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Special Issue "Urban Water Cycle Modelling and Management"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Meenakshi Arora

Department of Infrastructure Engineering, Environmental Hydrology and Water Resources Group, Melbourne School of Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +61 3 83446644
Interests: integrated urban water management; fluoride in drinking water and its health impacts; fluoride and arsenic removal from groundwater; contaminant transport and remediation in land and groundwater
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hector Malano

Professor of Water Resources Management; Department of Infrastructure Engineering, Bldg 176, University of Melbourne, Parkville Vic 3010, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +61-(0)-8344-6645
Fax: +61-(0)-8344-6215
Interests: irrigation management; water resources planning; climate change adaptation; urban water cycle modelling and management; sustainability; urbanization; water policy and environmental management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Many major cities of the world face challenges arising from growing and urbanizing populations, a changing climate, and an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events. Existing centralized water services, operating at, or close to, full capacity, are not sufficient to cope with the associated            increase in water demand. Replacing the entire centralized infrastructure is very difficult within the existing environmental and economic constraints. Water services, in such case, can be provided through the integration of decentralized and centralized systems, which are referred to as hybrid water supply systems.

The premise of hybrid water supply systems is that the provision of alternative water sources at local scales can extend the capacity of existing centralized water supply infrastructure. However, it is important to recognize the challenges associated with diversification of water source portfolios, such as increased energy intensity and greenhouse emission (GHG) of urban water systems, overall cost, community acceptance and livability, altered flow and composition of wastewater and storm water impacting on the effectiveness and performance of existing infrastructure. Undertaking the diversification of water sources, however, implies a detailed understanding and capacity to analyse the performance of the entire water cycle. This Special Issue invites papers that deal with comprehensive modelling of urban water cycle and its management as a dynamic system.

Dr. Meenakshi Arora
Prof. Dr. Hector M Malano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Urban water cycle
  • Distributed systems
  • alternative water supply sources

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Urban Floods and Climate Change Adaptation: The Potential of Public Space Design When Accommodating Natural Processes
Water 2018, 10(2), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020180
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3097 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban public space is extraordinarily adaptable under a pattern of relatively stable changes. However, when facing unprecedented and potentially extreme climatic changes, public spaces may not have the same adaptation capacity. In this context, planned adaptation gains strength against “business as usual”. While [...] Read more.
Urban public space is extraordinarily adaptable under a pattern of relatively stable changes. However, when facing unprecedented and potentially extreme climatic changes, public spaces may not have the same adaptation capacity. In this context, planned adaptation gains strength against “business as usual”. While public spaces are among the most vulnerable areas to climatic hazards, they entail relevant characteristics for adaptation efforts. As such, public space design can lead to effective adaptation undertakings, explicitly influencing urban design practices as we know them. Amongst its different intrinsic roles and benefits, such as being a civic common gathering place of social and economic exchanges, public space may have found an enhanced protagonism under the climate change adaptation perspective. In light of the conducted empirical analysis, which gathered existing examples of public spaces with flood adaptation purposes, specific public space potentialities for the application of flood adaptation measures are here identified and characterized. Overall, this research questions the specific social potentiality of public space adaptation in the processes of vulnerability tackling, namely considering the need of alternatives in current flood management practices. Through literature review and case study analysis, it is here argued that: people and communities can be perceived as more than susceptible targets and rather be professed as active agents in the process of managing urban vulnerability; that climate change literacy, through the design of a public space, may endorse an increased common need for action and the pursuit of suitable solutions; and that local know-how and locally-driven design can be considered as a service with added value for adaptation endeavors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Cycle Modelling and Management) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Urban Estuarine Beaches and Urban Water Cycle Seepage: The Influence of Temporal Scales
Water 2018, 10(2), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020173
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
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Abstract
Temperate estuarine beaches are an asset to coastal cities. Being located within the transition zone where the river meets the sea can provide several environmental benefits such as warm water temperature during the summer, flat waters, protection from coastal upwelling-induced morning fog, as [...] Read more.
Temperate estuarine beaches are an asset to coastal cities. Being located within the transition zone where the river meets the sea can provide several environmental benefits such as warm water temperature during the summer, flat waters, protection from coastal upwelling-induced morning fog, as well as additional recreational and cultural values. In this study we address a major question—can the urban water cycle impair the water quality dynamics during a bathing season in a temperate Atlantic estuary (Douro, Northwest Portugal)? Water quality was assessed according to the EU legal criteria at different time scales. No daily, weekly, or monthly patterns for microbiological descriptors were found, which rather followed the hourly tidal dynamics. Quality decreased during high tide, affecting potentially 800+ beach-users during mid-summer weekends (4 m2 per person). Low water quality was transported upstream from highly populated urban areas. Therefore, the understanding of the dynamics of estuarine systems is essential to adapt the standard official approach, and the obtained results can be used to draw policy recommendations to improve the sampling strategy, aiming for more accurate assessment of the water quality to reduce the risk hazard of estuarine beaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Cycle Modelling and Management) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Use and Utility: Exploring the Diversity and Design of Water Models at the Science-Policy Interface
Water 2017, 9(12), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120983
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (746 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Effort to narrow the gap between the production and use of scientific knowledge for environmental decision-making is gaining traction, yet in practice, supply and demand remains largely unbalanced. A qualitative study based on empirical analysis offers a novel approach to exploring key factors, [...] Read more.
Effort to narrow the gap between the production and use of scientific knowledge for environmental decision-making is gaining traction, yet in practice, supply and demand remains largely unbalanced. A qualitative study based on empirical analysis offers a novel approach to exploring key factors, focussing on seven water models in the context of two organisations at the science-policy interface: the PIREN-Seine in France and the CRC for Water Sensitive Cities in Australia. Tentative linkages drawn from these examples identify: (1) objective and expertise; (2) knowledge and tools; and (3) support structures as main drivers influencing the production of scientific knowledge which, in turn, affect the use and utility of modelling tools. Further insight is gained by highlighting the wide spectrum of uses and utilities existing in practice, suggesting that such ‘boundary organisations’ facilitate interactions and exchanges that give added value to scientific knowledge. Coordinated strategies that integrate inter-, extra-, and intra-boundary activities, framed through collaborative scenario building and the use of interactive modelling platforms, may offer ways to enhance the use and utility of scientific knowledge (and its tools) to better support water resources management, policy and planning decisions, thus promoting a more cohesive relationship between science and policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Cycle Modelling and Management) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Water Experts’ Perception of Risk for New and Unfamiliar Water Projects
Water 2017, 9(12), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120976
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the context of a changing urban environment and increasing demand due to population growth, alternative water sources must be explored in order to create future water security. Risk assessments play a pivotal role in the take-up of new and unfamiliar water projects, [...] Read more.
In the context of a changing urban environment and increasing demand due to population growth, alternative water sources must be explored in order to create future water security. Risk assessments play a pivotal role in the take-up of new and unfamiliar water projects, acting as a decision-making tool for business cases. Perceptions of risk ultimately drive risk assessment processes, therefore providing insight into understanding projects that proceed and those that do not. Yet there is limited information on the risk perceptions water professionals have of new and unfamiliar water projects. In this study, 77 water professionals were surveyed from across the Melbourne metropolitan water industry to examine risk perceptions over a range of different, unfamiliar water projects. The qualitative data was thematically analysed, resulting in a number of risk perception factors for each hypothetical project. Risk factors that recurred most frequently are those that relate to community backlash and to the reputation of the organisation. These social risk perceptions occurred more frequently than other more technical risks, such as operational risks and process-related risks. These results were at odds with the existing literature assessing risk perceptions of business-as-usual projects, which presented cost as the key risk attribute. This study sheds light on the perceived nature of new and unfamiliar processes in the water sector, providing an understanding that public perceptions do matter to experts involved in water infrastructure decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Cycle Modelling and Management) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Urban Flood Simulation Using Synthetic Storm Drain Networks
Water 2017, 9(12), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120925
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (5795 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent developments in urban drainage modelling allow for a more realistic coupling of the two-dimensional (2D) surface and one-dimensional (1D) sub-surface drainage domain exchanging water through storm drain inlets instead of a sub-catchment approach based on manholes. Experience has shown, however, that comprehensive [...] Read more.
Recent developments in urban drainage modelling allow for a more realistic coupling of the two-dimensional (2D) surface and one-dimensional (1D) sub-surface drainage domain exchanging water through storm drain inlets instead of a sub-catchment approach based on manholes. Experience has shown, however, that comprehensive records of storm drain inlet locations are often missing or incomplete, preventing users accessing the full benefit of these modelling capabilities. Therefore, this study developed a GIS routine to generate synthetic storm drain inlet locations for the purpose of urban flood modelling. Hydrodynamic model results for a synthetically generated and surveyed storm drain inlet network were obtained using the CityCAT 1D/2D system. On a catchment scale the flow field (surface and flow captured by inlets) simulated by the network of synthetic storm drainage inlets shows satisfactory results when compared with that simulated using the actual network. The results also highlight the sensitivity of the inflows to relatively small changes in terms of the location of storm drain inlets and the effectiveness of storm drain inlets in ponding areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Cycle Modelling and Management) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Pollution Removal Performance of Laboratory Simulations of Sydney’s Street Stormwater Biofilters
Water 2017, 9(11), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110907
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The City of Sydney is constructing more than 21,000 square metres of street biofilter units (raingardens) in terms of their Decentralised Water Master Plan (DWMP), for improving the quality of stormwater runoff to Port Jackson, the Cooks River, and the historical Botany Bay. [...] Read more.
The City of Sydney is constructing more than 21,000 square metres of street biofilter units (raingardens) in terms of their Decentralised Water Master Plan (DWMP), for improving the quality of stormwater runoff to Port Jackson, the Cooks River, and the historical Botany Bay. Recharge of the Botany Sand Beds aquifer, currently undergoing remediation by extraction of industrial chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants, is also envisaged. To anticipate the pollution removal efficiency of field biofilter designs, laboratory soil-column simulations were developed by Western Sydney University partnered with the City. Synthetic stormwater containing stoichiometric amounts of high-solubility pollutant salts in deionised water was passed through 104 mm columns that were layered to simulate monophasic and biphasic field designs. Both designs met the City’s improvement targets for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), with >65% median removal efficiency. Prolonged release of total suspended solids (SS) on startup emphasised the need for specifications and testing of proprietary fills. Median removal efficiency for selected heavy metal ecotoxicants was >75%. The researchers suggested that Zinc be added to the targets as proxy for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and oils/greases co-generated during road use. Simulation results suggested that field units will play an important role in meeting regional stormwater improvement targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Cycle Modelling and Management) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Integrated Hydrological Model-Based Assessment of Stormwater Management Scenarios in Copenhagen’s First Climate Resilient Neighbourhood Using the Three Point Approach
Water 2017, 9(11), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110883
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 12 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3599 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The city of Copenhagen currently pursues a very ambitious plan to make the city ‘cloudburst proof’ within the next 30 years. The cloudburst management plan has the potential to support the city’s aim to become more green, liveable, and sustainable. In this study, [...] Read more.
The city of Copenhagen currently pursues a very ambitious plan to make the city ‘cloudburst proof’ within the next 30 years. The cloudburst management plan has the potential to support the city’s aim to become more green, liveable, and sustainable. In this study, we assessed stormwater system designs using the Three Point Approach (3PA) as a framework, where an indicator value for each domain was calculated using state-of-the-art modelling techniques. We demonstrated the methodology on scenarios representing sequential enhancements of the cloudburst management plan for a district that has been appointed to become the first climate resilient neighbourhood in Copenhagen. The results show that if the cloudburst system is exploited to discharge runoff from selected areas that are disconnected from the combined sewer system, then the plan leads to multiple benefits. These include improved flood protection under a 100-years storm (i.e., compliance with the new demands in domain C of the 3PA), reduced surcharge to terrain under a 10-years storm (i.e., compliance with the service goal in domain B of the 3PA) and an improved yearly water balance (i.e., better performance in domain A of the 3PA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Cycle Modelling and Management) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Infrastructure Options for Urban Water Management in Two Urban Catchments in Bogotá, Colombia
Water 2017, 9(11), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110858
Received: 27 August 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 5 November 2017
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Abstract
Urban areas are currently experiencing rapid growth, which brings with it increases in the population, the expansion of impervious surfaces, and an overall jump in the environmental and hydrological impact. To mitigate such an impact, different strategies proposed to tackle this problem often [...] Read more.
Urban areas are currently experiencing rapid growth, which brings with it increases in the population, the expansion of impervious surfaces, and an overall jump in the environmental and hydrological impact. To mitigate such an impact, different strategies proposed to tackle this problem often vary; for example, stormwater tanks, the reuse of wastewater and grey water, the installation of equipment to reduce water consumption, and education-based approaches. Consequently, this article presents the simulation and evaluation of implementing infrastructure options (stormwater harvesting, reuse of industrial waters, water-saving technology in residential sectors, and reuse of water from washing machines) for managing urban water in two urban catchments (Fucha and Tunjuelo) in Bogotá, Colombia, over three periods: baseline, 10 years, and 20 years. The simulation was performed using the software Urban Volume Quality (UVQ) and revealed a possible reduction in drinking water consumption of up to 47% for the Fucha Catchment and 40% for the Tunjuelo Catchment; with respect to wastewater, the reduction was up to 20% for the Fucha Catchment and 25% for the Tunjuelo Catchment. Lastly, two scenarios were evaluated in terms of potential savings related to water supply and sewage fees. The implementation of strategies 3 and 6 insofar as these two strategies impacted the hydric resources. Therefore, there would be a significant reduction in contaminant loads and notable economic benefits attributable to implementing these strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Cycle Modelling and Management) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Hybrid Water Supply on the Centralised Water System
Water 2017, 9(11), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110855
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (6047 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditional (technical) concepts to ensure a reliable water supply, a safe handling of wastewater and flood protection are increasingly criticised as outdated and unsustainable. These so-called centralised urban water systems are further maladapted to upcoming challenges because of their long lifespan in combination [...] Read more.
Traditional (technical) concepts to ensure a reliable water supply, a safe handling of wastewater and flood protection are increasingly criticised as outdated and unsustainable. These so-called centralised urban water systems are further maladapted to upcoming challenges because of their long lifespan in combination with their short-sighted planning and design. A combination of (existing) centralised and decentralised infrastructure is expected to be more reliable and sustainable. However, the impact of increasing implementation of decentralised technologies on the local technical performance in sewer or water supply networks and the interaction with the urban form has rarely been addressed in the literature. In this work, an approach which couples the UrbanBEATS model for the planning of decentralised strategies together with a water supply modelling approach is developed and applied to a demonstration case. With this novel approach, critical but also favourable areas for such implementations can be identified. For example, low density areas, which have high potential for rainwater harvesting, can result in local water quality problems in the supply network when further reducing usually low pipe velocities in these areas. On the contrary, in high demand areas (e.g., high density urban forms) there is less effect of rainwater harvesting due to the limited available space. In these high density areas, water efficiency measures result in the highest savings in water volume, but do not cause significant problems in the technical performance of the potable water supply network. For a more generalised and case-independent conclusion, further analyses are performed for semi-virtual benchmark networks to answer the question of an appropriate representation of the water distribution system in a computational model for such an analysis. Inappropriate hydraulic model assumptions and characteristics were identified for the stated problem, which have more impact on the assessments than the decentralised measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Cycle Modelling and Management) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Convertible Operation Techniques for Pump Stations Sharing Centralized Reservoirs for Improving Resilience in Urban Drainage Systems
Water 2017, 9(11), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110843
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8325 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pump stations prevent backwater effects from urban streams and safely drain rainwater in urban areas. Urbanization has increased the required capacity of centralized reservoirs and drainage pumps; yet, their respective designs are based on the runoff of the target watershed at the time [...] Read more.
Pump stations prevent backwater effects from urban streams and safely drain rainwater in urban areas. Urbanization has increased the required capacity of centralized reservoirs and drainage pumps; yet, their respective designs are based on the runoff of the target watershed at the time of design. In Korea, additional pump stations are constructed to supplement the insufficient capacity of centralized reservoirs and drainage pumps. Two pump stations in the same drainage area share centralized reservoirs, and there are gates between them. Operation of the gates and drainage pumps is based on the water level in the connected centralized reservoirs. The convertible operation is based on changes in flow between two pump stations with different effluent streams in shared centralized reservoirs. Efficient distribution of inflow to both pump stations provides additional storage capacity in centralized reservoirs and rapid drainage. For a rainfall event in 2010, flooding volumes for current and convertible operations were 58,750 and 7507 m3, respectively. For an event in 2011, the corresponding figures were 3697 and 471 m3. This shows that resilience increased by 0.10829 and 0.00756, respectively, for the two events. Accordingly, a new technique to operate multiple pump stations for reducing urban inundation is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Cycle Modelling and Management) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Sponge City Construction in China: A Survey of the Challenges and Opportunities
Water 2017, 9(9), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090594
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (3112 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rapid urbanization in China has caused severe water and environmental problems in recent years. To resolve the issues, the Chinese government launched a sponge city construction program in 2015. While the sponge city construction initiative is drawing attention and is spreading fast nationwide, [...] Read more.
Rapid urbanization in China has caused severe water and environmental problems in recent years. To resolve the issues, the Chinese government launched a sponge city construction program in 2015. While the sponge city construction initiative is drawing attention and is spreading fast nationwide, some challenges and risks remain. This study surveyed progress of all 30 pilot sponge cities and identified a broad array of challenges from technical, physical, regulatory, and financial, to community and institutional. The most dominant challenges involve uncertainties and risks. To resolve the issues, this study also identified various opportunities to improve China’s sponge city construction program. Based on the results, recommendations are proposed including urging local governments to adopt sponge city regulations and permits to alleviate water quality and urban pluvial flooding issues, fully measuring and accounting for economic and environmental benefits, embracing regional flexibility and results-oriented approaches, and focusing on a wider range of funding resources to finance the sponge city program. Coordination among other government agencies is critical, and this is true at all level of governments. Only through greater coordination, education, and broader funding could the sponge city program be advanced meaningfully and sustainably. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Cycle Modelling and Management) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Mitigation Options for Future Water Scarcity: A Case Study in Santa Cruz Island (Galapagos Archipelago)
Water 2017, 9(8), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080597
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 2 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos Archipelago), like many other tourist islands, is currently experiencing an exponential increase in tourism and local population growth, jeopardizing current and future water supply. An accurate assessment of the future water supply/demand balance is crucial to capital investment for [...] Read more.
Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos Archipelago), like many other tourist islands, is currently experiencing an exponential increase in tourism and local population growth, jeopardizing current and future water supply. An accurate assessment of the future water supply/demand balance is crucial to capital investment for water infrastructure. This paper aims to present five intervention strategies, which are suggested to solve the future water crisis. The strategies combined include environmentally sustainable options such as rainwater harvesting, greywater recycling and water demand management, as well as desalination. These strategies were evaluated under four population growth scenarios (very fast, fast, moderate and slow growths) by using several Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s) including water demand, leakage levels, total costs, energy consumption, rainwater delivered and greywater recycled. Moreover, it also aims to develop a methodology for similar islands, using the WaterMet2 modelling approach, a tool for integrated of sustainable-based performance of urban water systems. The results obtained show that by 2044 only a small portion of the future water demand can be covered assuming business as usual. Therefore, desalination seems to be the most viable option in order to mitigate the lack of water at the end of the planning period considering the growth trends. However, strategies comprising more environmentally friendly alternatives may be sufficient, but only under slow population growth scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Cycle Modelling and Management) Printed Edition available
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