key concept of the original algorithm, as the lowest elevation that a [...] Read more.
This study presents an enhanced variant of the priority-flood based algorithm proposed by Wang and Liu for treating depressions in digital elevation models (DEMs). The enhanced variant redefines spill elevation, the key concept of the original algorithm, as the lowest elevation that a pixel needs to have to ensure a non-ascending path toward the border of the DEM, plus the larger of a small number (~0.001) and the difference between the unaltered elevation values of the focal pixel and its immediate downhill neighbor. This redefinition is adopted to obtain an intermediate elevation surface to direct flow and ultimately to carve the original DEM. Each carving starts from a depression bottom and propagates downstream until a downhill cell is guaranteed in the original DEM. Tests of these algorithms on a complex terrain of the 260,000 km2 Sichuan structural basin in China shows that the enhanced algorithm maximally preserves the original flow directions and extracts realistic drainage networks. Retaining the relative heights, and therefore flow directions, of cells within depressions allows the new algorithm to offer a depressionless DEM with small modification of its origin for further hydrologic applications. The enhanced depression treatment algorithm is provided as the freely available tool BNUSinkRemv. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Watershed Ecohydrological Processes)
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Review

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Review
Watershed Ecohydrological Processes in a Changing Environment: Opportunities and Challenges
Water 2022, 14(9), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091502 - 07 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Basin ecohydrological processes are essential for informing policymaking and social development in response to growing environmental problems. In this paper, we review watershed ecohydrology, focusing on the interaction between watershed ecological and hydrological processes. Climate change and human activities are the most important [...] Read more.
Basin ecohydrological processes are essential for informing policymaking and social development in response to growing environmental problems. In this paper, we review watershed ecohydrology, focusing on the interaction between watershed ecological and hydrological processes. Climate change and human activities are the most important factors influencing water quantity and quality, and there is a need to integrate watershed socioeconomic activities into the paradigm of watershed ecohydrological process studies. Then, we propose a new framework for integrated watershed management. It includes (1) data collection: building an integrated observation network; (2) theoretical basis: attribution analysis; (3) integrated modeling: medium- and long-term prediction of ecohydrological processes by human–nature interactions; and (4) policy orientation. The paper was a potential solution to overcome challenges in the context of frequent climate extremes and rapid land-use change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Watershed Ecohydrological Processes)
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