Origin and Dynamic of Micropollutants in Contaminated River, Estuary, and Surrounding Coastal Water Systems

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 15251

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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 164 West Xingang Road, Guangzhou 510301, China
Interests: multiviraite statistical analysis; chemometric; micropollutants; spatial and temporal variation; water quality
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Guest Editor
College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, China
Interests: marine ecology; marine environment; natural resource management; phytoplankton; conservation biology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai, India
Interests: multivariate statistics; environmental impact assessment; environmental modeling; water quality analysis; environmental resources management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Freshwater and coastal rivers are threatened by intense anthropogenic and nature activities.  Urbanization and rural activities result in human pressures and are responsible for the evident change in the river and coastal quality. On the other hand, natural changes also have an influence on river systems. The most typical example is the origin and dynamic of micropollutants, such as nutrients, heavy metals, or organic pollutants (PAHs, POPs, etc.).  There are important scientific and economic reasons to quantify micropollutant addition and removal in river systems. 

In recent decades, micropollutants in coastal and freshwater rivers have been evaluated by several different methods and techniques. Because the measurement of hydro-chemical variables and biological indicators in the marine environment will favour better understanding of aquatic environment, methodological approaches are probably necessary to fill in the existing knowledge gap between the origin and dynamic of micropollutants.

This Special Issue aims to put together classical and innovative studies of methods and techniques of micropollutants. These methods emphasize environmental and ecological problem solving by micropollutants’ spatial and temporal variation, data analysis such as multivariate statistical analysis and chemometrics, etc.

Dr. Meilin Wu
Dr. Hui Zhao
Dr. Dilip Kumar Jha
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • heavy metal
  • PAHs
  • POPs
  • nutrients
  • multiviraite statistical analysis
  • chemometric
  • micropollutants
  • spatial and temporal variation
  • water quality

Published Papers (6 papers)

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13 pages, 1963 KiB  
Article
Distribution Characteristics of Dissolved Oxygen in Spring in the Northern Coastal Beibu Gulf, a Typical Subtropical Bay
by Qiwen Zheng, Hui Zhao, Yuzhen Shi and Meina Duan
Water 2023, 15(5), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050970 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2353
Abstract
Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important parameter for evaluating the seawater quality of the oce-anic environment, but the distribution of DO and its possible mechanisms of marine environ-mental regulation are less studied. Here, the spatial distribution of DO and the influence of main [...] Read more.
Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important parameter for evaluating the seawater quality of the oce-anic environment, but the distribution of DO and its possible mechanisms of marine environ-mental regulation are less studied. Here, the spatial distribution of DO and the influence of main environmental factors on DO were explored using in-situ observation data collected in the northern coastal waters of the Beibu Gulf in April 2021, based on cluster analysis, partial correla-tion analysis, and multiple linear regression. The results showed that DO in surface water of the study area gradually increased from nearshore to offshore, with the nearshore’s DO being nearly saturated and the offshore supersaturated. Tieshan Port and the Maowei Sea had the lowest degree of DO saturation. The partial correlation analysis between DO concentration and environmental factors revealed that the distribution of DO concentration was mainly influenced by temperature and salinity as well as other biochemical factors (i.e., chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and pH). Significant differences existed between the dominant factors in various parts of the northern Beibu Gulf. The western river (Beilun River, Fangcheng River, Maoling River, Qinjiang River) estuaries and offshore areas were dominated by photosynthesis, while the eastern river (Fengfeng River, Nanliu River) estuaries were dominated by oxidation-decomposition. In addition, DO was also affected by the mangrove ecosystem, aquaculture, and coastal industry. Full article
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13 pages, 2111 KiB  
Article
Dissipation of a Polykrikos geminatum Bloom after Wind Events in Pearl River Estuary
by Yupei Guo, Senjie Lin, Liangmin Huang, Yongqiang Chen, Simin Hu, Sheng Liu, Yehui Tan, Xiaoping Huang and Dajun Qiu
Water 2022, 14(15), 2313; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152313 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
Dinoflagellates is one dominant group in coastal marine phytoplankton communities and, on occasion, form blooms in estuaries and coastal ecosystems. While relationships between dinoflagellate bloom dynamics and nutrients are well-studied, information regarding bloom dissipation in estuaries is limited. We studied the dissipation of [...] Read more.
Dinoflagellates is one dominant group in coastal marine phytoplankton communities and, on occasion, form blooms in estuaries and coastal ecosystems. While relationships between dinoflagellate bloom dynamics and nutrients are well-studied, information regarding bloom dissipation in estuaries is limited. We studied the dissipation of dinoflagellate Polykrikos geminatum blooms in the Pearl River Estuary, South China Sea, during August of 2011 using ecological, molecular, and satellite remote sensing data. We found that the dinoflagellate bloom was associated with water temperatures of 29.2–31 °C, salinities ranging 16.4–20, and ambient water nutrient concentrations that were not limited. The abundance of the ciliate Euplotes rariseta, which feeds on P. geminatum cell debris and bacteria, functions as an indicator species of P. geminatum bloom dissipation. In situ and satellite data indicate that bloom water masses were transferred from the central to inner estuary near Shenzhen Bay, driven by continuous, strong southerly winds; at which point in time, P. geminatum blooms dissipated to a high-salinity area near the estuary mouth driven by northerly winds and freshwater discharge, whereupon the blooms rapidly vanished. A low tolerance to low or high salinities resulted in P. geminatum bloom demise in the Pearl River Estuary. We propose that interactions among salinity, wind, and freshwater incursion result in P. geminatum bloom dissipation in the Pearl River Estuary. Full article
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13 pages, 3924 KiB  
Article
Sources, Pollution Characteristics, and Ecological Risk Assessment of Steroids in Beihai Bay, Guangxi
by Chaoxing Ren, Xiao Tan, Cuimei Huang, Hui Zhao and Wenlu Lan
Water 2022, 14(9), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091399 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1935
Abstract
Steroids are environmental endocrine disruptors that are discharged from vertebrates and are also byproducts of aquaculture. They have strong endocrine disrupting effects and are extremely harmful to the environment. The pollution of steroids in Beihai Bay was assessed through analyzing sources from rivers [...] Read more.
Steroids are environmental endocrine disruptors that are discharged from vertebrates and are also byproducts of aquaculture. They have strong endocrine disrupting effects and are extremely harmful to the environment. The pollution of steroids in Beihai Bay was assessed through analyzing sources from rivers entering the bay. Six different types of steroids were detected in seagoing rivers, seagoing discharge outlets, and marine aquaculture farms, ranging from 0.12 (methyltestosterone) to 2.88 ng/L (estrone), from 0.11 (cortisol) to 5.41 ng/L (6a-methylprednisone (Dragon)), and from 0.13 (estradiol) to 2.51 ng/L (nandrolone), respectively. Moreover, 5 steroids were detected in 13 of the 19 seawater monitoring stations, accounting for 68.4% of the samples, and their concentrations ranged from 0.18 (methyltestosterone) to 4.04 ng/L (estrone). Furthermore, 7 steroids were detected in 15 of the 19 sediment monitoring stations, accounting for 78.9% of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 26 (estrone) to 776 ng/kg(androsterone). Thus, the main source of marine steroids were the discharging rivers and pollution sources entering the sea. An ecological risk assessment indicated that estrone and methyltestosterone were at high risk in this region; 17β estradiol (E2β) was medium risk, and other steroids were of low or no risk. This study provides a scientific basis for ecological risk assessment and control. Full article
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27 pages, 4632 KiB  
Article
Diversity and Vertical Distribution of Sedimentary Bacterial Communities and Its Association with Metal Bioavailability in Three Distinct Mangrove Reserves of South China
by Bochao Hu, Junxian Liao, Qijiong Zhang, Suli Ding, Mengyuan He, Yue Qiao, Zuye Zhang, Chenjing Shang and Si Chen
Water 2022, 14(6), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060971 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2562
Abstract
The structure of sedimentary bacterial communities in mangroves depends on environmental factors such as pH, salinity, organic matter content, and metal pollution. To investigate the effect of heavy metal pollution on such communities, core samples of sediments from four sites in three distinct [...] Read more.
The structure of sedimentary bacterial communities in mangroves depends on environmental factors such as pH, salinity, organic matter content, and metal pollution. To investigate the effect of heavy metal pollution on such communities, core samples of sediments from four sites in three distinct mangrove reserves (Golden Bay Mangrove Reserve in Beihai, Guangxi province (GXJHW), Shankou Mangrove Reserve in Hepu, Guangxi province (GXSK), and MaiPo mangrove in Hong Kong (MPCT and MPFQ)) in South China were analyzed for physicochemical properties, multiple chemical forms of metals, and vertical bacterial diversity. Sedimentary bacterial communities varied greatly among the different sampling sites, with biodiversity decreasing in the order of GXSK, GXJHW, MPFQ, and MPCT. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum, followed by Chloroflexi, across all four sampling sites. Multivariate statistical analysis of the effect of environmental factors on the sedimentary bacterial communities found that total carbon was the only physicochemical factor with a significant influence at all four sites. The correlations between environmental factors and bacterial structure were weak for the two sites in Guangxi province, but strong at MPCT in Hong Kong where environmental factors were almost all significantly negatively correlated with bacterial diversity. Variance partitioning analysis revealed that physicochemical properties and chemical forms of metals could explain most of the changes in bacterial diversity. Overall, we observed that heavy metal forms were more important than total metal content in influencing the sedimentary bacterial diversity in mangroves, consistent with the more bioavailable metal species having the greatest effect. Full article
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12 pages, 1982 KiB  
Article
Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Kandelia obovata to Upwelling Stress
by Xiaomei Li, Youshao Wang, Junde Dong and Meilin Wu
Water 2022, 14(6), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060899 - 13 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2848
Abstract
Mangroves growing in intertidal areas are faced with various stresses caused by coastal human activities and oceanic and atmospheric sources. Although the study of the physiological and biochemical characteristics of mangroves has been developing over the past four decades, the effect of upwelling [...] Read more.
Mangroves growing in intertidal areas are faced with various stresses caused by coastal human activities and oceanic and atmospheric sources. Although the study of the physiological and biochemical characteristics of mangroves has been developing over the past four decades, the effect of upwelling on mangroves in plants stress resistance has seldom been investigated. Here, changes in the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the leaves of Kandelia obovata seedlings in response to upwelling were investigated (air temperature: 25 °C; water temperature: control 25 °C, 13 °C, and 5 °C; salinity: 10‰). The results revealed that upwelling treatment caused an increase in chlorophyll content but a decrease in photosynthetic fluorescence parameters. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and malondialdehyde activity (MDA) increased with the decrease in upwelling temperature. The proline content increased under upwelling stress, whereas the soluble sugar content decreased. Further, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and peroxidase activity (POD), showed an increasing trend during the treatment, while catalase activity (CAT) decreased. It was evidenced that upwelling stress triggered the physiological and biochemical responses of Kandelia obovata seedlings. This effect became more intense as the upwelling temperature decreased, and all these indicators showed different responses to upwelling stress. Through synthesizing more energy and regulating enzyme activity and osmotic pressure, the leaves of K. obovata formed a resistance mechanism to short-term upwelling. Full article
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11 pages, 1383 KiB  
Brief Report
A Rapid Bioassay Test for Assessing Environmental Contamination Using the Marine Sedentary Polychaete Hydroides elegans
by Priya Sivakumar, Gomathi Srinivasan, Madhuvandhi Janardhanam, Rekha Sivakumar, Priscilla Niranjani Marcus, Sujatha Balasubramaniam, Gopalakrishnan Singaram and Thilagam Harikrishnan
Water 2022, 14(11), 1713; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111713 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2334
Abstract
To investigate the impact of environmental contaminants on the early life stages of the marine polychaetae Hydroides elegans, a toxicity test was designed. In our previous study, we reported gametes and embryos of H. elegans were sensitive to heavy metal pollution and [...] Read more.
To investigate the impact of environmental contaminants on the early life stages of the marine polychaetae Hydroides elegans, a toxicity test was designed. In our previous study, we reported gametes and embryos of H. elegans were sensitive to heavy metal pollution and effluents. In continuation of this, we used H. elegans gametes to assess the water quality of samples taken along the southeast coast of India. The samples were collected from five different locations of the Chennai coast (Muttu Kadu, Neelangarai, Marina, Royapuram, and Ennore), and two different bioassay toxicity tests were performed. Sperm and eggs were pre-exposed to water samples taken from different locations to assess the water quality. Water samples collected from Ennore station and the Royapuram fish landing center were found to be more polluted than those collected from other locations. Sperm were shown to be more sensitive than eggs. The different morphological effects produced by water samples reflected the defects in the early differentiation of embryonic cells. Since fertilization can be inhibited in the presence of any xenobiotic, both fertilization and early development could be used as a biological indicator for a rapid bioassay to monitor marine pollution. The percentage of successful fertilization and early development was comparatively higher at the reference site (Neelangarai) and in the seawater samples collected from Marina. The physicochemical characteristics of the seawater from these sampling stations corroborated the findings of this investigation. Our results showed that H. elegans gametes were highly sensitive to any contaminant present in the seawater, and confirmed previous findings that this polychaetae can be routinely used as a test organism for ecotoxicological bioassays in tropical and subtropical regions. Full article
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