Special Issue "River Hydraulics under Ice-Covered Flow Conditions"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021) | Viewed by 4573

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jueyi Sui
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC V2N 4Z9, Canada
Interests: local scour; sediment transport; river ice hydrology; fluvial hydraulics; vegetated channel; snow hydrology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In winter, river ice forms when the water temperature declines to freezing. The formation of ice cover in rivers is an important phenomenon that affects fluvial hydraulics compared to that under open flow conditions. As a consequence, the winter operation of ice-covered rivers has to be changed. In the past 30 years, with the growing interest in fluvial hydraulics under ice-covered flow conditions, some progress has been made. Some cutting-edge research on all aspects of fluvial hydraulics under ice-covered flow conditions has been published. However, a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of ice cover on fluvial hydraulics is required. This Special Issue calls for renewed contributions that improve knowledge of this theme, including but not limited to the impacts of ice cover/jam on sediment transport and local scour/deformation of the riverbed. Research works regarding the effects of river ice on the operation of hydropower plants and channel navigation are welcome. Contributions regarding the impacts of ice cover on environmental and aquatic systems will be also included.

Dr. Jueyi Sui
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • flooding
  • fluvial hydraulics
  • ice cover
  • ice jam
  • local scour
  • riverbed deformation
  • river ice hydraulics
  • sediment transport

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Impact of Local Scour around a Bridge Pier on Migration of Waved-Shape Accumulation of Ice Particles under an Ice Cover
Water 2022, 14(14), 2193; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142193 - 11 Jul 2022
Viewed by 310
Abstract
The migration of a waved-shape accumulation of ice particles under an ice cover (referred to as “ice wave” in this study) is a phenomenon of transport of ice particles during an ice accumulation process in rivers. The migration of an ice wave will [...] Read more.
The migration of a waved-shape accumulation of ice particles under an ice cover (referred to as “ice wave” in this study) is a phenomenon of transport of ice particles during an ice accumulation process in rivers. The migration of an ice wave will affect the pier scour. On the other hand, the local scour at the pier will affect the migration of ice waves. The interaction between the migration of ice waves and local scour around a pier is a very complicated process since not only the channel bed deforms, but also the ice jam develops simultaneously. By conducting a series of flume experiments, the interaction between the local scour around bridge piers and the migration of ice waves was studied. By applying both continuity and momentum equations, an empirical equation has been derived for predicting the thickness of ice waves around the pier. The impacts of the scour hole on the thickness of ice waves around the pier have been studied. The thickness of the wave crest and the migration speed of ice waves have been investigated. Similar to a scour hole in a sand bed, an “ice scour hole” appeared at the bottom of the ice jam around the pier. The existence of the “ice scour hole” affects the development of ice waves. A formula for calculating ice transport capacity has been obtained. Results calculated using the derived formula are in good agreement with those of laboratory experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue River Hydraulics under Ice-Covered Flow Conditions)
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Article
Channel Bed Deformation and Ice Jam Evolution around Bridge Piers
Water 2022, 14(11), 1766; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111766 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 562
Abstract
The interaction between the evolution of an ice jam and the local scour at bridge piers becomes much more complicated due to the evolution of both the channel bed and ice jam. Thus, research work regarding this topic has been hardly conducted. In [...] Read more.
The interaction between the evolution of an ice jam and the local scour at bridge piers becomes much more complicated due to the evolution of both the channel bed and ice jam. Thus, research work regarding this topic has been hardly conducted. In the present study, experiments under different flow conditions with three different pier shapes were carried out. Through laboratory experiments, the development of scour holes around bridge piers under open flow, ice-covered, and ice-jammed flow conditions was compared. The results show that under the same hydraulic condition and with the same ice discharge rate (Qi/Q), the development of an initial ice jam with a local scour around bridge piers along the entire flume takes a relatively short time. However, it takes a longer time for an ice jam to achieve an equilibrium state. With the presence of a local scour at bridge piers, after an ice jam reaches an equilibrium state, the ice jam thickness, water level, and water depth for flow are relatively larger compared to that without a local scour at the pier. The equilibrium ice jam thickness around the pier is negatively correlated with the initial flow Froude number. When the development of an initial ice jam is dominated by a mechanical thickening process, the rate of the development of a scour hole around a pier is faster. On the other hand, when the development of an initial ice jam is dominated by a hydraulic thickening process, the development of a scour hole around a pier can be treated as a scour process under an ice-covered flow condition. An equation was developed to determine the scour depth around a pier under an ice-jammed flow condition by considering related factors such as the flow Froude number, ice jam thickness, and ice discharge rate. The results of this research can provide a reference for bridge design and safety protection, as well as the interaction mechanism of local scour and ice jam evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue River Hydraulics under Ice-Covered Flow Conditions)
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Article
Local Scour around Tandem Double Piers under an Ice Cover
Water 2022, 14(7), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071168 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Compared to the scour around a single pier, the local scour process around tandem double piers is much more complicated. Based on laboratory experiments in a flume, we conducted the scour process around tandem double piers under an ice-covered flow condition. The results [...] Read more.
Compared to the scour around a single pier, the local scour process around tandem double piers is much more complicated. Based on laboratory experiments in a flume, we conducted the scour process around tandem double piers under an ice-covered flow condition. The results showed that when the pier spacing ratio L/D = 2 (where L = the pier spacing distance, and D = the pier diameter), the rear pier (the downstream one) will intensify the horseshoe vortex process behind the front pier, and the scour depth around the front pier will increase by about 10%. As the pier spacing ratio L/D increases, the scour depth around the front pier will gradually decrease. When the pier spacing ratio L/D = 5, sediment scoured around the front pier begins to deposit between these two piers. To initiate a deposition dune between piers, the pier spacing distance under an ice-covered condition is about 20% more than that under an open flow condition. The results also showed that the existence of the rear pier will lead to an increase in the length of the scour hole but a decrease in the depth of the scour hole around the front pier. The local scour around the front pier interacts with the local scour of the rear pier. The maximum scour depth of the scour hole around the rear pier increases first, then decreases and increases again afterward. When the pier spacing ratio L/D = 9, the scour depth around the rear pier is the least. With an increase in the pier spacing ratio, the influence of the local scour around the front pier on the local scour around the rear pier gradually decreases. When the pier spacing ratio L/D is more than 17, the scour around the front pier has hardly any influence on that around the rear pier. The scour depth around the rear pier is about 90% of that around the front pier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue River Hydraulics under Ice-Covered Flow Conditions)
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Article
Velocity Field and Turbulence Structure around Spur Dikes with Different Angles of Orientation under Ice Covered Flow Conditions
Water 2021, 13(13), 1844; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131844 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1004
Abstract
Spur dikes are well-known structures that are widely used in rivers and coastal regions. Depending on their types, sizes, and orientation angles, spur dikes can substantially change flow characteristics. Results of previous studies indicate that the presence of an ice cover in rivers [...] Read more.
Spur dikes are well-known structures that are widely used in rivers and coastal regions. Depending on their types, sizes, and orientation angles, spur dikes can substantially change flow characteristics. Results of previous studies indicate that the presence of an ice cover in rivers can cause complicated flow structures. The present experimental study investigates velocity fields and turbulence structures in the vicinity of spur dikes under ice cover with different roughness coefficients. The spur dikes were set up at the following three angles of orientation, 90°, 60°, and 45°. Our results show that the strongest velocity fluctuation occurs immediately above the scour hole surface and very close to the dike tip. The increase in the dike angle toward upstream, the velocity component values increase, leads to a larger scour hole. Results show that an increase in dike angle of each 10° (from 45° to 90°) increases the scour depth between 5% and 10%, depending on flow conditions. Furthermore, the increase in the cover roughness coefficient and the blockage ratio of a spur dike leads to a further increase in turbulence kinetic energy and 3D velocity components values. The findings of this study imply that the appearance of an ice cover can increase turbulence intensities up to nearly 30%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue River Hydraulics under Ice-Covered Flow Conditions)
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Article
Analytical Models of Velocity, Reynolds Stress and Turbulence Intensity in Ice-Covered Channels
Water 2021, 13(8), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081107 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 696
Abstract
Ice cover in an open channel can influence the flow structure, such as the flow velocity, Reynolds stress and turbulence intensity. This study analyzes the vertical distributions of velocity, Reynolds stress and turbulence intensity in fully and partially ice-covered channels by theoretical methods [...] Read more.
Ice cover in an open channel can influence the flow structure, such as the flow velocity, Reynolds stress and turbulence intensity. This study analyzes the vertical distributions of velocity, Reynolds stress and turbulence intensity in fully and partially ice-covered channels by theoretical methods and laboratory experiments. According to the experimental data, the vertical profile of longitudinal velocities follows an approximately symmetry form. Different from the open channel flow, the maximum value of longitudinal velocity occurs near the middle of the water depth, which is close to the channel bed with a smoother boundary roughness compared to the ice cover. The measured Reynolds stress has a linear distribution along the vertical axis, and the vertical distribution of measured turbulence intensity follows an exponential law. Theoretically, a two-power-law function is presented to obtain the analytical formula of the longitudinal velocity. In addition, the vertical profile of Reynolds stress is obtained by the simplified momentum equation and the vertical profile of turbulence intensity is investigated by an improved exponential model. The predicted data from the analytical models agree well with the experimental ones, thereby confirming that the analytical models are feasible to predict the vertical distribution of velocity, Reynolds stress and turbulence intensity in ice-covered channels. The proposed models can offer an important theoretical reference for future study about the sediment transport and contaminant dispersion in ice-covered channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue River Hydraulics under Ice-Covered Flow Conditions)
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Article
Bridge Pier Scour under Ice Cover
Water 2021, 13(4), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040536 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 930
Abstract
Bridge pier scour is a complex process, which is influenced by many parameters, including the presence of ice cover around piers. To better understand the influence of ice on bridge pier scour, an artificial ice cover, equipped with either a smooth or a [...] Read more.
Bridge pier scour is a complex process, which is influenced by many parameters, including the presence of ice cover around piers. To better understand the influence of ice on bridge pier scour, an artificial ice cover, equipped with either a smooth or a rough surface, was constructed and tested experimentally. The ice cover was positioned on the surface of the water and submerged to specified depths in order to replicate floating and fixed (pressurized) ice cover conditions, respectively. During each test, a velocity profile was collected beneath the ice cover, and after each test, a three-dimensional scan of the bed was collected to compare the resulting scour. It was discovered that the presence of an ice cover around a bridge pier increased pier scour under all conditions. Furthermore, as the ice cover was submerged deeper into the flow, the flow velocity increased, and greater scour resulted. For each level of submergence, the rough ice cover yielded increased scour depths compared to the smooth ice cover. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue River Hydraulics under Ice-Covered Flow Conditions)
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