Special Issue "Drinking Water Quality and Human Health"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and One Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Milou M.L. Dingemans
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. KWR Water Research Institute, Nieuwegein, Netherlands;
2. Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
Interests: water quality; toxicology; risk assessment; environmental contaminants; health
Dr. Luc Hornstra
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
KWR Water Research Institute, Nieuwegein, Netherlands
Interests: microbiology; water quality; antimicrobial resistance; viruses; disinfection; water treatment and safety

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Drinking water is a vital need and it is critical to manage the quality of drinking water for safe human consumption. The presence of a wide range of organic, inorganic and biological substances in drinking water (contaminants of emerging concern; CECs) can adversely affect its quality and may impact human health and the environment depending on exposure levels and routes.

Due to the increased use of chemicals and increasing precision of analytical methods, the number of substances detected in water is increasing. Although the measured concentrations of individual substances are, in many cases, so low that no significant health impact is expected, new insights into health effects and combination toxicity can give rise to concerns. The focus lies on the reduction in emissions, including the EU Green Deal, and the management of exposure to trace elements of natural origin (such as arsenic, chromium, nickel and manganese).

Water polluted with human pathogens is the major cause of waterborne infections, leading to many cases of diarrhea, yearly killing nearly a million people globally. Pathogens, including pathogenic viruses, largely enter the water cycle as a result of inappropriate sanitation. The rise of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria worldwide is already having a major impact on health care, and the water cycle plays an important role in transmission. High levels of antibiotics in the environment are resulting in multiresistance in many species.

Health can thus be impacted by different types of CEC, with different health effects, sources and mitigation options. The prioritization of health risk mitigation measures poses a challenge for water quality managers and policy makers worldwide. This Special Issue invites research articles and critical comprehensive reviews that explore new methods or surveys for drinking water quality with respect to (the management of) exposure and health risk assessment in drinking water sources, with a focus on prioritization for decision-making and health risk management.

Dr. Milou M.L. Dingemans
Dr. Luc Hornstra
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • water quality
  • environmental health
  • water distribution
  • sanitation

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
Distribution and Public Health Significance of Vibrio Pathogens Recovered from Selected Treated Effluents in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
Water 2021, 13(7), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070932 - 29 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 437
Abstract
Treated sewage harbours pathogenic microbes, such as enteric bacteria and protozoa, are capable of causing several diseases. Some of these are emerging pathogens sometimes recovered in the absence of common water quality indicator organisms. The possibility of selected treatments plants serving as momentary [...] Read more.
Treated sewage harbours pathogenic microbes, such as enteric bacteria and protozoa, are capable of causing several diseases. Some of these are emerging pathogens sometimes recovered in the absence of common water quality indicator organisms. The possibility of selected treatments plants serving as momentary reservoirs of Vibrio pathogens during a non-outbreak period was assessed. The occurrence and diversity of Vibrio pathogens were monitored for one year (December 2016 to November 2017) in the treated effluents and upstream and downstream areas of the receiving water bodies of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), designated AL and TS. Physicochemical parameters of TS and AL WWTPs’ water samples were analysed using a multi-parameter meter (Hanna, model HI 9828, Padova, Italy) and a turbidimeter (HACH, model 2100P, Johannesburg, South Africa). Water samples were augmented with alkaline peptone water and cultured on thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar at 37 °C for 24 h. The recovered probable pathogens were confirmed via PCR amplification, using primers specific for Vibrio species of public health significance. The distribution of Vibrio species positively and significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with turbidity (r = 0.630), temperature (r = 0.615), dissolved oxygen (r = 0.615), pH (r = 0.607), biological oxygen demand (r = 0.573), total dissolved solid (r = 0.543), total suspended solid (r = 0.511), electrical conductivity (r = 0.499), residual chlorine (r = 0.463) and salinity (r = 0.459). The densities of Vibrio species were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in effluents from both AL and TS WWTPs than upstream and downstream of the receiving rivers across the sampling regime. Furthermore, the maximum Vibrio species density across the sampling regime were observed during the warmer Summer and Spring season. Moreover, six medically important Vibrio species were detected in the water samples, indicating that the methods employed were efficient in revealing that WWTPs are potential reservoirs of Vibrio pathogens, which could pose a substantial public health risk if the receiving water is used for domestic purposes. Our findings further strengthen existing calls for the inclusion of emerging bacterial pathogens, including Vibrio species, as water quality indicators by the South African Department of Water Affairs. Hence, we recommend regular monitoring of treated effluents and receiving water bodies to ensure early control of potential outbreaks of vibriosis and cholera. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water Quality and Human Health)
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Article
Barriers and Enabling Factors for Central and Household Level Water Treatment in a Refugee Setting: A Mixed-Method Study among Rohingyas in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh
Water 2020, 12(11), 3149; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113149 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 987
Abstract
Water chlorination is widely used in emergency responses to reduce diarrheal diseases, although communities with no prior exposure to chlorinated drinking water can have low acceptability. To better inform water treatment interventions, the study explored acceptability, barriers, and motivating-factors of a piped water [...] Read more.
Water chlorination is widely used in emergency responses to reduce diarrheal diseases, although communities with no prior exposure to chlorinated drinking water can have low acceptability. To better inform water treatment interventions, the study explored acceptability, barriers, and motivating-factors of a piped water chlorination program, and household level chlorine-tablet distribution, in place for four months in Rohingya refugee camps, Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. We collected data from June to August 2018 from four purposively selected refugee camps using structured observation, key-informant-interviews, transect-walks, group discussions, focus-group discussions, and in-depth-interviews with males, females, adolescent girls, and community leaders. Smell and taste of chlorinated water were commonly reported barriers among the population that had previously consumed groundwater. Poor quality source-water and suboptimal resultant treated-water, and long-queues for water collection were common complaints. Chlorine-tablet users reported inadequate and interrupted tablet supply, and inconsistent information delivered by different organisations caused confusion. Respondents reported fear of adverse-effects of "chemicals/medicine" used to treat water, especially fear of religious conversion. Water treatment options were reported as easy-to-use, and perceived health-benefits were motivating-factors. In vulnerable refugee communities, community and religious-leaders can formulate and deliver messages to address water taste and smell, instil trust, allay fears, and address rumours/misinformation to maximise early uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water Quality and Human Health)
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