Special Issue "Green Infrastructure as a Technology for Rainwater Retention"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2022) | Viewed by 5588

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Cristina M. Monteiro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universidade Católica Portuguesa, CBQF - Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Rua Diogo Botelho 1327, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal
Interests: green roofs; urban water management; water runoff; water quality; water efficiency; rainwater harvesting; urban ecosystems; green infrastructure
Prof. Dr. Cristina Matos Silva
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Georesources, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: green infrastructure; green roofs; green walls; ecosystem services; energy and water efficiency; rainwater harvesting; economic evaluation of green infrastructure; payback period
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Green infrastructure in urban areas has been substantially reduced and replaced by concrete and impermeable surfaces, bringing numerous stormwater management problems. Efficient urban stormwater management systems to reduce rainwater runoff quantity and improve water runoff quality are needed in order to face the present climate change scenario. Green infrastructure has been used as a sustainable solution to help urban water management and bring natural catchment areas to an urban context. Currently, research on green infrastructure is focused on finding efficient and sustainable systems, using native vegetation adapted to local conditions. Rainwater management and harvesting for reuse are also under consideration. Additionally, the efficiency of solutions combining both these technologies must be evaluated carefully and is a challenging area of research.

This Special Issue of Water will focus on green infrastructure to retain rainwater and its capacity to decrease water runoff to urban water management systems and improve water quality in urban environments. The Special Issue will consider the following:

  • Assessment of water runoff quality;
  • Monitoring of rainwater retention in green infrastructures;
  • Models for stormwater runoff in urban areas and runoff coefficient;
  • Pilot-scale and long-term experience with urban green roofs systems;
  • Impact of green infrastructures on urban water management;
  • Testing procedures and materials for stormwater management systems.

Dr. Cristina M. Monteiro
Prof. Dr. Cristina Matos Silva
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Green roofs
  • Urban water management
  • Water runoff
  • Water quality
  • Water reuse
  • Rainwater harvesting
  • Energy and hydric efficiency
  • Ecosystems services
  • Green infrastructures

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Bioretention Systems Optimization and Design Characterization Model Using Fuzzy Rough Set Theory
Water 2022, 14(13), 2037; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132037 - 25 Jun 2022
Viewed by 280
Abstract
Urban stormwater has become a persistent concern on a global scale due to its adverse environmental implications. It is the prime vector of aquatic contaminants worldwide that causes pollutants when water bodies drain. Bioretention systems are increasingly used to alleviate setbacks associated with [...] Read more.
Urban stormwater has become a persistent concern on a global scale due to its adverse environmental implications. It is the prime vector of aquatic contaminants worldwide that causes pollutants when water bodies drain. Bioretention systems are increasingly used to alleviate setbacks associated with stormwater run-off in urban locales. It has played a substantial role in the implementation of low impact development (LID), a concept that addresses urban stormwater problems caused by land changes and development. The use of LID technologies is an innovative approach. However, it is beset with challenges, such as the insufficiency of data on rainfall distribution and difficulty in interpreting data. To address these research gaps, the present study developed a fuzzy rough set data algorithm for bioretention systems. Event mean concentration calculations and fuzzification of rainfall were performed to produce a rough set-based decision rule. Using the Weibull probability distribution, fuzzification of rainfall and parameter data, rule induction, and Preece testing, bioretention design considerations were determined. The bioretention characterizations generated evident pollutants present in the catch basin before and after filtration. In addition, the bioretention characterization conducted in this study was able to reduce the number of tests needed for rainfall identification based on the different attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Infrastructure as a Technology for Rainwater Retention)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Rainwater Harvesting for Irrigation of Tennis Courts: A Case Study
Water 2022, 14(5), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050752 - 26 Feb 2022
Viewed by 523
Abstract
It has become evident that, during this century, climate change will continue, affecting all regions of the planet. The expected impacts over the next few decades may differ from region to region, with some areas becoming humid and others drier. In regions such [...] Read more.
It has become evident that, during this century, climate change will continue, affecting all regions of the planet. The expected impacts over the next few decades may differ from region to region, with some areas becoming humid and others drier. In regions such as the Mediterranean basin, the main expected impacts of climate change will be prolonged droughts and an increase in the intensity and frequency of heavy rains. Measures of mitigation and adaptation are particularly important in urban environments, where more than half of the population lives, and rainwater harvesting systems (RWHS) are considered to be a very suitable solution to these problems. However, the published studies have mainly focussed on buildings, with very limited references to the interest of its application in large urban infrastructure. Based on consumption and precipitation data, this article presents a study on the implementation of an RWHS in a large-scale sports infrastructure located in the city of Cascais (Portugal) intended for the practice of tennis, with 12 brick dust fields, some of them covered. The average annual consumption of potable water for watering the tennis courts is 5500 m3, and the results show that the RWHS can reduce this consumption by >50%, in addition to other expected benefits, such as the known effect of these systems in reducing flood peaks in the area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Infrastructure as a Technology for Rainwater Retention)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Dynamic Release of Solutes from Roof Bitumen Sheets Used for Rainwater Harvesting
Water 2021, 13(24), 3496; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243496 - 08 Dec 2021
Viewed by 770
Abstract
Bitumen waterproof sheets are widely used to seal building roofs. Previous works have focused on the mechanical-physical properties of bitumen sheets, as well as their aging and degradation processes, and their impact on sealing properties of the buildings. Due to a growing need [...] Read more.
Bitumen waterproof sheets are widely used to seal building roofs. Previous works have focused on the mechanical-physical properties of bitumen sheets, as well as their aging and degradation processes, and their impact on sealing properties of the buildings. Due to a growing need over recent years to use rooftops in urban environments for rainwater harvesting purposes, it is highly important to better characterize the quality of the harvested water from the bitumen covered roofs, and to shed more light on the impact of bitumen degradation processes on the release of various components to the harvested roof water. In the present study, the extracted organic and inorganic solutes from bitumen-covered roofs by water flow on the bitumen sheets were examined through a series of experiments, including measurements from the roofs of buildings in the center of Israel during the winter of 2019–2020. The results indicated high levels of organic and inorganic solute loads in the roof water during the first flush of the first rain of the winter, with maximal electric conductivity readings at the order of 4 dS/m. However, it was shown that following the first flush, a ~20 mm of cumulative rainfall was sufficient to wash off all the summers’ accumulated solutes from the roof. After this solute flushing of the roof, harvested rainwater along the winter was of good quality, with electric conductivity readings in the range of 0.04–0.85 dS/m. Moreover, it was shown that bitumen sheets which were exposed to direct sun radiation emitted greater loads of solutes, likely a result of elevated aging and degradation processes. The findings of the present research point to the need to find efficient ways to isolate roof bitumen sheets from direct sun radiation and to design rainwater harvesting systems that will not collect the water drained from the first flush. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Infrastructure as a Technology for Rainwater Retention)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evapotranspiration Measurement and Estimation of Crop Coefficient for Native Plant Species of Green Roof in the Tropics
Water 2021, 13(12), 1669; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121669 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Extensive green roof is one of the sustainable urban stormwater management alternatives to manage and mitigate the urban surface runoff. In order to implement green roofs more effectively, suitable plant species and substrate components for tropical climate must be identified. The aim of [...] Read more.
Extensive green roof is one of the sustainable urban stormwater management alternatives to manage and mitigate the urban surface runoff. In order to implement green roofs more effectively, suitable plant species and substrate components for tropical climate must be identified. The aim of this study is to investigate the evapotranspiration (ET) behaviors in extensive green roofs based on different substrate types and local native plant species. Four green roof test beds containing pro-mixing pot and burn soils were each vegetated with Axonopus Compressus (grass) and Portulaca Grandiflora (sedum). A weather station with soil moisture sensors was installed to measure the weather and soil moisture data. The results showed that the mean ET rates for grass-pot soil, sedum-pot soil, grass-burn soil and sedum-burn soil were 1.32 ± 0.41 mm/day, 2.31 ± 0.72 mm/day, 1.47 ± 0.39 mm/day and 2.31 ± 0.43 mm/day, respectively. It is noted that environmental parameters such as ambient temperature, solar radiation and wind speed showed significantly positive relationship (p value < 0.01) with ET rates of green roofs except relative humidity. The crop coefficients (Ks) for the studied green roof plant species are estimated based on actual and reference evapotranspiration rates. The sedum planted in burn soil showed the highest crop coefficient (0.64), followed by sedum in pot soil (0.62), grass in burn soil (0.39) and grass in pot soils (0.37), respectively. The findings in this study also showed that substrate with better water retention capacity generally improved the Ks values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Infrastructure as a Technology for Rainwater Retention)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Monitoring and Control System for Stormwater Management of Urban Green Infrastructure
Water 2021, 13(11), 1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111438 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 943
Abstract
Urban green infrastructure (UGI) can be used as a sustainable stormwater management approach. UGI can bring numerous ecological benefits to cities, including increased urban resilience, increased availability of water resources, and optimization of habitats. This paper used empirical research methods to describe an [...] Read more.
Urban green infrastructure (UGI) can be used as a sustainable stormwater management approach. UGI can bring numerous ecological benefits to cities, including increased urban resilience, increased availability of water resources, and optimization of habitats. This paper used empirical research methods to describe an Internet of things (IoT)-based UGI monitoring and control system for stormwater management (MCSSWM). Using a Xuzhou-based practical project in China as a case study, we introduce the construction process, method, and monitoring results of the system. The results showed that the MCSSWM could be beneficial for UGI ecological performance evaluation and management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Infrastructure as a Technology for Rainwater Retention)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Hydrological Performance of Green Roofs in Mediterranean Climates: A Review and Evaluation of Patterns
Water 2021, 13(18), 2600; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182600 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
The capacity of green roofs to intercept rainfall, and consequently store and slow runoff resulting in a reduction in flood risk, is one of their main advantages. In this review, previous research related to the influence of green roofs on the hydrological cycle [...] Read more.
The capacity of green roofs to intercept rainfall, and consequently store and slow runoff resulting in a reduction in flood risk, is one of their main advantages. In this review, previous research related to the influence of green roofs on the hydrological cycle is examined with a special focus on studies for Mediterranean climate conditions (Csa and Csb according to the Köppen–Geiger climate classification). This climate is characterized by short and intense rainfall occurrences which, along with the increased area of impervious surface on Mediterranean regions, intensify the risk of flooding, particularly in the cities. The analysis covers the variables rainfall retention (R, %), runoff delay (RD, min or h), peak delay (PD, min or h), peak attenuation (PA, %), and runoff coefficient (RC, −), in relation to physical features of the green roof such as layers, substrate depth, slope, and vegetation, as well as, weather conditions, such as monthly temperature and monthly precipitation. Following a statistical analysis, some patterns for the average rainfall retention (%) were found in the published literature for green roofs under Mediterranean climate conditions—namely, that the most significant variables are related to the substrate depth, the existence of certain layers (root barrier, drainage layer), the origin of the vegetation, the types of green roofs (extensive, semi-intensive, intensive), and the precipitation and temperature of the location. Moreover, a multivariate analysis was conducted using multiple linear regression to identify the set of green roof features and weather conditions that best explain the rainfall retention (%), taking into consideration not only the studies under Mediterranean conditions but all climates, and a similar pattern emerged. Recommendations for future research include addressing the effect of physical features and weather conditions on the other variables (RD, PD, PA, RC) since, although present in some studies, they still do not provide enough information to reach clear conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Infrastructure as a Technology for Rainwater Retention)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop