Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams 2.0

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 12547

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Glaciology, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
Interests: upstream and downstream fish migrations; hydro-abrasion at hydraulic structures; sediment bypass tunnels and turbines; reservoir sedimentation and management; suspended sediment and bed load transports in open channel flows; turbulent open-channel flows; hydraulic structures
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Institut Pprime, CNRS- Université de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, 11 Boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, TSA 51124, 86073 Poitiers, CEDEX 9, France
Interests: upstream and downstream fish migration; eco-hydraulics; environmental hydrodynamics; turbulent open-channel flows; fluid–structure interaction; cohesive and non-cohesive sediment transports; rheology; renewable energy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
The Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), P.O. Box 5685 Torgard, 7485 Trondheim, Norway
Interests: upstream and downstream fish migration; ecohydraulics; fish passage engineering; ecology and fish conservation and restoration; fish physiology; fish evolution and behavior; biomechanics of fish; environmental hydrodynamics; renewable energy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hydropower dams represent barriers for animal movement, in both the upstream and downstream directions. For instance, fish can be blocked or delayed during their spawning migration and can be subjected to injury or death when passing turbines, spillways, or bypasses during their downstream migration, resulting in cumulative negative impacts on individual and population levels.

Fish-friendly turbines, collection systems, sensory barriers, mechanical and behavioral barriers, physical barriers, and fish-friendly operations are widely known technological concepts that can be implemented to mitigate the negative impacts of hydropower dams by protecting and guiding fish that are migrating downstream. Compared to downstream fish passage technologies, upstream fish passage technologies are well advanced but still need to be adapted for multi-species of different biomechanical requirements and attraction flow at the entrance. Furthermore, the head and layout of hydropower dams require specific technological adaptations. Therefore, this Special Issue focuses on both upstream and downstream fish migration research from different regions of the world as well as different hydropower dam layouts.

Contributions from the latest laboratory, field, and/or numerical research studies on available or innovative new solutions as well as tools to evaluate the effectiveness of these solutions are invited. Original research papers and critical reviews will also be considered. All scales of application are accepted.

Dr. Ismail Albayrak
Prof. Dr. Laurent David
Dr. Ana Teixeira da Silva
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • upstream fish passage solutions
  • downstream fish passage solutions
  • fish-friendly turbines
  • physical barriers
  • mechanical and behavioral barriers
  • sensory barriers
  • collection systems
  • bypass systems
  • flow–fish interactions
  • fish behavior

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 3936 KiB  
Article
Examination of an Electrified Bar Rack Fish Guidance Device for Hydropower Turbines
by Brett D. Pflugrath, Sterling Watson, Jonas Haug, Ryan Harnish, Alison H. A. Colotelo and Abe Schneider
Water 2023, 15(15), 2786; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152786 - 1 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1143
Abstract
The potential of hydropower turbines to cause injury or mortality to fish is a concern. To reduce this risk, engineers have begun to develop a conically arranged, cantilevered electrified bar rack (Center Sender). This device is proposed to be mounted within the intake [...] Read more.
The potential of hydropower turbines to cause injury or mortality to fish is a concern. To reduce this risk, engineers have begun to develop a conically arranged, cantilevered electrified bar rack (Center Sender). This device is proposed to be mounted within the intake of a turbine, guiding downstream-passing fish towards the center of the turbine where blade velocities are lower and blades are thicker, likely reducing the potential for fish to be injured. A simplified version was installed in a flume for testing with Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) while examining several parameters such as electrification, bar spacing, bar angle, and water velocity. The most effective settings were observed to be a water velocity of 1.0 m s−1 with all bars installed at an angle of 40° with electrification on. Other combinations were still effective but had varying results. A minimal proportion (2.3%) of fish passed at lower velocities with bars electrified and mounted at 20°, suggesting that while it functions well as a guidance device in high-velocity conditions, it performs better as a barrier at lower velocities. The study suggests that the Center Sender has promising potential for reducing the harmful effects of hydropower turbines on fish populations by guiding them away from stressors. Further research is needed, but current results encourage its potential use in hydropower operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams 2.0)
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19 pages, 5880 KiB  
Article
Response of Upstream Behavior and Hydrodynamic Factors of Anguilla Japonica in a Combined Bulkhead Fishway under Tidal Conditions
by Zhou Ye, Xin Lian, Fuqing Bai, Di Hao, Dongfeng Li and Zhihao Fang
Water 2023, 15(14), 2585; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142585 - 15 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1232
Abstract
Frequent changes in the tide levels in estuaries cause constant changes in the hydraulics of fish passage systems, with important effects on successful fish passage and swimming behavior. In most cases, Japanese eels often have low passage rates in engineered fishways because of [...] Read more.
Frequent changes in the tide levels in estuaries cause constant changes in the hydraulics of fish passage systems, with important effects on successful fish passage and swimming behavior. In most cases, Japanese eels often have low passage rates in engineered fishways because of their special habits. In this study, we established a 1:4 scaled-down weir-hole combination bulkhead fishway, studied the effects of different tidal differences and water depths on the passage rates and swimming behavior of yellow-phase Japanese eels, and analyzed the response of the Japanese eels to the hydraulic factors by superimposing their swimming trajectories and the flow field simulation results. We found that the passage rate of the eels decreased from 68.18% to 50.00% and 45.45% under extreme high tide differences and extreme low tide differences, respectively. The eels tended to use the low-velocity area to climb up the wall, and when crossing the mainstream, the yellow-phase Japanese eels preferred the area with a flow velocity of 0.1~0.36 m/s and a turbulent kinetic energy range of 0.001~0.007 m2/s2. Their upstream swimming speed was maintained at a range of 0.1~0.3 m/s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams 2.0)
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17 pages, 6720 KiB  
Article
Verification of Hydraulic Parameters of Nature-like Fish Pass
by Lea Čubanová, Ján Rumann, Alexandra Vidová, Wael Almikaeel and Filip Rebenda
Water 2023, 15(13), 2478; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132478 - 6 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Nature-like fish passes are commonly designed as a preferred way to overcome barriers in rivers. However, meeting the recommended hydraulic parameters for these passes can be challenging. As a result, boulders or sills are often incorporated to supplement their structure. From a hydraulic [...] Read more.
Nature-like fish passes are commonly designed as a preferred way to overcome barriers in rivers. However, meeting the recommended hydraulic parameters for these passes can be challenging. As a result, boulders or sills are often incorporated to supplement their structure. From a hydraulic standpoint, the crucial parameters under investigation are the depths and velocities (or the corresponding velocity field). In this study, a comprehensive analysis was conducted on a full-width rock-ramp fish pass constructed in a river, specifically targeting the barbel zone. The achieved parameters were assessed through direct field measurements, complemented by mathematical modeling using 1D and 2D HEC-RAS models (version 6.3.1). For the assessment of model accuracy, the error indices root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) were used. Based on their evaluation, the 1D model provides more precise results in the assessed profiles (the RMSE for depths (m) was 0.0663 (for velocities (m∙s−1) 0.293) compared to the 2D model, where the RMSE for depths (m) was 0.070 (for velocities (m∙s−1) 0.398), the MAE for the 1D model for depths (m) was 0.0350 (for velocities (m∙s−1) 0.185) compared to the 2D model, where the MAE for depths (m) was 0.0375 (for velocities (m∙s−1) 0.274)). The findings highlight the differences in the problem-solving approaches between the models as well as the potential for simplifications in practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams 2.0)
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20 pages, 5396 KiB  
Article
Retrofitting Vertical Slot Fish Pass with Brush Blocks: Hydraulics Performance
by Serhat Kucukali, Ahmet Alp and Ismail Albayrak
Water 2023, 15(6), 1155; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061155 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2048
Abstract
The mean and turbulent flow characteristics of a vertical slot fish pass, with and without brush blocks, were investigated at the Cataloluk Small Hydropower Plant on the Tekir River, located in the Ceyhan River Basin of Turkey. Within the scope of the project, [...] Read more.
The mean and turbulent flow characteristics of a vertical slot fish pass, with and without brush blocks, were investigated at the Cataloluk Small Hydropower Plant on the Tekir River, located in the Ceyhan River Basin of Turkey. Within the scope of the project, three-dimensional velocity measurements were performed at different hydraulic conditions. The prototype flow measurements showed that by placing brush blocks and the substrate in the vertical-slot pool: (i) the maximum velocity observed downstream of the slot was reduced by 39%; (ii) the maximum lateral component of the Reynolds shear stress observed in the slot region was reduced by a factor of 3; and (iii) the spatially averaged resultant velocity was reduced by 20%. With brush blocks, the turbulent jet region was reduced and recirculation regions disappeared. Furthermore, the spatially-averaged lateral component of the Reynolds shear stress was 3.3 times higher than the spatially-averaged streamwise component of the Reynolds shear stress because of the lateral velocity gradient and mixing in the pool. The present findings will contribute to potential improvements in the non and less efficiently-functioning vertical slot fish pass and other fish pass types by adding brush blocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams 2.0)
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33 pages, 22772 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Hydraulics and Downstream Fish Migration at Run-of-River Hydropower Plants with Horizontal Bar Rack Bypass Systems by Using CFD
by Hannes Zöschg, Wolfgang Dobler, Markus Aufleger and Bernhard Zeiringer
Water 2023, 15(6), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061042 - 9 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1989
Abstract
Anthropogenic structures often block or delay the downstream migration of fish in rivers, thereby affecting their populations. A potential solution at run-of-river hydropower plants (HPPs) is the construction of a fish guidance structure in combination with a bypass system located at its downstream [...] Read more.
Anthropogenic structures often block or delay the downstream migration of fish in rivers, thereby affecting their populations. A potential solution at run-of-river hydropower plants (HPPs) is the construction of a fish guidance structure in combination with a bypass system located at its downstream end. Crucial to fish guidance efficiency and thus to fish behavior are the hydraulic flow conditions in front of the fish guidance structure and upstream of the bypass entrance, which have not thus far been investigated in depth. The present study aims to extend the knowledge about the flow conditions at these structures. Based on the results of 3D numerical simulations of two idealized block-type HPPs with horizontal bar rack bypass systems, the flow conditions were examined, and the fish guidance efficiency was predicted. Herein, a new method was used to represent the fish guidance structure in the numerical model. The results show that the approach flow to fish guidance structures at block-type HPPs varies significantly along their length, and areas with unfavorable flow conditions for downstream fish migration frequently occur according to common guidelines. Subsequently, eight variations were performed to investigate the effect of key components on the flow field, e.g., the bypass discharge. Finally, the results were compared with literature data and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams 2.0)
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16 pages, 5735 KiB  
Article
Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Diagonal Brush Fish Pass: Prototype Measurements
by Serhat Kucukali, Bulent Verep and Ismail Albayrak
Water 2023, 15(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010088 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1561
Abstract
The present study investigates the hydrodynamic characteristics of the diagonal brush upstream fishway at the Incirli run-of-river hydropower plant on Iyidere River in Turkey. Three-dimensional velocity measurements were conducted in the fish pass using a Micro acoustic Doppler velocimeter under real-time operation conditions. [...] Read more.
The present study investigates the hydrodynamic characteristics of the diagonal brush upstream fishway at the Incirli run-of-river hydropower plant on Iyidere River in Turkey. Three-dimensional velocity measurements were conducted in the fish pass using a Micro acoustic Doppler velocimeter under real-time operation conditions. The diagonal arrangement of brush blocks creates favorable hydrodynamic conditions (i.e., lateral momentum exchange) that allow fish to minimize swimming energy. We found that the spatially averaged lateral component of Reynolds shear stress is 2.2 times higher than spatially averaged vertical component of Reynolds shear stress, which could be due to the lateral velocity gradient in the vicinity of brush blocks. It is shown that the low-velocity zones behind the brush blocks constitute important resting sites for fish. The monitoring data showed that inlet water levels have considerable effects on the turbulence quantities. The brushes become submerged with the increased reservoir water level from 102 m to 102.05 m above sea level. The maximum turbulent kinetic energy was increased by a factor of three compared to unsubmerged conditions. We found a strong relationship between the average energy dissipation rate per unit mass and the Reynolds number. On the other hand, the prototype data reveal the inverse relationship between the Darcy-Weissbach friction factor and the relative submergence of bristles. The present results allow the efficient design of diagonal fish passes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams 2.0)
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22 pages, 2848 KiB  
Article
Ethohydraulic Experiments Investigating Retention Rates of an Electrified Bar Rack
by Jonas Haug, Calvin Frees, Barbara Brinkmeier and Markus Aufleger
Water 2022, 14(24), 4036; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14244036 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1264
Abstract
Bar racks at water intakes of hydropower plants serve mainly to protect the turbines from floating debris. Additionally, they can be utilized to protect downstream migrating fish in order to prevent a potentially harmful turbine passage. The Bar Rack FishProtector consists of a [...] Read more.
Bar racks at water intakes of hydropower plants serve mainly to protect the turbines from floating debris. Additionally, they can be utilized to protect downstream migrating fish in order to prevent a potentially harmful turbine passage. The Bar Rack FishProtector consists of a common bar rack equipped with electrodes mounted on the upstream side of the bars. The application of a low voltage current at the electrodes creates an electric field in the water which is actively avoided by fish. Thus, a hybrid barrier consisting of a mechanical barrier and a behavioral barrier is formed. An unscaled model of a Bar Rack FishProtector (bar spacing sb = 50 mm, bar thickness tb = 20 mm) was used in field experiments to investigate the retention rate in an experimental setup with only one possible migration route (downstream, rack passage) and an average flow velocity of 0.43 m/s. Ethohydraulic experiments were performed with three indicator species barbel (Barbus barbus), bream (Abramis brama) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) and additionally perch (Perca fluviatilis) in selected trials. The twelve trials included four reference trials without electric field present (Nday = 2, Nnight = 2) and eight trials with electric field (Nday = 6, Nnight = 2). The results show that the experimental retention rate could be increased significantly by the application of an electrical field during the night and during the day with an even more pronounced effect during the night. The differences between the functionality of the system during the day and at night as well as other influencing parameters are discussed. No significant influence of the applied voltage on the electrodes or significant influence of fish size could be identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams 2.0)
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19 pages, 2575 KiB  
Article
Combining Fish Passage and Sediment Bypassing: A Conceptual Solution for Increased Sustainability of Dams and Reservoirs
by Anders Foldvik, Ana T. Silva, Ismail Albayrak, Kordula Schwarzwälder, Robert M. Boes and Nils Ruther
Water 2022, 14(12), 1977; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121977 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3918
Abstract
Sedimentation is one of the main eco-morphological and technological challenges associated with reservoirs. Sedimentation not only reduces the functional capacity of a reservoir by filling it, but also changes downstream sediment dynamics and habitat availability for the aquatic biota. Additionally, dams hinder free [...] Read more.
Sedimentation is one of the main eco-morphological and technological challenges associated with reservoirs. Sedimentation not only reduces the functional capacity of a reservoir by filling it, but also changes downstream sediment dynamics and habitat availability for the aquatic biota. Additionally, dams hinder free bi-directional fish passage, emerging as a major threat to species of migratory fish. In the past decades, mitigation measures aimed at reducing such environmental and technological impacts have been developed. Sediment bypass tunnels (SBTs) have been shown to successfully help prevent reservoir sedimentation, whereas fish passages have been found to be potential solutions to facilitate bi-directional passage of fish. However, the construction of such structures, in particular of SBT, can be extremely costly. The development of design solutions that can function both for downstream sediment transport and up- and downstream fish passage should be considered as they can mitigate ecological deficiencies of reservoir operations while accounting for economic feasibility. Possibilities and challenges of combining SBT and fish passage were explored by bringing together a team of interdisciplinary specialists on hydraulics, sediment transport and continuity, bypassing, hydraulic structures, hydropower engineering, aquatic biology, and fish passage in a two-day workshop. Here, we present potential solutions identified during the workshop for integrating SBT and fish passage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams 2.0)
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Review

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28 pages, 7552 KiB  
Review
Fish Injury from Movements across Hydraulic Structures: A Review
by Reilly X. Cox, Richard T. Kingsford, Iain Suthers and Stefan Felder
Water 2023, 15(10), 1888; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101888 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2711
Abstract
Fish migration is essential to maintain healthy aquatic ecosystems, but hydraulic structures across rivers have impeded natural fish migration worldwide. While efforts have been made to allow fish to pass some hydraulic structures, there is limited understanding of hydrodynamic effects that cause fish [...] Read more.
Fish migration is essential to maintain healthy aquatic ecosystems, but hydraulic structures across rivers have impeded natural fish migration worldwide. While efforts have been made to allow fish to pass some hydraulic structures, there is limited understanding of hydrodynamic effects that cause fish injury in different hydraulic systems, such as spillways and stilling basins as well as hydropower systems. This study reviewed available literature on this topic to identify the current knowledge of fish injury thresholds in laboratory- and field-based studies of hydraulic systems. Often, the hydraulic effects that lead to fish injury have been described with time-averaged simplified parameters including shear stress, pressure changes, acceleration, vortical motions, aeration, collision, and strike, while these hydrodynamic effects often occur simultaneously in the turbulent flows across hydraulic structures, making it difficult to link specific fish injuries to a particular hydrodynamic effect. Strong variations of injury may occur, depending on the type and the intensity of hydrodynamic effects, as well as the fish species and fish sizes. Modelling can provide information of stressors, but real-world tests are needed to accurately assess fish injury and mortality. Fish injury mechanisms at hydropower turbines are well understood, however, clear understanding at other sites is lacking. Future studies should aim to report holistic hydrodynamic thresholds with associated fish injury rates. Multidisciplinary systematic research is required, including laboratory and field studies, using passive tracer sensor packages and state-of-the art instrumentation in conjunction with live fish. This can quantify stressors with meaningful parameters, aiming to improve fish safety with more sustainable design of water infrastructure that reduces fish injury when passing across hydraulic structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams 2.0)
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13 pages, 2055 KiB  
Review
Selective Removal of Fish from Reservoirs and Lakes: Interaction of Hydraulic and Ecological Factors
by Dmitrii S. Pavlov, Vasilii V. Kostin and Victor N. Mikheev
Water 2022, 14(10), 1615; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101615 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1383
Abstract
Downstream migration (DSM) of fish through the different types of water intakes is not a random process, but rather a selective removal from the limnetic to the lotic parts of river–lake systems. Selectivity means that the assemblage of migrants does not exactly reflect [...] Read more.
Downstream migration (DSM) of fish through the different types of water intakes is not a random process, but rather a selective removal from the limnetic to the lotic parts of river–lake systems. Selectivity means that the assemblage of migrants does not exactly reflect the composition of the fish community in an upstream reservoir. Some fish are more prone to migrate compared to others, but this is not the only factor affecting DSM. We hypothesize that the interaction of a 3-D “hydraulic funnel” at the water intake with adjacent ecological zones results in the selective removal of fish. We tested our predictions by analyzing the data on DSM and spatial distribution in 13 reservoirs and lakes in Europe and Asia. Water intakes were surrounded by different habitats and located at different depths, from the surface layer to the depth of more than 50 m. Most vulnerable for entrainment by the outflow were the inhabitants of the pelagic zone. The share of fish emigrating from the littoral habitats was much lower compared to pelagic inhabitants. This suggests that littoral habitats saturated with landmarks and shelters hamper DSM more than the vertical physical gradients in the pelagic do. In conjunction with the factors operating on the scale of the whole reservoir, hydro-ecological barriers of different types associated with water intakes play an important role in the selective removal of fish from reservoirs and lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams 2.0)
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