Special Issue "Wave-structure Interaction Processes in Coastal Engineering"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Oceans and Coastal Zones".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 16317

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Francesco Aristodemo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Università della Calabria, Department of Civil Engineering (DINCI), Arcavacata di Rende (CS), Rende, Italy
Interests: coastal engineering; ocean engineering; fluid mechanics; environmental hydraulics; wave–structure interaction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Marcello Di Risio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Construction-Architectural and Environmental Engineering Department (DICEAA), Environmental and Maritime Hydraulic Laboratory (LIam), University of L’Aquila, Monteluco di Roio, L’Aquila, Italy
Interests: coastal engineering; ocean engineering; environmental engineering; water waves hydraulics; physical modeling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

You are kindly invited to submit a manuscript on any aspect of laboratory or field experiments and/or Eulerian and Lagrangian numerical modelling on wave–structure interaction problems, highlighting the most recent breakthrough(s) in the field of coastal engineering.

The papers will be published in a Special Issue of Water, with the main aim being to present the state-of-the-art knowledge on the interaction between water waves (regular, irregular, solitary and tsunami) and structures in fixed and mobile beds such as breakwaters, groins, pipelines, risers, quays, jetties, offshore platforms, renewable energy devices, wind turbines, etc. to researchers and practitioners.

The content of the paper is at your discretion, but an overview of a particular topic of research in your area of expertise and an exposure of the current and future challenges associated with these topics would be particularly valuable.

Prof. Dr. Francesco Aristodemo
Prof. Dr. Marcello Di Risio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Wave–structure interaction
  • Coastal, harbour and offshore structures
  • Fixed and floating structures
  • Fixed and mobile bed
  • Breaking and non-breaking loads
  • Laboratory and field experiments
  • Eulerian and Lagrangian numerical modelling

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research

Editorial
Wave-Structure Interaction Processes in Coastal Engineering
Water 2021, 13(6), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060831 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
Among one of the most challenging engineering problems, fluid-structure interaction processes are complex phenomena that have received much attention over the years [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave-structure Interaction Processes in Coastal Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Article
Determination of Force Coefficients for a Submerged Rigid Breakwater under the Action of Solitary Waves
Water 2021, 13(3), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030315 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 717
Abstract
We present an analysis related to the evaluation of Morison and transverse force coefficients in the case of a submerged square barrier subject to the action of solitary waves. To this purpose, two-dimensional experimental research was undertaken in the wave flume of the [...] Read more.
We present an analysis related to the evaluation of Morison and transverse force coefficients in the case of a submerged square barrier subject to the action of solitary waves. To this purpose, two-dimensional experimental research was undertaken in the wave flume of the University of Calabria, in which a rigid square barrier was provided by a discrete battery of pressure sensors to determine the horizontal and vertical hydrodynamic forces. A total set of 18 laboratory tests was carried out by varying the motion law of a piston-type paddle. Owing to the low Keulegan–Carpenter numbers of the tests, the force regime of the physical tests was defined by the dominance of the inertia loads in the horizontal direction and of the lift loads in the vertical one. Through the use of the time series of wave forces and the undisturbed kinematics, drag, horizontal inertia, lift, and vertical inertia coefficients in the Morison and transverse semi-empirical schemes were calculated using time-domain approaches, adopting the WLS1 method for the minimization of the difference between the maximum forces and the linked phase shifts by comparing laboratory and calculated wave loads. Practical equations to calculate these coefficients as a function of the wave non-linearity were introduced. The obtained results highlighted the prevalence of the horizontal forces in comparison with the vertical ones which, however, prove to be fundamental for stability purposes of the barrier. An overall good agreement between the experimental forces and those calculated by the calibrated semi-empirical schemes was found, particularly for the positive horizontal and vertical loads. The analysis of the hydrodynamic coefficients showed a decreasing trend for the drag, horizontal inertia, and lift coefficients as a function of the wave non-linearity, while the vertical inertia coefficient underlined an initial increasing trend and a successive slight decreasing trend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave-structure Interaction Processes in Coastal Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Wave Force Characteristics and Stability of Detached Breakwaters Consisting of Open Cell Caissons Interlocked via Crushed Stones
Water 2020, 12(10), 2873; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102873 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 866
Abstract
The maximum external force acting on a long continuous harbor structure can be reduced by controlling the phase difference of forces acting longitudinally. This strategy can be used to increase the structural stability of breakwaters consisting of caissons. Breakwaters have been developed using [...] Read more.
The maximum external force acting on a long continuous harbor structure can be reduced by controlling the phase difference of forces acting longitudinally. This strategy can be used to increase the structural stability of breakwaters consisting of caissons. Breakwaters have been developed using interlocking caissons to effectively respond to the constant increase in wave height due to climate change. In this study, we investigated the wave force characteristics and stability of a detached breakwater consisting of open cell caissons interlocked via crushed stones. We performed wave basin experiments and compared the results with analytical solutions of linear diffraction waves. The results revealed that the maximum wave force acting on the front of the breakwater decreased as the incident angle increased, reducing by as much as 79% for an incident angle of 30°. Although the variability of the maximum wave force for each caisson is large owing to the influence of the diffracted waves, the maximum wave force acting on the entire detached breakwater was not significantly affected by this variability. The analytical solutions based on linear wave theory agreed with the experimental results, indicating that the findings can be applied to actual designs. The structural stability of the breakwater was enhanced, even for low incident wave angles, compared to that of a single integral structure, as the frictional resistance produced by the sliding structure increased due to the shear resistance between the filled crushed stones and the rubble mound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave-structure Interaction Processes in Coastal Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluation of the Hydraulic Performance of a Rear-Parapet Vertical Breakwater under Regular Waves through Hydraulic Experiments
Water 2020, 12(9), 2428; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092428 - 29 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
Climate change has resulted in increased intensity and frequency of typhoons and storm surges. Accordingly, attention has been paid to securing the breakwater’s stability to protect the safety of the port. Herein, hydraulic model experiments were conducted to evaluate the hydraulic performance of [...] Read more.
Climate change has resulted in increased intensity and frequency of typhoons and storm surges. Accordingly, attention has been paid to securing the breakwater’s stability to protect the safety of the port. Herein, hydraulic model experiments were conducted to evaluate the hydraulic performance of a vertical breakwater having a rear parapet. For comparison, cases in which the parapet was placed on the seaside, the harborside, and at the center of the breakwater were considered. Regular waves were used for convenient performance analysis. Five wave gauges and nine pressure transducers were installed to secure physical data for hydraulic performance evaluation. Results showed that a rear parapet can reduce the maximum wave force acting on the breakwater. Even though impulsive pressure was generated, it did not affect the stability of the breakwater owing to the phase difference between the maximum wave pressures acting on the caisson and parapet. By decreasing the maximum wave force, the required self-weight that satisfies the safety factor of 1.2 was reduced by up to 82.7%; the maximum bearing pressure was reduced by up to 47.6% compared with that of the parapet located on the seaside. Thus, the rear parapet was found to be more suitable for actual applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave-structure Interaction Processes in Coastal Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Three-Dimensional Wave-Induced Dynamic Response in Anisotropic Poroelastic Seabed
Water 2020, 12(5), 1465; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051465 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
This paper presents a novel analytical solution, which is developed for investigating three-dimensional wave-induced seabed responses for anisotropic permeability. The analytical solution is based on the assumption of the poroelastic and the up dynamic form, which considers the inertia force of [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel analytical solution, which is developed for investigating three-dimensional wave-induced seabed responses for anisotropic permeability. The analytical solution is based on the assumption of the poroelastic and the u p dynamic form, which considers the inertia force of the soil skeleton. In this paper, the problem is regarded as an eigenvalue problem through a first-order ordinary differential equation in matrix form. The problematic eigenvector involved in the solution is dealt with using numerical computation, and a process is proposed to implement the present solution for the desired dynamic response. A verification, which is compared with two existing solutions, demonstrates an agreement with the present solution. The results show that the amplitude profile of seabed response for a shorter wave period varies significantly. A comparison between the anisotropic and transverse isotropic, as well as isotropic permeabilities reveals that the error of vertical effective stress on the seabed bottom can reach 74 . 8 % for the isotropic case. For anisotropic permeability, when the wave direction is parallel to the higher horizontal permeability direction, the amplitude profiles of pore pressure and vertical effective stress exhibit the greatest dissipation and increment, respectively. For transverse isotropic permeability, the vertical effective stress is independent of the wave direction, which results in the two horizontal effective stresses on the seabed bottom being identical to each other and independent of the wave direction. Our comprehensive analysis provides insight into the effect of anisotropic permeability on different wave periods and wave directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave-structure Interaction Processes in Coastal Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Numerical Investigations on the Instability of Boulders Impacted by Experimental Coastal Flows
Water 2019, 11(8), 1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081557 - 28 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
Coastal boulders transported inland by marine hazards, such as tsunamis and storms, are commonly found worldwide. Studies on the transport process of coastal boulders contribute to the understanding of a wide range of phenomena such as high-energy flow events, fluid-structure interaction, and coastal [...] Read more.
Coastal boulders transported inland by marine hazards, such as tsunamis and storms, are commonly found worldwide. Studies on the transport process of coastal boulders contribute to the understanding of a wide range of phenomena such as high-energy flow events, fluid-structure interaction, and coastal sediments. Consequently, it is crucial to understand how boulders move, but even more important to determine the instability condition for boulder transport. The hydrodynamic formulas including drag and lift coefficients are widely used to predict the incipient motion of boulders while few studies are conducted to evaluate the capability of these formulas. Recently, a series of laboratory experiments carried out at the Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory (Italian acronym LIDR) of the University of Bologna, Italy, revealed that boulders can start moving when the flow height and flow velocity are lower than the theoretical threshold computed by hydraulic formulas. In this paper, we use a numerical shallow water model to reproduce these freely available laboratory data with the aim of testing the capability of the model in capturing the main evolution of the process, and of casting new light on the instability condition of coastal boulders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave-structure Interaction Processes in Coastal Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Influence of Convex and Concave Curvatures in a Coastal Dike Line on Wave Run-up
Water 2019, 11(7), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071333 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2063
Abstract
Due to climatic change and the increased usage of coastal areas, there is an increasing risk of dike failures along the coasts worldwide. Wave run-up plays a key role in the planning and design of a coastal structure. Coastal engineers use empirical equations [...] Read more.
Due to climatic change and the increased usage of coastal areas, there is an increasing risk of dike failures along the coasts worldwide. Wave run-up plays a key role in the planning and design of a coastal structure. Coastal engineers use empirical equations for the determination of wave run-up. These formulae generally include the influence of various hydraulic, geometrical and structural parameters, but neglect the effect of the curvature of coastal dikes on wave run-up and overtopping. The scope of this research is to find the effects of the dike curvature on wave run-up for regular wave attack by employing numerical model studies for various dike-opening angles and comparing it with physical model test results. A numerical simulation is carried out using DualSPHysics, a mesh-less model and OpenFOAM, a mesh-based model. A new influence factor is introduced to determine the influence of curvature along a dike line. For convexly curved dikes (αd = 210° to 270°) under perpendicular wave attack, a higher wave run-up was observed for larger opening angles at the center of curvature whereas for concavely curved dikes (αd = 90° to 150°) under perpendicular wave attack, wave run-up increases at the center of curvature as the opening angle decreases. This research aims to contribute a more precise analysis and understanding the influence of the curvature in a dike line and thus ensuring a higher level of protection in the future development of coastal structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave-structure Interaction Processes in Coastal Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Wave Overtopping of Stepped Revetments
Water 2019, 11(5), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051035 - 17 May 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
Wave overtopping—i.e., excess of water over the crest of a coastal protection infrastructure due to wave run-up—of a smooth slope can be reduced by introducing slope roughness. A stepped revetment ideally constitutes a slope with uniform roughness and can reduce overtopping volumes of [...] Read more.
Wave overtopping—i.e., excess of water over the crest of a coastal protection infrastructure due to wave run-up—of a smooth slope can be reduced by introducing slope roughness. A stepped revetment ideally constitutes a slope with uniform roughness and can reduce overtopping volumes of breaking waves up to 60% compared to a smooth slope. The effectiveness of the overtopping reduction decreases with increasing Iribarren number. However, to date a unique approach applicable for a wide range of boundary conditions is still missing. The present paper: (i) critically reviews and analyzes previous findings; (ii) contributes new results from extensive model tests addressing present knowledge gaps; and (iii) proposes a novel empirical formulation for robust prediction of wave overtopping of stepped revetments for breaking and non-breaking waves. The developed approach contrasts a critical assessment based on parameter ranges disclosed beforehand between a smooth slope on the one hand and a plain vertical wall on the other. The derived roughness reduction coefficient is developed and adjusted for a direct incorporation into the present design guidelines. Underlying uncertainties due to scatter of the results are addressed and quantified. Scale effects are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave-structure Interaction Processes in Coastal Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Beach Morphodynamic Response to a Submerged Reef
Water 2019, 11(2), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020340 - 18 Feb 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2096
Abstract
To develop beach engineering, the submerged structure’s primary physical functions have to be understood. This study focuses on submerged structures in order to understand the strategy of reduced wave energy, stabilizing the shoreline and not generating erosion or adversely modifying coastal processes. Important [...] Read more.
To develop beach engineering, the submerged structure’s primary physical functions have to be understood. This study focuses on submerged structures in order to understand the strategy of reduced wave energy, stabilizing the shoreline and not generating erosion or adversely modifying coastal processes. Important developments have been made since the 1990s, taking into account the functions of recreational amenity. However, non-dimensional models cannot explain the physical mechanisms that generate accretion or erosion morphological features in the lee of the submerged structure. The present study aims to collaborate with the understanding of the mechanism of beach response to a submerged structure. For this, 26 surveys were made using topographic, Lagrangian, and Eulerian hydrodynamic measures during one seasonal cycle of a beach system from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) with a natural submerged reef or rocky bank V-shape in the plan. This beach system is energetic and intermediate when referring to wave energy conditions and beach states, respectively. The wave breaking vector system on the rocky bank’s geometry was examined in the intermediate and dissipative beach morphodynamic organization. The variability of the wave breaking vector system determines the establishment, deformation, and erosion features in the lee of the structure. During high-energy waves, the submerged structure’s hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes are transparent. When the submerged structure combines with the dissipative beach state, the surfing wave conditions are improved. These results provide the dimensional and positional references for an engineering proposal for a beach system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave-structure Interaction Processes in Coastal Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Numerical Study on the Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Submarine Pipelines under the Impact of Real-World Tsunami-Like Waves
Water 2019, 11(2), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020221 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2183
Abstract
Submarine pipelines have been extensively used for marine oil and gas extraction due to their high efficiency, safety, and low price. However, submarine pipelines are vulnerable to extreme waves (i.e., tsunami waves). Previous research has often used solitary waves as a basis for [...] Read more.
Submarine pipelines have been extensively used for marine oil and gas extraction due to their high efficiency, safety, and low price. However, submarine pipelines are vulnerable to extreme waves (i.e., tsunami waves). Previous research has often used solitary waves as a basis for studying the impacts of tsunami waves on submarine pipelines, although the hydrodynamic characteristics and wave properties drastically differ from those of real-world tsunami waves. This paper numerically investigates the hydrodynamic characteristics of tsunami waves interacting with submarine pipelines, but instead uses an improved wave model to generate a tsunami-like wave that more closely resembles those encountered in the real-world. The tsunami-like wave generated based on a real-world tsunami wave profile recorded during a 2011 tsunami in Japan has been applied. Given the same wave height, simulation results show that peak hydrodynamic forces of the tsunami-like wave are greater than those of the solitary wave. Meanwhile, the duration of the acting force under the tsunami-like wave is much longer than that of the solitary wave. These findings underline the basic reasons for the destructive power of tsunamis. It is also noted that the hydrodynamic forces of the pipeline under the tsunami-like wave increase with wave height, but will decrease as water depth increases. In addition to the single pipeline, the complicated hydrodynamic characteristics of pipelines in tandem arrangement have been also numerically studied. It is believed that the findings drawn from this paper can enhance our understanding of the induced forces on submarine pipelines under extreme tsunami waves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave-structure Interaction Processes in Coastal Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Numerical Study of the Influence of Tidal Current on Submarine Pipeline Based on the SIFOM–FVCOM Coupling Model
Water 2018, 10(12), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121814 - 10 Dec 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1643
Abstract
The interaction between coastal ocean flows and the submarine pipeline involved with distinct physical phenomena occurring at a vast range of spatial and temporal scales has always been an important research subject. In this article, the hydrodynamic forces on the submarine pipeline and [...] Read more.
The interaction between coastal ocean flows and the submarine pipeline involved with distinct physical phenomena occurring at a vast range of spatial and temporal scales has always been an important research subject. In this article, the hydrodynamic forces on the submarine pipeline and the characteristics of tidal flows around the pipeline are studied depending on a high-fidelity multi-physics modeling system (SIFOM–FVCOM), which is an integration of the Solver for Incompressible Flow on the Overset Meshes (SIFOM) and the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM). The interactions between coastal ocean flows and the submarine pipeline are numerically simulated in a channel flume, the results of which show that the hydrodynamic forces on the pipeline increase with the increase of tidal amplitude and the decrease of water depth. Additionally, when scour happens under the pipeline, the numerical simulation of the suspended pipeline is also carried out, showing that the maximum horizontal hydrodynamic forces on the pipeline reduce and the vertical hydrodynamic forces grow with the increase of the scour depth. According to the results of the simulations in this study, an empirical formula for estimating the hydrodynamic forces on the submarine pipeline caused by coastal ocean flows is given, which might be useful in engineering problems. The results of the study also reveal the basic features of flow structures around the submarine pipeline and its hydrodynamic forces caused by tidal flows, which contributes to the design of submarine pipelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave-structure Interaction Processes in Coastal Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop