Special Issue "Water Quality Indices: Current and Future Trends in Evaluating Contamination of Groundwater Resources"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 September 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Dimitrios Em. Alexakis
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Geoenvironmental Science and Environmental Quality Assurance, Department of Civil Engineering, University of West Attica, Petrou Ralli and Thivon 250, 122 44 Egaleo, Greece.
Interests: aquatic geochemistry; water quality; environmental geochemistry; geochemistry; geochemical modeling; contaminants transport; groundwater contamination; water quality indices; environmental monitoring and assessment; human health risk assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chemical substances of both geologic and anthropogenic origin were introduced into aquifers controlling the utilization of groundwater as a sustainable resource. Groundwater contamination is related to the presence of chemical substances, which strongly influence the groundwater suitability for human consumption, as well as for industrial and agricultural uses. The evaluation of groundwater contamination and the investigation of any links between groundwater quality and human health are critical elements of the legislation and guidelines developed by various researchers and agencies.

Although many scientists and engineers have performed meticulous research on a large number of issues related to groundwater contamination, it is clear that there is a lack of mature and scientifically sound procedures in a variety of topics. One of these topics is also the documentation of a globally accepted single value or score that express the water quality of an aquifer in terms of a water quality index. Water quality indices aim to be practical and compelling tools for water quality management and the sustainable development of groundwater resources.

Proposed topics for this Special Issue may address, but are not limited to, the following: groundwater contamination, aqueous geochemistry, natural and anthropogenic factors controlling groundwater quality, trace elements, water quality indices, and water quality management. The main goals are to gather high-quality papers on recent research into groundwater contamination and to stimulate the discussion on the suitability of water quality indices for the evaluation of aquifers chemical status.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Dimitrios Em. Alexakis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • groundwater quality
  • groundwater contamination
  • groundwater quality monitoring and assessment
  • aquatic geochemistry
  • major and trace elements
  • water quality index
  • water quality management

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Effects of Municipal Sludge Leachates on Water Quality
Water 2020, 12(7), 2046; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12072046 - 18 Jul 2020
Abstract
Biosolids made from municipal sludge are an attractive solution instead of chemical fertilization. Nevertheless, their effects on the ecosystem should always be considered. In the present study, anaerobically digested sludge was subjected to two leaching methods (EN 12457-2 and NEN 7341) and the [...] Read more.
Biosolids made from municipal sludge are an attractive solution instead of chemical fertilization. Nevertheless, their effects on the ecosystem should always be considered. In the present study, anaerobically digested sludge was subjected to two leaching methods (EN 12457-2 and NEN 7341) and the main physicochemical parameters were measured in the leachates. The aquatic organisms Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri were exposed to the leachates in order to test for adverse effects. Mixtures of biosolid/solid, simulating the high dose of 80 tn/ha, were also created, and the same parameters were measured for EN 12457-2 leachates. The results show a strong seasonal variation for the results for the municipal sludge, even though the sludge did not originate from a touristic area. The biosolid/solid mixtures did not produce toxic responses to the organism tested. Nevertheless, the parameters nitrites and nitrates in the leachates were increased in relation to control and they continued to increase even at Day 40 post-application. This increase was soil-type-dependent. The biosolids in question could be used for field fertilization, however measures should be taken against underground water nitrate pollution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Meta-Evaluation of Water Quality Indices. Application into Groundwater Resources
Water 2020, 12(7), 1890; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071890 - 02 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Until now, there was no simple procedure to test the performance of water quality indices (WQIs) or, in other words, to perform their meta-evaluation. The purpose of this study is to provide a meta-evaluation approach of two widely used WQIs and suggestions for [...] Read more.
Until now, there was no simple procedure to test the performance of water quality indices (WQIs) or, in other words, to perform their meta-evaluation. The purpose of this study is to provide a meta-evaluation approach of two widely used WQIs and suggestions for selecting one or both of them for application in groundwater quality assessment as proposed by the European Union. The meta-evaluation concept is based on testing the performance of two widely known WQIs by applying classification of Water Framework Directive (WFD; 2000/60/EC) and Groundwater Directive (GWD; 2006/118/EC) which was used as a reference. The Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment (CCME) and National Sanitation Foundation (NSF-WQI) have been selected for evaluation. These WQIs were applied in an agricultural area of the Mediterranean region where six sub-datasets for an entire hydrological year were available. This study uses all the available water quality data (52 monitoring stations × 2 sampling periods × 15 parameters) which is systematically collected at the area studied. The CCME-WQI is a rather strict index since it estimates statistically significantly lower values than the NSF-WQI. Based on the performance of the examined indices, it is shown that, mostly, the CCME-WQI classification findings are close to those of the GWD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Insight into Ingredients of Toxicological Interest in Personal Care Products and A Small–Scale Sampling Survey of the Greek Market: Delineating a Potential Contamination Source for Water Resources
Water 2019, 11(12), 2501; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122501 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Wastewater is not a waste but a valuable resource that should be reused. Nevertheless, it should be devoid of physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters that can harm the consumer. Along with the multitude of possible pollutants found in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), emerging [...] Read more.
Wastewater is not a waste but a valuable resource that should be reused. Nevertheless, it should be devoid of physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters that can harm the consumer. Along with the multitude of possible pollutants found in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), emerging pollutants, such as Personal Care Products (PCPs), have arisen. The present research examines some of the main ingredients commonly found in PCPs, focusing on their toxicological profile on their occurrence in WWTPs influents and effluents worldwide and on their persistence and biodegradability. A small-scale market sampling of PCPs was performed in Athens, Greece, in June 2019, and their individual ingredients were recorded, coded according to their main activity, scanned for the presence of ingredients of important toxicological profile, and finally analyzed for the presence of other candidates of toxicological interest. Results show that some ingredients of concern (i.e., parabens and triclosan) are a decreasing trend. On the other hand, information on the presence of synthetic musks and perfume synthesis is scarce and encumbered by brand protection. Finally, UV filters are numerous, and they are used in various combinations, while other ingredients of toxicological interest are also present. Since the reclaimed water may well be used to cover irrigation needs in Greek areas with water deficiency or to enrich bodies of surface water, it is important to know what PCP ingredients are on the rise in the market, to monitor their presence in WWTPs influents and effluents and to extend research on their environmental fate and behavior. Full article
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