Special Issue "Active Contamination Event Detection in Water-Distribution Systems"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (14 December 2021) | Viewed by 1751

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Avi Ostfeld
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Deputy Vice President for Academic Affairs, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, ISRAEL
Interests: optimization; modeling; water distribution systems management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Effective contamination event detection methods in water distribution systems identify abnormal system behavior. Since on-line instrumentation capable of measuring and detecting all possible contaminants do not exist, the presence of pollutants can be inferred only through surrogate measurements. Such measurements can distinguish irregularities in monitored water quality, hydraulic parameters, and their interplay during normal operating conditions. Furthermore, the shortage of real-time data, coupled with uncertainties in network topology, water consumption, and event characteristics, make the problem of active contamination event detection, a considerable challenge. This Special Issue will collect state-of-the-art knowledge on contamination event detection modeling in water distribution systems. Studies on new methods for event detection in water distribution systems and, in particular, the inclusion of uncertainty in active contamination event detection are of specific interest. Review papers, as well as experimental/empirical studies on contamination detection, are welcome as well.

Prof. Dr. Avi Ostfeld
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • water distribution systems
  • machine learning
  • uncertainty
  • event detection
  • contamination
  • optimization

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
Ion Flotation of Ytterbium Water-Salt Systems—An Innovative Aspect of the Modern Industry
Water 2021, 13(24), 3493; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243493 - 08 Dec 2021
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Abstract
Considering the ever-increasing role of rare-earth elements (REE) in the modern hi-tech field, their effective use has tremendous significance, although the production process is inevitably linked to the large volumes of industrial ammonia effluents and heavy metal wastes. In the process of metallurgical [...] Read more.
Considering the ever-increasing role of rare-earth elements (REE) in the modern hi-tech field, their effective use has tremendous significance, although the production process is inevitably linked to the large volumes of industrial ammonia effluents and heavy metal wastes. In the process of metallurgical separation of metals, the emission of large volumes of noxious gases and radioactive substances is inevitable. Lean technogenic raw material processing is sensible under the condition of the development of non-waste technology. The lack of competent regulations governing the disposal of waste containing REE has an impact on adjacent territories, accumulating in water bodies and, as a result, in the human body. Such an impact cannot pass without a trace, however, the ambiguity of opinions in the scientific community regarding the toxic effects of REE on living organisms determines the relevance of a more detailed study of this issue. The study of ytterbium ions removal from aqueous standard test solutions by the adsorptive bubble method—ion flotation—was conducted. The experiments showed that by using the ion flotation method, the maximum removal of ytterbium (III) was achieved at pH = 8.30. It was shown that ytterbium (+3) distribution coefficients as a function of aqueous phase pH value in the process of ion flotation with sodium dodecyl sulphate were derived. The comparison of values of removal pH with those of hydrate formation pH allowed to conclude that ytterbium floate as basic dihydroxoytterbium dodecyl sulphate Yb(OH)2(C12H25OSO3). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Contamination Event Detection in Water-Distribution Systems)
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Article
Optimal Water Quality Sensor Placement by Accounting for Possible Contamination Events in Water Distribution Networks
Water 2021, 13(15), 1999; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13151999 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 665
Abstract
Contamination in water distribution networks (WDNs) can occur at any time and location. One protection measure in WDNs is the placement of water quality sensors (WQSs) to detect contamination and provide information for locating the potential contamination source. The placement of WQSs in [...] Read more.
Contamination in water distribution networks (WDNs) can occur at any time and location. One protection measure in WDNs is the placement of water quality sensors (WQSs) to detect contamination and provide information for locating the potential contamination source. The placement of WQSs in WDNs must be optimally planned. Therefore, a robust sensor-placement strategy (SPS) is vital. The SPS should have clear objectives regarding what needs to be achieved by the sensor configuration. Here, the objectives of the SPS were set to cover the contamination event stages of detection, consumption, and source localization. As contamination events occur in any form of intrusion, at any location and time, the objectives had to be tested against many possible scenarios, and they needed to reach a fair value considering all scenarios. In this study, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was selected as the optimizer. The SPS was further reinforced using a databasing method to improve its computational efficiency. The performance of the proposed method was examined by comparing it with a benchmark SPS example and applying it to DMA-sized, real WDNs. The proposed optimization approach improved the overall fitness of the configuration by 23.1% and showed a stable placement behavior with the increase in sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Contamination Event Detection in Water-Distribution Systems)
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