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Special Issue "Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Resources Management and Governance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Xixi Wang

Civil and Environmental Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk 23529, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-757-683-4882
Fax: +1-757-683-5354
Interests: effects of climate change versus human activity on water resources; evaporation from water-limited soils; water-soil-vegetation interactions in changing climate; urban stormwater management using low impact devices (LIDs); watershed hydrology and best management practices (BMPs)
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Ruizhong Gao

Civil and Water Conservancy, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010018, China
E-Mail
Phone: 8613948314404
Interests: precipitation in Mongolian Plateau; water-soil-vegetation interactions in changing climate; transpiration of steppe grasses; general hydrology and hydrogeology; water resources planning and management in arid/semiarid regions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water resources is vital to both sustaining socioeconomics and ecoenvironments. However, its management has been becoming more and more challenged because of uncertainties resulting from climate change. The prominent effects of climate change on water resources can be comprehensive and may include that the: 1) total amount of available fresh water tends to decrease; 2) spatiotemporal distribution of precipitation will be altered, possiblly leading to more frequent flooding and/or drought with a larger magnitude, a longer duration, and a greater extent; 3) natural hydrologic cycle can be twisted, increasing nonbenefitical evapotranspiration while reducing soil water replenishment and groundwater recharge; and 4) sea level rises, causing coatsal flooding and salt water intrusion. These effects are usually intermingled with impacts of human activities on water resources. How to separate them is pertient to developing practical measures to adapt climate change while it is an advencing subject that needs to be supported by more field observations as well as better algorithms. This special issue of Water calls for innovative research papers that will advance our knowledge/capability in: 1) quantifing effects of climate change on water resources; and 2) taking such effects into account by water resources managers and practical engineers in practice.

Assoc. Prof. Xixi Wang
Assoc. Prof. Ruizhong Gao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Drought
  • Ecohydrology
  • Evaportranspiration
  • Extreme hydrologic events
  • Flooding
  • Groundwater
  • Precipitation
  • Seal level rise
  • Soil water
  • Streamflow

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Spatiotemporal Variability of Evapotranspiration and Its Response to Climate Change and Land Use/Land Cover Change in the Three Gorges Reservoir
Water 2019, 11(9), 1739; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091739
Received: 15 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 19 August 2019 / Published: 21 August 2019
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Abstract
Evapotranspiration (ET) has undergone profound changes as a result of global climate change and anthropogenic activities. The construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has led to changes in its land use/land cover (LUCC) and local climate, which in turn has changed ET [...] Read more.
Evapotranspiration (ET) has undergone profound changes as a result of global climate change and anthropogenic activities. The construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has led to changes in its land use/land cover (LUCC) and local climate, which in turn has changed ET processes in the TGR region. In this paper, the CLM4.5 land surface model is used to simulate and analyze the spatiotemporal variability of ET between 1993 and 2013. Four experiments were conducted to quantify the contribution rate of climate change and LUCC to changes in ET processes. The results show that the climate showed a warming and drying trend from 1993 to 2013, and the LUCC indicates decreasing cropland with increasing forest, grassland, water bodies and urban areas. These changes increased the mean annual ET by 13.76 mm after impoundment. Spatially, the vegetation transpiration accounts for the largest proportion in ET. The decreasing relative humidity and increasing wind speeds led to an increase in vegetation transpiration and ground evaporation, respectively, in the center of the TGR region, while the LUCC drove changes in ET in water bodies, urban areas and high-altitude regions in the TGR region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential Changes in Runoff of California’s Major Water Supply Watersheds in the 21st Century
Water 2019, 11(8), 1651; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081651
Received: 17 July 2019 / Revised: 30 July 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
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Abstract
This study assesses potential changes in runoff of California’s eight major Central Valley water supply watersheds in the 21st century. The study employs the latest operative climate projections from 10 general circulation models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) [...] Read more.
This study assesses potential changes in runoff of California’s eight major Central Valley water supply watersheds in the 21st century. The study employs the latest operative climate projections from 10 general circulation models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) under two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) to drive a hydrologic model (VIC) in generating runoff projections through 2099. Changes in peak runoff, peak timing, seasonal (major water supply season April–July) runoff, and annual runoff during two future periods, mid-century and late-century, relative to a historical baseline period are examined. Trends in seasonal and annual runoff projections are also investigated. The results indicate that watershed characteristics impact runoff responses to climate change. Specifically, for rain-dominated watersheds, runoff is generally projected to peak earlier with higher peak volumes on average. For snow-dominated watersheds, however, runoff is largely projected to peak within the same month as historical runoff has, with little changes in peak volume during mid-century but pronounced decreases during late-century under the higher emission scenario. The study also identifies changes that are common to all study watersheds. Specifically, the temporal distribution of annual runoff is projected to change in terms of shifting more volume to the wet season, though there is no significant changing trend in the total annual runoff. Additionally, the snowmelt portion of the total annual runoff (represented by April–July runoff divided by total annual runoff) is projected to decline consistently under both emission scenarios, indicative of a shrinking snowpack across the study watersheds. Collectively, these changes imply higher flood risk and lower water supply reliability in the future that are expected to pose stress to California’s water system. Those findings can inform water management adaptation practices (e.g., watershed restoration, re-operation of the current water system, investing in additional water storage) to cope with the stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Susceptibility of Hydropower Generation to Climate Change: Karun III Dam Case Study
Water 2019, 11(5), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051025
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 4 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
Climate change can cause serious problems for future hydropower plant projects and make them less economically justified. Changing precipitation patterns, rising temperatures, and abrupt snow melting affect river stream patterns and hydropower generation. Thus, study of climate change impacts during the useful life [...] Read more.
Climate change can cause serious problems for future hydropower plant projects and make them less economically justified. Changing precipitation patterns, rising temperatures, and abrupt snow melting affect river stream patterns and hydropower generation. Thus, study of climate change impacts during the useful life of a hydropower dam is essential and its outcome should be considered in assessing long-term dam feasibility. The aim of this research is to evaluate the impacts of climate change on future hydropower generation in the Karun-III dam located in the southwest region of Iran in two future tri-decadal periods: near (2020–2049) and far (2070–2099). Had-CM3 general circulation model predictions under A2 and B2 SRES scenarios were applied, and downscaled by a statistical downscaling model (SDSM). An artificial neural network (ANN) and HEC-ResSim reservoir model respectively simulated the rainfall–runoff process and hydropower generation. The projections showed that the Karun-III dam catchment under the two scenarios will generally become warmer and wetter with a slightly larger increase in annual precipitation in the near than the far future. Runoff followed the precipitation trend by increasing in both periods. The runoff peak also switched from April to March in both scenarios, due to higher winter precipitation, and earlier snowmelt, which was caused by temperature rise. According to both scenarios, hydropower generation increased more in the near future than in the far future. Annual average power generation increased gradually by 26.7–40.5% under A2 and by 17.4–29.3% under B2 in 2020–2049. In the far period, average power generation increased by 1.8–8.7% in A2 and by 10.5–22% under B2. In the near future, A2 showed energy deduction in the months of June and July, while B2 revealed a decrease in the months of April and June. Additionally, projections in the 2070–2099 under A2 exhibited energy reduction in the months of March through July, while B2 revealed a decrease in April through July. The framework utilized in this study can be exploited to analyze the susceptibility of hydropower production in the long term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Global Surface Soil Moisture Dynamics in 1979–2016 Observed from ESA CCI SM Dataset
Water 2019, 11(5), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050883
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
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Abstract
Soil moisture (SM) is an important variable for the terrestrial surface system, as its changes greatly affect the global water and energy cycle. The description and understanding of spatiotemporal changes in global soil moisture require long time-series observation. Taking advantage of the European [...] Read more.
Soil moisture (SM) is an important variable for the terrestrial surface system, as its changes greatly affect the global water and energy cycle. The description and understanding of spatiotemporal changes in global soil moisture require long time-series observation. Taking advantage of the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI) combined SM dataset, this study aims at identifying the non-linear trends of global SM dynamics and their variations at multiple time scales. The distribution of global surface SM changes in 1979–2016 was identified by a non-linear methodology based on a stepwise regression at the annual and seasonal scales. On the annual scale, significant changes have taken place in about one third of the lands, in which nonlinear trends account for 48.13%. At the seasonal scale, the phenomenon that “wet season get wetter, and dry season get dryer” is found this study via hemispherical SM trend analysis at seasonal scale. And, the changes in seasonal SM are more pronounced (change rate at seasonal scales is about 5 times higher than that at annual scale) and the areas seeing significant changes cover a larger surface. Seasonal SM fluctuations distributed in southwestern China, central North America and southern Africa, are concealed at the annual scale. Overall, non-linear trend analysis at multiple time scale has revealed more complex dynamics for these long time series of SM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Climate Change on the Water Requirements of Oat in Northeast and North China
Water 2019, 11(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010091
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 30 December 2018 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
Crop water requirements are directly affected by climatic variability, especially for crops grown in the areas which are sensitive to climatic change. Based on the SIMETAW model and a long-term meteorological dataset, we evaluated the spatiotemporal variations of climatic change impacts on water [...] Read more.
Crop water requirements are directly affected by climatic variability, especially for crops grown in the areas which are sensitive to climatic change. Based on the SIMETAW model and a long-term meteorological dataset, we evaluated the spatiotemporal variations of climatic change impacts on water requirement of oat in North and Northeast China. The results indicated that effective rainfall showed an increasing trend, while the crop water requirement and irrigation demand presented decreasing trends over the past decades. The water requirement of oat showed significant longitudinal and latitudinal spatial variations, with a downtrend from north to south and uptrend from east to west. Climatic factors have obviously changed in the growth season of oat, with upward trends in the average temperature and precipitation, and downward trends in the average wind speed, sunshine hours, relative humidity, and solar radiation. Declines in solar radiation and wind speed, accompanied with the increase in effective rainfall, have contributed to the reduced crop water requirement over these decades. Given the complex dynamic of climate change, when studying the impact of climate change on crop water requirements, we should not only consider single factors such as temperature or rainfall, we need to analyze the comprehensive effects of various climatic factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Ecohydrological Changes and Resilience of a Shallow Lake Ecosystem under Intense Human Pressure and Recent Climate Change
Water 2019, 11(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010032
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
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Abstract
In this work we present the complicated situation of a faunistically and floristically valuable ecosystem of the Rakutowskie Lake wetlands complex, which is part of the Special Protection Area for Birds of “Błota Rakutowskie” (PLB40001) and “Błota Kłócieńskie” Habitats Directive Sites (PLH040031) included [...] Read more.
In this work we present the complicated situation of a faunistically and floristically valuable ecosystem of the Rakutowskie Lake wetlands complex, which is part of the Special Protection Area for Birds of “Błota Rakutowskie” (PLB40001) and “Błota Kłócieńskie” Habitats Directive Sites (PLH040031) included in the Natura 2000 network. Numerous ornithological observations have drawn our attention to the problem of rapidly progressing overgrowth of the lake and significant fluctuations in its water surface area. These fluctuations, especially in the spring period, significantly limit safe reproduction possibilities of very rare species of water–marsh birds. A multidirectional and comprehensive spectrum of research works allowed us to determine the genesis of the ecosystem and show that the shallow lake is undergoing the final stage in its evolution. The economic aspect of human activity (changes in land use and land development works) has contributed to serious degradation of the ecosystem. Climate changes observed in recent years (increased air temperature and, consequently, higher evaporation) additionally deepen and accelerate this process. The research made it possible to determine how the ecosystem functions today, but it is also an attempt to determine our predictions about its future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Coevolution of Hydrological Cycle Components under Climate Change: The Case of the Garonne River in France
Water 2018, 10(12), 1870; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121870
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
Climate change is suspected to impact water circulation within the hydrological cycle at catchment scale. A SWAT model approach to assess the evolution of the many hydrological components of the Garonne catchment (Southern France) is deployed in this study. Performance over the calibration [...] Read more.
Climate change is suspected to impact water circulation within the hydrological cycle at catchment scale. A SWAT model approach to assess the evolution of the many hydrological components of the Garonne catchment (Southern France) is deployed in this study. Performance over the calibration period (2000–2010) are satisfactory, with Nash–Sutcliffe ranging from 0.55 to 0.94 or R2 from 0.86 to 0.98. Similar performance values are obtained in validation (1962–2000). Water cycle is first analyzed based on past observed climatic data (1962–2010) to understand its variations and geographical spread. Comparison is then conducted against the different trends obtained from a climate ensemble over 2010–2050. Results show a strong impact on green water, such as a reduction of the soil water content (SWC) and a substantial increase in evapotranspiration (ET) in winter. In summer, however, some part of the watershed faces lower ET fluxes because of a lack of SWC to answer the evapotranspiratory demand, highlighting possible future deficits of green water stocks. Blue water fluxes are found significantly decreasing during summer, when in winter, discharge in the higher part of the watershed is found increasing because of a lower snow stock associated to an increase of liquid precipitation, benefiting surface runoff. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Multivariate Flood Risk Analysis at a Watershed Scale Considering Climatic Factors
Water 2018, 10(12), 1821; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121821
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 25 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Based on the constructed SWAT model in the Qinhuai River Basin, the hydrological response of flooding under different scenarios of temperature and rainfall change is analyzed. The Copula function is then used to calculate and analyze the multivariate flood risk. The results show [...] Read more.
Based on the constructed SWAT model in the Qinhuai River Basin, the hydrological response of flooding under different scenarios of temperature and rainfall change is analyzed. The Copula function is then used to calculate and analyze the multivariate flood risk. The results show that the flood peaks increase with the increase of precipitation and decrease with the increase of temperature. The hydrological response of light floods to temperature changes is stronger than that of medium and heavy floods. Additionally, the temperature drop and the precipitation increase lead to a higher flood risk. The flood risk of flood peaks is more sensitive to changes in precipitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Potential Climate Change Impacts on Irrigation Requirements of Major Crops in the Brazos Headwaters Basin, Texas
Water 2018, 10(11), 1610; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111610
Received: 14 October 2018 / Revised: 4 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
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Abstract
In order for the agricultural sector to be sustainable, farming practices and management strategies need to be informed by site-specific information regarding potential climate change impacts on irrigation requirements and water budget components of different crops. Such information would allow managers and producers [...] Read more.
In order for the agricultural sector to be sustainable, farming practices and management strategies need to be informed by site-specific information regarding potential climate change impacts on irrigation requirements and water budget components of different crops. Such information would allow managers and producers to select cropping systems that ensure efficient use of water resources and crop productivity. The major challenge in understanding the link between cropping systems and climate change is the uncertainty of how the climate would change in the future and lack of understanding how different crops would respond to those changes. This study analyzed the potential impact of climate change on irrigation requirements of four major crops (cotton, corn, sorghum, and winter wheat) in the Brazos Headwaters Basin, Texas. The irrigation requirement of crops was calculated for the baseline period (1980–2010) and three projected periods: 2020s (2011–2030), 2055s (2046–2065), and 2090s (2080–2099). Daily climate predictions from 15 general circulation models (GCMs) under three greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios (B1, A1B, and A2) were generated for three future periods using the Long Ashton Research Station–Weather Generator (LARS-WG) statistical downscaling model. Grid-based (55 grids at ~38 km resolution) irrigation water requirements (IRRs) and other water budget components of each crop were calculated using the Irrigation Management System (IManSys) model. Future period projection results show that evapotranspiration (ET) and IRR will increase for all crops, while precipitation is projected to decrease compared with the baseline period. On average, precipitation meets only 25–32% of the ET demand, depending on crop type. In general, projections from almost all GCMs show an increase in IRR for all crops for the three future periods under the three GHG emission scenarios. Irrigation requirement prediction uncertainty between GCMs was consistently greater in July and August for corn, cotton, and sorghum regardless of period and emission scenario. However, for winter wheat, greater uncertainties between GCMs were observed during April and May. Irrigation requirements show significant variations across spatial locations. There was no consistent spatial trend in changes of IRR for the four crops. A unit change in precipitation is projected to affect IRR differently depending on the crop type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Complexity Analysis of Precipitation and Runoff Series Based on Approximate Entropy and Extreme-Point Symmetric Mode Decomposition
Water 2018, 10(10), 1388; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101388
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 30 September 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
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Abstract
Many regional hydrological regime changes are complex under the influences of climate change and human activities, which make it difficult to understand the regional or basin al hydrological status. To investigate the complexity of precipitation and the runoff time series from 1960 to [...] Read more.
Many regional hydrological regime changes are complex under the influences of climate change and human activities, which make it difficult to understand the regional or basin al hydrological status. To investigate the complexity of precipitation and the runoff time series from 1960 to 2012 in the Jing River Basin on different time scales, approximate entropy, a Bayesian approach and extreme-point symmetric mode decomposition were employed. The results show that the complexity of annual precipitation and runoff has decreased since the 1990sand that the change occurred in 1995. The Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF)-6 component decomposed by extreme-point symmetric mode decomposition of monthly precipitation and runoff was consistent with precipitation and runoff. The IMF-6 component of monthly precipitation closely followed the 10-year cycle of change, and it has an obvious correlation with sunspots. The correlation coefficient is 0.6, representing a positive correlation before 1995 and a negative correlation after 1995. However, the IMF-6 component of monthly runoff does not have a significant correlation with sunspots, and the correlation coefficient is only 0.41, which indicates that climate change is not the dominant factor of runoff change. Approximate entropy is an effective analytical method for complexity, and furthermore, it can be decomposed by extreme-point symmetric mode decomposition to obtain the physical process of the sequences at different time scales, which helps us to understand the background of climate change and human activity in the process of precipitation and runoff. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources)
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Open AccessCommunication
Spatiotemporal Rainfall Trends in the Brazilian Legal Amazon between the Years 1998 and 2015
Water 2018, 10(9), 1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091220
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
Tropical forests play an important role as a reservoir of carbon and biodiversity, specifically forests in the Brazilian Amazon. However, the last decades have been marked by important changes in the Amazon, particularly those associated with climatic extremes. Quantifying the variability of rainfall [...] Read more.
Tropical forests play an important role as a reservoir of carbon and biodiversity, specifically forests in the Brazilian Amazon. However, the last decades have been marked by important changes in the Amazon, particularly those associated with climatic extremes. Quantifying the variability of rainfall patterns, hence, is essential for understanding changes and impacts of climate upon this ecosystem. The aim of this study was to analyse spatiotemporal trends in rainfall along the Brazilian Legal Amazon between 1998 and 2015. For this purpose, rainfall data derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (TRMM) and nonparametric statistical methods, such as Mann–Kendall and Sen’s Slope, were used. Through this approach, some patterns were identified. No evidence of significant rainfall trends (p ≤ 0.05) for annual or monthly (except for September, which showed a significant negative trend) averages was found. However, significant monthly negative rainfall anomalies were found in 1998, 2005, 2010, and 2015, and positive in 1999, 2000, 2004, 2009, and 2013. The annual pixel-by-pixel analysis showed that 92.3% of the Brazilian Amazon had no rainfall trend during the period analysed, 4.2% had significant negative trends (p ≤ 0.05), and another 3.5% had significant positive trends (p ≤ 0.05). Despite no clear temporal rainfall trends for most of the Amazon had negative trends for September, corresponding to the peak of dry season in the majority of the region, and negative rainfall anomalies found in 22% of the years analysed, which indicate that water-dependent ecological processes may be negatively affected. Moreover, these processes may be under increased risk of disruption resulting from other drought-related events, such as wildfires, which are expect to be intensified by rainfall reduction during the Amazonian dry season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Climatic Variations in Macerata Province (Central Italy)
Water 2018, 10(8), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081104
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
The province of Macerata, Italy, is a topographically complex region which has been little studied in terms of its temperature and precipitation climatology. Temperature data from 81 weather stations and precipitation data from 55 rain gauges were obtained, and, following quality control procedures, [...] Read more.
The province of Macerata, Italy, is a topographically complex region which has been little studied in terms of its temperature and precipitation climatology. Temperature data from 81 weather stations and precipitation data from 55 rain gauges were obtained, and, following quality control procedures, were investigated on the basis of 3 standard periods: 1931–1960, 1961–1990 and 1991–2014. Spatial and temporal variations in precipitation and temperature were analysed on the basis of six topographic variable (altitude, distance from the sea, latitude, distance from the closest river, aspect, and distance from the crest line). Of these, the relationship with altitude showed the strongest correlation. Use of GIS software allowed investigation of the most accurate way to present interpolations of these data and assessment of the differences between the 3 investigated periods. The results of the analyses permit a thorough evaluation of climate change spatially over the last 60 years. Generally, the amount of precipitation is diminished while the temperature is increased across the whole study area, but with significant variations within it. Temperature increased by 2 to 3 °C in the central part of the study area, while near the coast and in the mountains the change is between about 0 and 1 °C, with small decreases focused in the Appennine and foothill belt (−1 to 0 °C). For precipitation, the decrease is fairly uniform across the study area (between about 0–200 mm), but with some isolated areas of strong increase (200–300 mm) and only few parts of territory in which there is an increase of 0–200 mm, mainly in the southern part of the coast, to the south-west and inland immediately behind the coast. The monthly temperature trend is characterized by a constant growth, while for precipitation there is a strong decrease in the amount measured in January, February and October (between 25 and 35 mm on average). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources)
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