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Open AccessArticle

Wave Overtopping of Stepped Revetments

Leibniz University Hannover, Ludwig-Franzius-Institute for Hydraulic, Estuarine and Coastal Engineering, 30167 Hannover, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(5), 1035;
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave-structure Interaction Processes in Coastal Engineering)
Wave overtopping—i.e., excess of water over the crest of a coastal protection infrastructure due to wave run-up—of a smooth slope can be reduced by introducing slope roughness. A stepped revetment ideally constitutes a slope with uniform roughness and can reduce overtopping volumes of breaking waves up to 60% compared to a smooth slope. The effectiveness of the overtopping reduction decreases with increasing Iribarren number. However, to date a unique approach applicable for a wide range of boundary conditions is still missing. The present paper: (i) critically reviews and analyzes previous findings; (ii) contributes new results from extensive model tests addressing present knowledge gaps; and (iii) proposes a novel empirical formulation for robust prediction of wave overtopping of stepped revetments for breaking and non-breaking waves. The developed approach contrasts a critical assessment based on parameter ranges disclosed beforehand between a smooth slope on the one hand and a plain vertical wall on the other. The derived roughness reduction coefficient is developed and adjusted for a direct incorporation into the present design guidelines. Underlying uncertainties due to scatter of the results are addressed and quantified. Scale effects are highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: coastal structures; stepped revetment; wave overtopping; laboratory tests; design formulae coastal structures; stepped revetment; wave overtopping; laboratory tests; design formulae
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Kerpen, N.B.; Schoonees, T.; Schlurmann, T. Wave Overtopping of Stepped Revetments. Water 2019, 11, 1035.

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