Remote Sensing of Surface Currents: Experiments, Theory, Numerical Simulation

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "New Sensors, New Technologies and Machine Learning in Water Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 February 2024) | Viewed by 5222

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Interests: sea surface; currents; wind waves; turbulence; sufactants; field observations; remote sensing

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Interests: remote sensing; radar; Dopler; wind waves; field observations

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Interests: remote sensing; theory of underwater vision; bio-optical properties of water; field observations

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this Special Issue is to describe and study the possibilities of remote sensing methods to characterize sea currents. It is well known that sea currents significantly affect the dynamics of the hydrosphere, determine horizontal transport and vertical mixing, and influence the weather and climate as well as the hydrochemical and hydrobiological processes of the ocean.

Today, there are many methods for measuring the characteristics of sea currents based on various physical principles. Remote methods, including satellite ones, appear to be the most promising due to their ability to observe large areas of water simultaneously. However, it should be noted that the development of technology to determine currents from remote data is still required. In this regard, we encourage submissions of experimental and theoretical articles to this Special Issue—which will contribute to the further development of this field of knowledge—relating to the following topics:

  • New experiments to determine various surface currents in the ocean, including in situ sub-satellite measurements;
  • New satellite methods for measuring currents in the oceans, seas and inland waters;
  • Studies on the redistribution of hydro- and bio-optical properties of water, water constituents, surfactant films, algae, and ice under the action of sea currents;
  • Doppler (coherent) radar, optical and acoustical methods for measuring sea currents;
  • The application of machine learning and artificial intelligence to determine and forecast the dynamics of currents.

Dr. Ivan A. Kapustin
Dr. Alexey V. Ermoshkin
Dr. Alexander A. Molkov
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • currents
  • in situ measurements
  • satellite methods
  • remote sensing
  • radar probing
  • doppler
  • bio-optical properties of water
  • machine learning

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

27 pages, 19169 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Water Dynamics Nearby Hydroelectric Power Plant of the Gorky Reservoir on Water Environment: Case Study of 2022
by Aleksandr Molkov, Ivan Kapustin, Maria Grechushnikova, Daria Dobrokhotova, George Leshchev, Ekaterina Vodeneeva, Ekaterina Sharagina and Anton Kolesnikov
Water 2023, 15(17), 3070; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15173070 - 28 Aug 2023
Viewed by 926
Abstract
Regulated water bodies like lakes and reservoirs are increasingly becoming an object of attention due to the problems of greenhouse gas emissions, regional ecology, and the necessity to ensure safe environmental management. However, for some local tasks, it is important to assess the [...] Read more.
Regulated water bodies like lakes and reservoirs are increasingly becoming an object of attention due to the problems of greenhouse gas emissions, regional ecology, and the necessity to ensure safe environmental management. However, for some local tasks, it is important to assess the contribution of a hydroelectric power plant (HPP) to various parameters of the nearest water environment, for example, mortality of zooplankton, transfer of suspended matter and phytoplankton, formation of secondary deposits, methane emissions, spatial features of stratification, etc. An example of such studies is the present paper. It is based on unique data of complex measurements of hydrophysical, hydrooptical, hydrobiological, and hydrochemical water parameters, as well as methane fluxes, that were collected at the Gorky Reservoir nearby a HPP in the spring, summer, and autumn of 2022. Preliminary correlations between these parameters were obtained. The results are useful for the correct interpretation of satellite images of inland waters, quantitative description of HPPs’ influence on the water environment, knowledge of the main patterns of transformation of aquatic organism communities under conditions of runoff regulation, determination of water quality by hydrobiological parameters, development of mechanisms for improving the ecological state of water bodies, and accounting spatial heterogeneity of methane flows from the surface of the reservoir. Full article
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19 pages, 6149 KiB  
Article
Synoptic and Seasonal Variability of Small River Plumes in the Northeastern Part of the Black Sea
by Evgeniya Korshenko, Irina Panasenkova, Alexander Osadchiev, Pelagiya Belyakova and Vladimir Fomin
Water 2023, 15(4), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040721 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Small river plumes are typical features at many coastal regions in the World Ocean. These water masses have relatively small areas and volumes; however, due to their energetic dynamics localized in a thin surface layer, they strongly affect coastal circulation, water quality, and [...] Read more.
Small river plumes are typical features at many coastal regions in the World Ocean. These water masses have relatively small areas and volumes; however, due to their energetic dynamics localized in a thin surface layer, they strongly affect coastal circulation, water quality, and ocean-atmosphere interaction. In this study, we investigate external factors, which govern synoptic and seasonal variability of small river plumes, and, therefore, affect land-ocean fluxes of fluvial water and biogeochemically important material. We use numerical modeling to simulate small river plumes at the northeastern part of the Black Sea. We describe the response time of small river plumes to changes in river discharge and wind forcing conditions, which determines variability of river plumes at different time scales. We reveal that the influence of river plumes on coastal processes depends not only on total annual river discharge volume, but also on temporal distribution of high-discharge and low-discharge periods. Seasonal and synoptic features of local atmospheric circulation could strongly modify the relation between river plume characteristics and river discharge rate. The results obtained in this study are important for better assessment of delivery and fate of river-borne suspended and dissolved matter, as well as floating litter in coastal areas. Full article
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13 pages, 5096 KiB  
Article
Method for Measuring the Surface Velocity Field of a River Using Images Acquired by a Moving Drone
by Kwonkyu Yu and Junhyeong Lee
Water 2023, 15(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010053 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2241
Abstract
Hovering drones use ground control points to measure the surface flow velocity of rivers. This study aims to use only GPS data and images captured by a drone to extract the flowrate at a designated absolute position. Using GPS data, the moving directions [...] Read more.
Hovering drones use ground control points to measure the surface flow velocity of rivers. This study aims to use only GPS data and images captured by a drone to extract the flowrate at a designated absolute position. Using GPS data, the moving directions of the drone and of the image were calculated, and each image point was converted into a physical UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) coordinate system. After determining the range of observation by selecting the start and end frames, all images of the measurement cross section were divided into reference frames (measurement subsections), and the flowrate was calculated with spatiotemporal volume obtained by gathering images for 1 sec (30 frames) for all measurement subsections. The results were comparable with those obtained using the existing hovering drone image analysis method. Full article
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