Special Issue "Urbanization under a Changing Climate – Impacts on Urban Hydrology "

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 March 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jianxun (Jennifer) He
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Civil Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
Interests: stormwater management and low impact development; surface water quality assessment and management; hydrological modeling; climate change impacts on water resources; hydrological extremes
Prof. Dr. Caterina Valeo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2, Canada
Interests: urban hydrology; environmental hydraulics; geomatics engineering; sustainable urban design; water quality
Assit. Prof. K.S. Kasiviswanathan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Indian Institute of Technology, Mandi, India
Interests: hydrological modelling; stochastic hydrology; uncertainty analysis; reservoir operation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Under the pressure of urbanization, the science of urban hydrology has advanced to improve urban water system management for developing/creating more livable cities, in which public safety and health, as well as the environment, are protected. The ultimate goal of urban water management is to mimic the hydrological cycle prior to urbanization. On top of urbanization, climate change, which has been demonstrated to alter the hydrological cycle in all respects, is further introducing challenges to managing urban water systems. To mitigate and adapt to urbanization under a changing climate, our further understanding of key hydrologic components should be expanded including climate change into consideration; thus, effective and efficient measures can be formulated. Furthermore, urban water management aims to improve system resiliency and sustainability given that the principle of stationarity may be invalid under urbanization and climate change. Therefore, this Special Issue will cover a wide range of topics from fundamental urban hydrology to measures for enhancing urban water management under urbanization and climate change. 

The specific topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Rainfall measurement, modeling, and forecasting at a finer resolution in both time and space for variability/change assessment and urban hydrological modeling;
  • Impacts of urbanization and climate change on hydrologic components including evapotranspiration, surface runoff and subsurface flow;
  • Impacts of urbanization and climate change on receiving water bodies with a focus on degradation in water quality (including conventional and emerging pollutants) and ecosystems;
  • Hydrological modeling and forecasting, particularly taking into account the impacts of both urbanization and climate change;
  • Approaches to managing urban stormwater using infiltration-based techniques (e.g., bioretention systems, permeable pavements, green roofs, etc.) and retention-based techniques (e.g., stormwater ponds, wetlands, etc.) and stormwater reuse;
  • Assessment of uncertainty from various sources in hydrological modeling/analysis, especially in a changing climate;
  • Urban water infrastructure design (e.g., stormwater drainage system) in a changing climate and/or urbanization;
  • Non-stationary hydrology.

Assoc. Prof. Jianxun (Jennifer) He
Prof. Caterina Valeo
Assit. Prof. K.S. Kasiviswanathan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Urbanization
  • Climate change
  • Hydrologic cycle
  • Hydrologic modeling and forecasting
  • Urban water quanity and quality
  • Urban water management
  • Urban water infrastructure design
  • Uncertainty analysis
  • Non-stationarity
  • Best management practices
  • Sustainable urban design

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Urbanization under a Changing Climate–Impacts on Hydrology
Water 2021, 13(4), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040393 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 693
Abstract
On a global scale, urbanization and climate change are two powerful forces that are reshaping ecosystems and their inhabitants [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urbanization under a Changing Climate – Impacts on Urban Hydrology )

Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Trends and Non-Stationarity in Groundwater Level Changes in Rapidly Developing Indian Cities
Water 2020, 12(11), 3209; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113209 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1307
Abstract
In most of the Indian cities, around half of the urban water requirement is fulfilled by groundwater. Recently, seasonal urban droughts have been frequently witnessed globally, which adds more stress to groundwater systems. Excessive pumping and increasing demands in several Indian cities impose [...] Read more.
In most of the Indian cities, around half of the urban water requirement is fulfilled by groundwater. Recently, seasonal urban droughts have been frequently witnessed globally, which adds more stress to groundwater systems. Excessive pumping and increasing demands in several Indian cities impose a high risk of running out of groundwater storage, which could potentially affect millions of lives in the future. In this paper, groundwater level changes have been comprehensively assessed for seven densely populated and rapidly growing secondary cities across India. Several statistical analyses were performed to detect the trends and non-stationarity in the groundwater level (GWL). Also, the influence of rainfall and land use/land cover changes (LULC) on the GWL was explored. The results suggest that overall, the groundwater level was found to vary between ±10 cm/year in the majority of the wells. Further, the non-stationarity analysis revealed a high impact of rainfall and LULC due to climate variability and anthropogenic activities respectively on the GWL change dynamics. Statistical correlation analysis showed evidence supporting that climate variability could potentially be a major component affecting the rainfall and groundwater recharge relationship. Additionally, from the LULC analysis, a decrease in the green cover area (R = 0.93) was found to have a higher correlation with decreasing groundwater level than that of urban area growth across seven rapidly developing cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urbanization under a Changing Climate – Impacts on Urban Hydrology )
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Climate Change and Urbanization on the Demand for Low Impact Development for Three Canadian Cities
Water 2020, 12(5), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051280 - 30 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Climate change and urbanization are increasing the intensity and frequency of floods in urban areas. Low Impact Development (LID) is a technique which attenuates runoff and manages urban flooding. However, the impact of climate change and urbanization on the demand or need for [...] Read more.
Climate change and urbanization are increasing the intensity and frequency of floods in urban areas. Low Impact Development (LID) is a technique which attenuates runoff and manages urban flooding. However, the impact of climate change and urbanization on the demand or need for LID in cities for both current and future conditions is not known. The primary goal of this research was to evaluate the demand for LID under different climate change and urban growth scenarios based on a physical-based geospatial framework called the hydrological-hydraulic index (HHI). To do this, 12 scenarios considering four climate change and three urbanization conditions were developed. The HHI for three cities in Canada (Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver) were estimated, evaluated, and compared for these scenarios. The results show that both urbanization and climate change increase the demand for LID. The contribution of climate change and urbanization on LID demand, measured using HHI, varies for each city: in Toronto and Montreal, high rainfall intensity and low permeability mean that climate change is dominant, whereas, in Vancouver, both climate change and urbanization have a similar impact on LID demand. Toronto and Montreal also have a higher overall demand for LID and the rate of increase in demand is higher over the study period. The results of this study provide us with a comprehensive understanding of the effect of climate and urbanization on the demand for LID, which can be used for flood management, urban planning, and sustainable development of cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urbanization under a Changing Climate – Impacts on Urban Hydrology )
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Open AccessArticle
An Integrated Hydraulic and Hydrologic Modeling Approach for Roadside Bio-Retention Facilities
Water 2020, 12(5), 1248; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051248 - 27 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
Roadside bio-retention (RBR) facilities are low impact development practices, which control urban runoff primarily from road pavements. Using hydrologic models, such as the US EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), RBR are typically designed with some fundamental assumptions, including where runoff completely enters [...] Read more.
Roadside bio-retention (RBR) facilities are low impact development practices, which control urban runoff primarily from road pavements. Using hydrologic models, such as the US EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), RBR are typically designed with some fundamental assumptions, including where runoff completely enters the facilities and fully utilizes the whole surface area for percolation, detention, filtration, and infiltration to the surrounding soils. This paper highlights the importance of inlet hydraulics and the spatial distribution of inflow along a RBR, and proposes an integrated hydraulic and hydrologic modelling approach to simulate its overall runoff control performance. The integrated hydraulic/hydrologic modelling approach consists of three components: (1) A dual drainage hydrologic model to simulate runoff generation, runoff hydrographs entering and bypassing a storm inlet, and the outflow hydrograph from a fully utilized RBR; (2) a computational fluid dynamic model to determine the inflow distribution along a RBR; and (3) an overall runoff control performance analysis of RBR by considering the inlet efficiency, and the partially and fully utilized RBR during a storm event. A case study of an underground RBR in the City of Toronto was used to demonstrate the integrated modelling approach. It is concluded that; (1) inlet efficiency of a RBR will determine the overall runoff control performance; and (2) the inflow distribution will dictate the effective length of a RBR, which may affect the overall runoff control performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urbanization under a Changing Climate – Impacts on Urban Hydrology )
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Extensive Green Roofs on Energy Performance of School Buildings in Four North American Climates
Water 2020, 12(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010006 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1284
Abstract
A comprehensive parametric analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence of the green roof design parameters on the thermal or energy performance of a secondary school building in four distinctively different climate zones in North America (i.e., Toronto, ON, Canada; Vancouver, BC, Canada; [...] Read more.
A comprehensive parametric analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence of the green roof design parameters on the thermal or energy performance of a secondary school building in four distinctively different climate zones in North America (i.e., Toronto, ON, Canada; Vancouver, BC, Canada; Las Vegas, NV, USA and Miami, FL, USA). Soil moisture content, soil thermal properties, leaf area index, plant height, leaf albedo, thermal insulation thickness and soil thickness were used as design variables. Optimal parameters of green roofs were found to be functionally related to meteorological conditions in each city. In terms of energy savings, the results showed that the light-weight substrate had better thermal performance for the uninsulated green roof. Additionally, the recommended soil thickness and leaf area index for all four cities were 15 cm and 5 respectively. The optimal plant height for the cooling dominated climates is 30 cm and for the heating dominated cities is 10 cm. The plant albedo had the least impact on the energy consumption while it was effective in mitigating the heat island effect. Finally, unlike the cooling load, which was largely influenced by the substrate and vegetation, the heating load was considerably affected by the thermal insulation instead of green roof design parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urbanization under a Changing Climate – Impacts on Urban Hydrology )
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Open AccessArticle
Climate and Land Use Influences on Bacteria Levels in Stormwater
Water 2019, 11(12), 2451; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122451 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 969
Abstract
The influence of climatic variables and land use on fecal coliform (FC) levels in stormwater collected from outfalls throughout southern Vancouver Island between 1995 and 2011 are examined through statistical analyses, Fourier analysis, Multiple Linear Regression (LR) and Multivariate Logistic Regression (MLR). Kendall’s [...] Read more.
The influence of climatic variables and land use on fecal coliform (FC) levels in stormwater collected from outfalls throughout southern Vancouver Island between 1995 and 2011 are examined through statistical analyses, Fourier analysis, Multiple Linear Regression (LR) and Multivariate Logistic Regression (MLR). Kendall’s τ-b demonstrated that FC levels were significantly and positively correlated with the amount of residential area within a drainage catchment generating the runoff, and that FC levels were location dependent. Climatic variables of temperature and antecedent dry period length were significantly and positively correlated with FC levels at both the sampling location level and across the region overall. Precipitation and flowrates were negatively correlated with FC levels. Fourier analysis showed that monthly FC levels shared the same 12 month cycle (peaking in July) as precipitation and temperature. MLR modelling was applied by aggregating the LogFC data by order of magnitude. The MLR model shows that the data are subject to different influences depending on the season and as well, the month of the year. The land use and climate analyses suggest that future climate change impact studies attempted on nearshore bacterial water quality should be conducted at the urban catchment scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urbanization under a Changing Climate – Impacts on Urban Hydrology )
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Open AccessArticle
The Low-Impact Development Demand Index: A New Approach to Identifying Locations for LID
Water 2019, 11(11), 2341; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112341 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
The primary goal of low impact development (LID) is to capture urban stormwater runoff; however, multiple indirect benefits (environmental and socioeconomic benefits) also exist (e.g., improvements to human health and decreased air pollution). Identifying sites with the highest demand or need for LID [...] Read more.
The primary goal of low impact development (LID) is to capture urban stormwater runoff; however, multiple indirect benefits (environmental and socioeconomic benefits) also exist (e.g., improvements to human health and decreased air pollution). Identifying sites with the highest demand or need for LID ensures the maximization of all benefits. This is a spatial decision-making problem that has not been widely addressed in the literature and was the focus of this research. Previous research has focused on finding feasible sites for installing LID, whilst only considering insufficient criteria which represent the benefits of LID (either neglecting the hydrological and hydraulic benefits or indirect benefits). This research considered the hydrological and hydraulic, environmental, and socioeconomic benefits of LID to identify sites with the highest demand for LID. Specifically, a geospatial framework was proposed that uses publicly available data, hydrological-hydraulic principles, and a simple additive weighting (SAW) method within a hierarchical decision-making model. Three indices were developed to determine the LID demand: (1) hydrological-hydraulic index (HHI), (2) socioeconomic index (SEI), and (3) environmental index (ENI). The HHI was developed based on a heuristic model using hydrological-hydraulic principles and validated against the results of a physical model, the Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modeling System model (HEC-HMS). The other two indices were generated using the SAW hierarchical model and then incorporated into the HHI index to generate the LID demand index (LIDDI). The framework was applied to the City of Toronto, yielding results that are validated against historical flooding records. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urbanization under a Changing Climate – Impacts on Urban Hydrology )
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Open AccessArticle
Metals Leaching in Permeable Asphalt Pavement with Municipal Solid Waste Ash Aggregate
Water 2019, 11(10), 2186; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102186 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
The leaching behaviors of four heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu and Cr) from unbounded municipal solid waste incineration-bottom ash aggregate (MSWI-BAA) and permeable asphalt (PA) mixture containing MSWI-BAA were investigated in the laboratory. The horizontal vibration extraction procedure (HVEP) test and a simulated [...] Read more.
The leaching behaviors of four heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu and Cr) from unbounded municipal solid waste incineration-bottom ash aggregate (MSWI-BAA) and permeable asphalt (PA) mixture containing MSWI-BAA were investigated in the laboratory. The horizontal vibration extraction procedure (HVEP) test and a simulated leaching experiment were conducted on MSWI-BAA with three particle sizes, but only the simulated leaching experiment was carried out on a type of PA specimen (PAC-13) with and without these MSWI-BAAs. Leaching data were analyzed to investigate the leaching characteristics, identify the factors affecting leaching and assess the impact on the surrounding environment. Results indicated that the leaching process was comprehensively influenced by contact time, leaching metal species and MSWI-BAA particle size, regardless of MSWI-BAA alone or used in PAC-13 mixture. The leaching concentrations of Cr, Zn and Pb from MSWI-BAA in HVEP testing was strongly related to MSWI-BAA particle size. The use of MSWI-BAA in PAC-13 mixture did not change the basic tendency of heavy metal leaching, but it led to an increase of Cr and Zn in leachate overall. The leachate from the MSWI-BAA and PAC-13 mixture with MSWI-BAA was shown to be safe for irrigation and would have very little negative impact on surrounding surface and underground water quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urbanization under a Changing Climate – Impacts on Urban Hydrology )
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