Special Issue "Modeling and Monitoring Climate Extremes and Impacts on Natural-Human Systems"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Hyungjun Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The University of Tokyo, Japan
Interests: climate forcing and land feedback; coupled natural–human systems and sustainable development; remote sensing hydrology; big data–model integration
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Yadu Pokhrel
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dr. John T. Reager
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Jet Propulsion Laboratory/NASA, USA
Interests: application of satellite gravimetry for terrestrial hydrology; influence of subsurface water storage on hydrologic extremes; global water cycle variability and sea level rise
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During recent years, the book-keeping records of extreme events and disasters have been replaced year by year. Because of significant advances over the past decade in modeling and remote sensing capacity for climate–hydrology–human interactions, our understanding of the causes and impacts of such extreme events and disasters has improved considerably.

This Special Issue aims to solicit original scientific contributions from the broader community related to climate and atmospheric sciences, hydrology, and remote sensing, on the following topics: (1) The variability of climate forcing and hydrological feedback; (2) the detection/attribution of extreme events, and impact assessment; (3) the modeling of interactions between nature and human society; and (4) remote sensing hydrology, and data–model integration.

Studies that focus on modeling and/or monitoring behaviors as coupled natural–human systems against extreme climatic perturbation from multi-scale perspectives are particularly encouraged, but studies related to the general areas of climate and hydrological extremes, climate change and impact assessments, sustainability science, numerical model development, and the development of remote sensing algorithms are equally welcome.

Prof. Dr. Hyungjun Kim
Prof. Dr. Yadu Pokhrel
Dr. John T. Reager
Prof. Jin-Ho Yoon
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Extreme events
  • Natural and human systems
  • Hydrological modeling
  • Remote sensing hydrology

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Changes in the Risk of Extreme Climate Events over East Asia at Different Global Warming Levels
Water 2019, 11(12), 2535; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122535 - 30 Nov 2019
Abstract
Limiting the global temperature increase to a level that would prevent “dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system” is the focus of intergovernmental climate negotiations, and the cost-benefit analysis to determine this level requires an understanding of how the risk associated with climate [...] Read more.
Limiting the global temperature increase to a level that would prevent “dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system” is the focus of intergovernmental climate negotiations, and the cost-benefit analysis to determine this level requires an understanding of how the risk associated with climate extremes varies with different warming levels. We examine daily extreme temperature and precipitation variances with continuous global warming using a non-stationary extreme value statistical model based on the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Our results show the probability of extreme warm and heavy precipitation events over East Asia (EA) will increase, while that of cold extremes over EA will decrease as global warming increases. A present-day 1-in-20-year heavy precipitation extreme in EA is projected to increase to 1.3, 1.6, 2.5, and 3.4 times more frequently of the current climatology, at the global mean warming levels of 1.5 °C, 2 °C, 3 °C, and 4 °C above the preindustrial era, respectively. Moreover, the relative changes in probability are larger for rarer events. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the future risk associated with climate extremes, which helps scientists create mitigation measures for global warming and facilitates policy-making. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Impacts of Extreme Climate Events on Vegetation Activity in the North South Transect of Eastern China (NSTEC)
Water 2019, 11(11), 2291; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112291 - 01 Nov 2019
Abstract
Extreme climate events frequently exert serious effects on terrestrial vegetation activity. However, these effects are still uncertain in widely distributed areas with different climate zones. Transect analysis is important to understand how terrestrial vegetation responds to climate change, especially extreme climate events, by [...] Read more.
Extreme climate events frequently exert serious effects on terrestrial vegetation activity. However, these effects are still uncertain in widely distributed areas with different climate zones. Transect analysis is important to understand how terrestrial vegetation responds to climate change, especially extreme climate events, by substituting space for time. In this paper, seven extreme climate indices and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) are employed to examine changes in the extreme climate events and vegetation activity. To reduce the uncertainty of the NDVI, two satellite-derived NDVI datasets, including the third generation Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling System (GIMMS-3g) NDVI dataset and the NDVI from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites on Star Web Servers (SWS), were employed to capture changes in vegetation activity. The impacts of climate extremes on vegetation activity were then assessed over the period of 1982–2012 using the North–South Transect of Eastern China (NSTEC) as a case. The results show that vegetation activity was overall strengthened from 1982 to 2012 in the NSTEC. In addition, extreme high temperature events revealed an increased trend of approximately 5.15 days per decade, while a weakened trend (not significant) was found in extreme cold temperature events. The strengthened vegetation activities could be associated with enhanced extreme high temperature events and weakened extreme cold temperature events over the past decades in most of the NSTEC. Despite this, inversed changes were also found locally between vegetation activity and extreme climate events (e.g., in the Northeast Plain). These phenomena could be associated with differences in vegetation type, human activity, as well as the combined effects of the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events. This study highlights the importance of accounting for the vital roles of extreme climate effects on vegetation activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Integrated Real-Time Flood Forecasting and Inundation Analysis in Small–Medium Streams
Water 2019, 11(5), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050919 - 01 May 2019
Abstract
This study presents the application of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and one dimensional (1-D) and two dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic models to improve the problems of hydrological models currently used for flood forecasting in small–medium streams of South Korea. The optimal combination [...] Read more.
This study presents the application of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and one dimensional (1-D) and two dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic models to improve the problems of hydrological models currently used for flood forecasting in small–medium streams of South Korea. The optimal combination of input variables (e.g., rainfall and water level) in ANFIS was selected based on a statistical analysis of the observed and forecasted values. Two membership functions (MFs) and two ANFIS rules were determined by the subtractive clustering (SC) approach in the processes of training and checking. The developed ANFIS was applied to Jungrang Stream and water levels for six lead times (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 hour) were forecasted. Based on point forecasted water levels by ANFIS, 1-D section flood forecast and 2-D spatial inundation analysis were carried out. This study demonstrated that the proposed methodology can forecast flooding based only on observed rainfall and water level without extensive physical and topographic data, and can be performed in real-time by integrating point- and section flood forecasting and spatial inundation analysis. Full article
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