Evaluation of Invertebrates in Drinking Water Networks

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 12831

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
INWERT Institute for Biological Drinking Water Quality, 45721 Haltern am See, Germany
Interests: limnology; reservoir management; tropical limnology; bank filtration; drinking water inhabitants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Drinking water quality is threatened by raw water contamination as well as by the insufficient biological water stability during distribution in drinking water networks. This includes the outflow of organic carbon (DOC, organisms) and methane from water treatment plants and the growth of biofilm and, of high significance, the development of a pipe invertebrate community. Most pipe inhabitants found in drinking water systems are typical freshwater organisms that do not occur in raw water and are also therefore not typical for drinking water treatment filters. Harmful species are water lice, snails, chironomids, worms (oligochaetes, nematodes), water fleas, ciliates, and naked amoebae, among others. Macroinvertebrate introduction into drinking water networks is rare; the main problem is growth, propagation, and mass development of introduced species. Raw water quality, drinking water treatment, food sources for pipe network inhabitants, growth and life cycle of pipe inhabitants, and propagation within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS) are of high significance for any advanced DWDS management.

Knowledge about this invertebrate community in drinking water networks is still scarce, and the challenges and focus of this Special Issue are (1) interaction of raw water quality or drinking water treatment and the development of DWDS inhabitants, (2) detection of pipe inhabitants by hydrant sampling or eDNA, (3) experiences with pipe flushing, (4) food sources for invertebrates in DWDSs, (5) population dynamic analyses to determine growth, life cycle, and fertility of the species, (6) evaluation of harmful effects and health risks of DWDS inhabitants, (7) interaction of invertebrates and harmful microbe growth, (8) development of target limiting values for DWDS inhabitants, (9) development of targeted pipe flushing methods for the discharge of invertebrates, and (10) development of an adapted pipe management for sustainable control of regrowth of pipe inhabitants.

In many countries, the diversity and density of the DWDS invertebrate community is increasing due to increasing water temperature (climate change effect), decreasing water consumption (oversized pipes), and aging water pipes; more frequent problems with harmful microbes (e.g., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, environmental coliforms) are observed.

Dr. Günter Gunkel
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • biological drinking water quality
  • drinking water network
  • invertebrates
  • asellus aquaticus
  • biofouling
  • pipe flushing
  • biological stability
  • climate change effect

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 176 KiB  
Editorial
Evaluation of Invertebrates in Drinking Water Networks
by Günter Gunkel
Water 2023, 15(7), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071391 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1215
Abstract
This Special Issue contributes to the evaluation of various aspects of biological drinking water quality and support both fundamental sciences and practical applications by drinking water companies [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of Invertebrates in Drinking Water Networks)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

12 pages, 1723 KiB  
Article
Does Methane Contribute to Growth of Invertebrate Communities in Drinking Water?
by Sarah C. B. Christensen, Laure Lopato, Sonsoles Quinzanos and Mathilde J. Hedegaard
Water 2023, 15(6), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061044 - 9 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1439
Abstract
Methane is a potential source of carbon in drinking water. Typically, it is removed at waterworks during an initial treatment step such as aeration or stripping. Remaining methane may be converted by methane-oxidizing bacteria to organic carbon, which is then available for heterotrophic [...] Read more.
Methane is a potential source of carbon in drinking water. Typically, it is removed at waterworks during an initial treatment step such as aeration or stripping. Remaining methane may be converted by methane-oxidizing bacteria to organic carbon, which is then available for heterotrophic growth and may ultimately contribute to invertebrate growth. We investigated the presence of invertebrates at a waterworks with incomplete methane removal and at a waterworks without methane. Microscopy and analyses of 16S and 18S ribosomal genes were conducted on filter sand from full-scale biological rapid sand filters. Primary filters with methane were dominated by methane- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Upper layers of secondary filters were dominated by heterotrophic bacteria, while the deepest layer contained 92% eukaryote DNA. Rotifers, nematodes, platyhelminths and annelids constituted 22% of the DNA in the secondary filters. Filters with methane contained higher shares of invertebrates (13%) than the filter without methane (7%). Furthermore, pilot studies were conducted to estimate suitable levels of methane when implementing methane removal technologies. Methane concentrations of 0.24 mg/L caused rapid visible growth. Vacuum stripping and nitrogen addition removed methane to 0.018–0.03 mg/L and prevented growth of methane-oxidizing bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of Invertebrates in Drinking Water Networks)
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12 pages, 2452 KiB  
Article
Changes in Water Source Cause Shifts in Invertebrate Biomass, Composition, and Regrowth in a Non-Chlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System
by Arco Wagenvoort, Roland van Asperen, Giovanni Sandrini and Wim Hijnen
Water 2023, 15(4), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040732 - 12 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
Invertebrates such as Asellus aquaticus, halacarid mites, copepods and cladocerans are common in drinking water distribution systems. The Zeeuws-Vlaanderen drinking water distribution system (DWDS) of Evides water company is divided into western and eastern sections, initially supplied with drinking water derived from [...] Read more.
Invertebrates such as Asellus aquaticus, halacarid mites, copepods and cladocerans are common in drinking water distribution systems. The Zeeuws-Vlaanderen drinking water distribution system (DWDS) of Evides water company is divided into western and eastern sections, initially supplied with drinking water derived from a eutrophic reservoir (water) and groundwater, respectively. The drinking water derived from eutrophic reservoir water was characterised as less biologically stable than the drinking water from groundwater. Due to groundwater level protection measures, since 2015 the groundwater supply to the eastern section has been gradually replaced with supply from the drinking water treatment plant, which uses eutrophic reservoir water as source water. This change caused increased regrowth conditions, as observed by regulated microbial regrowth indicators (HPC22 and Aeromonas), increased invertebrate biomass, and the dominant occurrence of Asellus aquaticus, confirming observations in other Evides DWDSs. The results from the western section supplied with the same less biological stable drinking water, however, showed that the occurrence of microbial regrowth, invertebrate biomass and A. aquaticus is not only related to the biological stability of the supplied drinking water, but also to the influence of DWDS-specific conditions. The DWDS configuration as well as higher water demands in summer (western section) and/or higher sediment and Fe accumulation in the DWDS (eastern section) are suggested factors affecting regrowth and therefore subjects for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of Invertebrates in Drinking Water Networks)
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12 pages, 3178 KiB  
Article
Paratanytarsus grimmii (Chironomidae) Larvae in Drinking Water Distribution Systems: Impairment or Disaster?
by Stefan Christopher, Ute Michels and Günter Gunkel
Water 2023, 15(3), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030377 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2305
Abstract
The occurrence and mass development of macroinvertebrates in drinking water networks is a challenge for drinking water pipe management. A current problem is the development of larvae of the chironomid Paratanytarsus grimmii (mosquito), a so-called pest organism that can have severe impacts on [...] Read more.
The occurrence and mass development of macroinvertebrates in drinking water networks is a challenge for drinking water pipe management. A current problem is the development of larvae of the chironomid Paratanytarsus grimmii (mosquito), a so-called pest organism that can have severe impacts on water quality due to mass accumulation from parthenogenic reproduction, biofouling and other aesthetic reasons. The aim of this study was to develop a new practical method for determining larvae size classes and analyzing the growth of the larvae. Knowledge of the dimensions, life cycle and fertility of these larvae within drinking water networks is essential for any risk analysis and the development of P. grimmii pest-control strategies. A two-year study of P. grimmii in a drinking water distribution system in Northern Germany was conducted, and P. grimmii population dynamics are presented. The parthenogenetic reproduction of P. grimmii without any pharate females (facultative flying stage) within the drinking water distribution system was proofed. In 2020 and 2021, five generations of P. grimmii were observed per year, with a maximum abundance of 6350 ind. m−3. Mass accumulation occurred in the late-summer/autumn period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of Invertebrates in Drinking Water Networks)
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21 pages, 4042 KiB  
Article
(Micro)Biological Sediment Formation in a Non-Chlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System
by Emmanuelle I. Prest, Bram J. Martijn, Matthijs Rietveld, Yuemei Lin and Peter G. Schaap
Water 2023, 15(2), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020214 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2235
Abstract
Sediment formation in drinking water distribution systems can lead to brown water at customer taps. Previous studies have shown that sediment formation is closely linked with (micro)biological processes in the distribution system, however the mechanism is not fully understood. Most available studies on [...] Read more.
Sediment formation in drinking water distribution systems can lead to brown water at customer taps. Previous studies have shown that sediment formation is closely linked with (micro)biological processes in the distribution system, however the mechanism is not fully understood. Most available studies on discoloration or sediment formation mechanism are based on modeling, pilot-scale experiments, or low frequency data collected during pipe flushing. In this study, long-term sediment development in a large-scale drinking water distribution system was studied at one location over 11 years and at several locations along a known water trajectory during one year. Particulate material was collected at several locations using built-in and mobile filters that were connected to transport and distribution pipes in a semi-continuous manner. The volume of the collected material varied seasonally and the highest volumes were collected in the summer season. The material followed similar variations as temperature, invertebrates biomass and concentration of Aeromonas. The results showed that particulate matter of the sediment at downstream distribution locations was not released by the treatment works but instead forms along the distribution network, with increasing particle/floc size, biomass and Fe and Mn content. The large crustacean, Asellus, contributed to material production through feces excretion and formation of detritus by degradation of exoskeletons of dead animals. Detailed chemical characterization of the collected material showed the presence of proteins, calcium carbonate and iron precipitates. A similar sediment composition in a reference distribution system where customer complaints about brown water are experienced less frequently suggests that the sediment formation mechanism is the same but that water quality of the treatment effluent impacts the extent of material formation and growth of invertebrates. Overall, the results indicate that sediment formation in the distribution system is the result of complex combinations of (micro)biological and bio-chemical processes, including aggregation of particles with organic and inorganic matter, microbial growth on particles and biofilm, biomineralization, and growth of invertebrates. The determining factors to limit sediment formation, however, could not be identified. Further research is required to focus on the impact of treatment on shaping the distribution system ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of Invertebrates in Drinking Water Networks)
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23 pages, 4436 KiB  
Article
Climate Change: Water Temperature and Invertebrate Propagation in Drinking-Water Distribution Systems, Effects, and Risk Assessment
by Günter Gunkel, Ute Michels and Michael Scheideler
Water 2022, 14(8), 1246; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081246 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2792
Abstract
This paper provides a summary of the knowledge of drinking-water temperature increases and present daily, seasonal, and yearly temperature data of drinking-water distribution systems (DWDS). The increasing water temperatures lead to challenges in DWDS management, and we must assume a promotion of invertebrates [...] Read more.
This paper provides a summary of the knowledge of drinking-water temperature increases and present daily, seasonal, and yearly temperature data of drinking-water distribution systems (DWDS). The increasing water temperatures lead to challenges in DWDS management, and we must assume a promotion of invertebrates as pipe inhabitants. Macro-, meio-, and microinvertebrates were found in nearly all DWDS. Data in relation to diversity and abundance clearly point out a high probability of mass development, and invertebrate monitoring must be the focus of any DWDS management. The water temperature of DWDS is increasing due to climate change effects, and as a consequence, the growth and reproduction of invertebrates is increasing. The seasonal development of a chironomid (Paratanytarus grimmii) and longtime development of water lice (Asellus aquaticus) are given. Due to increased water temperatures, a third generation of water lice per year has been observed, which is one reason for the observed mass development. This leads to an impact on drinking-water quality and an increased health risk, as invertebrates can serve as a host or vehicle for potential harmful microbes. More research is needed especially on (i) water temperature monitoring in drinking-water distribution systems, (ii) invertebrate development, and (iii) health risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of Invertebrates in Drinking Water Networks)
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