Water Resources and Sustainable Development

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 31543

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Water and Environment, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710054, China
Interests: water resources; hydrogeology; groundwater quality; groundwater pollution; groundwater modeling; health risk assessment; geochemical modeling; hyrogeochemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Water and Environment, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710054, China
Interests: groundwater quality; aquifer permeability; groundwater modeling; hyrogeochemistry; hydrogeology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water resources are indispensable for human survival, social development and economic growth. However, climatic changes, population growth and excessive economic development will lead to a number of water-related problems in the long-term, affecting the sustainable development of society and economy. Water pollution, water scarcity and many other water-related problems have emerged in nearly every corner of the world, which has attracted considerable attention from the public and professionals. Facing these problems, many nations and researchers have already taken action to protect water quality and quantity and mitigate the water crisis caused by climate change and human activities. This Special Issue “Water Resources and Sustainable Development” will provide a platform for researchers and policy makers to share their latest thoughts and new findings on this topic, as well as new methods to deal with water-resource problems. This will be a multidisciplinary Special Issue focusing on the intercorrelation of natural sciences and social sciences. The topics covered by this special issue include but are not limited to:

  • Identification of water-recharge resources;
  • Assessment of water quality;
  • Integrated water management;
  • Water-pollution control;
  • Management of groundwater depletion;
  • Impacts of mining activities on water resources;
  • Health-risk assessment;
  • Water-resources modeling;
  • Groundwater–surface water interaction;
  • Water footprint;
  • Flood-water management;
  • Aquifer characterization;
  • Soil-water research.

Prof. Dr. Peiyue Li
Dr. Jianhua Wu
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • water resources
  • water quality
  • water management
  • water pollution
  • water depletion
  • water-resources development
  • water-resources protection
  • health-risk assessment
  • water-resources modeling

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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6 pages, 186 KiB  
Editorial
Water Resources and Sustainable Development
by Peiyue Li and Jianhua Wu
Water 2024, 16(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010134 - 29 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2037
Abstract
This editorial introduces the Special Issue titled “Water Resources and Sustainable Development,” underscoring the critical need for sustainable management of water resources in light of increasing demand, climate change impacts, and pollution. The issue delves into the intricate relationship between water availability, quality, [...] Read more.
This editorial introduces the Special Issue titled “Water Resources and Sustainable Development,” underscoring the critical need for sustainable management of water resources in light of increasing demand, climate change impacts, and pollution. The issue delves into the intricate relationship between water availability, quality, utilization, and the socioeconomic determinants shaping these aspects, highlighting the necessity for novel, balanced strategies that cater to societal, economic, and environmental requirements. The research within this Special Issue is segmented into four key areas: understanding hydrochemical properties and water quality; evaluating anthropogenic effects on water resources; strategizing water resource management; and applying technological innovations in water resource management. Collectively, these studies broaden our comprehension of water resources and sustainable development, stressing the importance of continuous research in this sphere. As we look ahead, this editorial accentuates the importance of ongoing exploration and innovation in these pivotal areas, focusing on understanding climate change implications, mitigating human-induced impacts, refining water management strategies, and harnessing technological advancements. Its overarching aim is to propel worldwide initiatives towards achieving comprehensive water security and sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

20 pages, 3277 KiB  
Article
Hydrochemical Characteristics and Water Quality Assessment of Irkutsk Reservoir (Baikal Region, Russia)
by Mikhail V. Pastukhov, Vera I. Poletaeva and Guvanchgeldi B. Hommatlyyev
Water 2023, 15(23), 4142; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15234142 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1111
Abstract
The Irkutsk Reservoir, belonging to the largest unified freshwater Baikal–Angara system, is an important source of drinking water in the region. Therefore, studies of its hydrochemical characteristics are of prime importance in deciding on the role of anthropogenic activity in water quality. The [...] Read more.
The Irkutsk Reservoir, belonging to the largest unified freshwater Baikal–Angara system, is an important source of drinking water in the region. Therefore, studies of its hydrochemical characteristics are of prime importance in deciding on the role of anthropogenic activity in water quality. The water samples were collected across the reservoir in 2007, 2012, and 2021 and then were analyzed for major ions and trace elements. The data revealed that the distribution of HCO3, SO42−, Cl, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ is stable across the reservoir. Trace element concentrations varied from 1.13 to 15.39 µg L−1 for Al, from <DL to 0.39 µg L−1 for Cr, from 0.39 to 23.12 µg L−1 for Mn, from 1.25 to 53.22 µg L−1 for Fe, from 0.005 to 0.100 µg L−1 for Co, from 0.20 to 1.98 µg L−1 for Cu, from <DL to 13.40 µg L−1 for Zn, from 0.25 to 0.48 µg L−1 for As, from 0.004 to 0.127 µg L−1 for Cd, from <DL to 0.195 µg L−1 for Sn, from <DL to 0.0277 µg L−1 for Cs, from <DL to 1.13 µg L−1 for Pb, from <DL to 0.0202 µg L−1 for Th, and from 0.27 to 0.75 µg L−1 for U. The concentrations of all major ions and trace elements in water were below the drinking water standards. CF values showed considerable and high contamination of samples with Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Cd, Sn, Pb, and Th. PLI values classified the majority of water samples as water with baseline levels of pollutants, and part of the samples was classified as either polluted or highly polluted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)
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12 pages, 2176 KiB  
Article
Rapid Antibiotic Adsorption from Water Using MCM-41-Based Material
by Jie Chen, Yao Yang, Yuanyuan Yao, Zhujian Huang, Qiaoling Xu, Liping He and Beini Gong
Water 2023, 15(22), 4027; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15224027 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 968
Abstract
The contamination of antibiotics in the environment has raised serious concerns, impacting both human life and ecosystems. This has led to a growing focus on the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly adsorbent materials. Mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41, known for its strong adsorption [...] Read more.
The contamination of antibiotics in the environment has raised serious concerns, impacting both human life and ecosystems. This has led to a growing focus on the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly adsorbent materials. Mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41, known for its strong adsorption capacity, low cost, and efficient regenerative properties, holds significant promise for addressing this issue. In this study, we investigated the adsorption behavior of demolded MCM-41 materials in relation to tetracycline, doxycycline, and levofloxacin at different temperatures and pH levels. Our experiments encompassed the adsorption of these three common antibiotics, revealing that a neutral or weakly acidic pH environment promoted adsorption, whereas alkaline conditions hindered it. Utilizing the equilibrium isotherm model, we determined the theoretical maximum adsorption capacities for tetracycline (TC), doxycycline (DOX), and levofloxacin (LFX) as 73.41, 144.83, and 33.67 mg g−1, respectively. These findings underscore the significant potential of MCM-41 in mitigating antibiotic wastewater contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)
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20 pages, 9307 KiB  
Article
Digitalization of Water Distribution Systems in Small Cities, a Tool for Verification and Hydraulic Analysis: A Case Study of Pamplona, Colombia
by Carlos Bonilla, Bruno Brentan, Idel Montalvo, David Ayala-Cabrera and Joaquín Izquierdo
Water 2023, 15(21), 3824; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213824 - 1 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1946
Abstract
Digitalization in water networks is essential for the future planning of urban development processes in cities and is one of the great challenges faced by small cities regarding water management and the advancement of their infrastructures towards sustainable systems. The main objective of [...] Read more.
Digitalization in water networks is essential for the future planning of urban development processes in cities and is one of the great challenges faced by small cities regarding water management and the advancement of their infrastructures towards sustainable systems. The main objective of this study is to propose a methodology that allows water utilities with limited budgets to start the path toward the digitalization and construction of the hydraulic model of their water distribution networks. The small city of Pamplona in Colombia was used as a case study. The work explains in detail the challenges faced and the solutions proposed during the digitalization process. The methodology is developed in six phases: an analysis of the cadastre and existing information, the creation and conceptualization of the base hydraulic model, the development of the topography using drones with a limited budget, an analysis of water demand, the development of a digital hydraulic model, and a hydraulic analysis of the system. The product generated is a tool to assess the overall performance of the network and contributes to the advancement of SDG-6, SDG-9, and SDG-11. Finally, this document can be replicated by other cities and companies with similar characteristics (e.g., limited size and budget) and offers an intermediate position on the road to digitalization and the first steps towards the implementation of a digital twin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)
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17 pages, 2160 KiB  
Article
Assessing Water Resource Carrying Capacity and Sustainability in the Cele–Yutian Oasis (China): A TOPSIS–Markov Model Analysis
by Guangwei Jia, Sheng Li, Feilong Jie, Yanyan Ge, Na Liu and Fuli Liang
Water 2023, 15(20), 3652; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203652 - 18 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 988
Abstract
This study employs the Driving Force–Pressure–State–Response (DPSR) framework to establish an evaluation index system for the water resource carrying capacity (WRCC) in the Cele–Yutian Oasis (China). Utilizing the TOPSIS and obstacle degree models, we analyze the trends in the WRCC [...] Read more.
This study employs the Driving Force–Pressure–State–Response (DPSR) framework to establish an evaluation index system for the water resource carrying capacity (WRCC) in the Cele–Yutian Oasis (China). Utilizing the TOPSIS and obstacle degree models, we analyze the trends in the WRCC and its main hindrance factors in the Cele–Yutian Oasis from 2005 to 2020. Additionally, we employ the Markov model to investigate the dynamic changes in the land use types. The findings reveal that the most unfavorable WRCC status occurred in 2007, with a Grade IV rating (a mild overload). By 2020, the WRCC improved to a Grade III rating (critical), indicating a positive trajectory. However, persistent challenges for water resources remain, with a prolonged critical state. Over the past 15 years, the grassland area has decreased by 15.18%, and the forest area has decreased by 50%. The dynamic degree of grassland, forests, and water bodies is negative, signifying shifts to other land types, with water bodies undergoing the most significant change at −10.16%. Based on the outcomes of these two models, we propose regionally tailored measures to support sustainable development. These research results provide a scientific foundation for optimal water resource allocation and sustainable development in the Cele–Yutian Oasis Economic Belt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)
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20 pages, 2840 KiB  
Article
Assessment and Prediction of the Collaborative Governance of the Water Resources, Water Conservancy Facilities, and Socio-Economic System in the Xiangjiang River Basin, China
by Jie Wen, Hongmei Li and Abate Meseretchanie
Water 2023, 15(20), 3630; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203630 - 17 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
The collaborative governance of subsystems within a river basin can play a critical role in addressing challenges, such as water scarcity, soil erosion, flooding, sedimentation, and water pollution, to achieve sustainable utilization of water resources. However, the current literature only focuses on isolated [...] Read more.
The collaborative governance of subsystems within a river basin can play a critical role in addressing challenges, such as water scarcity, soil erosion, flooding, sedimentation, and water pollution, to achieve sustainable utilization of water resources. However, the current literature only focuses on isolated observations of these subsystems, leading to uncertainty and water resource destruction. This paper examines the evolution of the collaborative governance of water resources, water conservancy facilities, and socio-economic systems through self-organization theory in the Xiangjiang River Basin, China. The coupling theory and gray Grey Model (1,1) model were utilized with panel data from 2000 to 2019 to assess and predict the governance synergies of five subsystems: natural water, water conservancy facilities, water resource development and utilization, ecological environment, and socio-economic systems. There are 22 indicators contributing to these subsystems that were selected. The results indicate an S-shaped trend in collaborative governance for water resources, water conservancy facilities, and socio-economic systems. The elements of each subsystem exhibit both synergistic and competitive relationships. The unpredictable precipitation triggers a butterfly effect, changing systemic governance coordination, which closely relates to developing the natural water subsystem. Effective water conservation and regulation of water conservancy facilities are the keys to improving water-use efficiency and safeguarding water ecology. This study provides insights into the collaborative governance among subsystems and the evolution of the water resources, water conservancy facilities, and socio-economic systems in the Xiangjiang River Basin to promote sustainable water resource utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)
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24 pages, 5253 KiB  
Article
Development of an Optimal Water Allocation Model for Reservoir System Operation
by Eunkyung Lee, Jungwon Ji, Seonmi Lee, Jeongin Yoon, Sooyeon Yi and Jaeeung Yi
Water 2023, 15(20), 3555; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203555 - 12 Oct 2023
Viewed by 944
Abstract
Allocating adequate water supplies under the increasing frequency and severity of droughts is a challenge. This study develops an optimal reservoir system operation method to allocate water supplies from upstream reservoirs to meet the downstream water requirements; validates the proposed optimization model through [...] Read more.
Allocating adequate water supplies under the increasing frequency and severity of droughts is a challenge. This study develops an optimal reservoir system operation method to allocate water supplies from upstream reservoirs to meet the downstream water requirements; validates the proposed optimization model through the system operation of upstream reservoirs; and proposes new water supply policies that incorporate a transformed hydropower reservoir with an add-on water supply function and two multipurpose reservoirs. We use linear programming to develop an optimal water allocation model. This model provides an operational strategy for managing upstream reservoirs with different storage capacities. By integrating the effective storage ratio of each reservoir into the allocation estimation, the model ensures an optimal distribution of downstream water requirements. The results indicated well-balanced, effective storage ratios among the Chungju, Soyanggang, and Hwacheon Reservoirs across varying hydrological conditions. Specifically, during drought years, the average effective storage rates were 20.5%, 20.6%, and 19.07%, respectively. In normal years, these figures, respectively, were 59.3%, 68.6%, and 52.4%, while in wet years, the rates stood at 64.08%, 62.90%, and 54.61%. This study enriches the reservoir operation literature by offering adaptable solutions for collaborative reservoir management and presents efficient strategies for reservoir operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)
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16 pages, 3661 KiB  
Article
Effects of Groundwater Depth on Vegetation Coverage in the Ulan Buh Desert in a Recent 20-Year Period
by Ting Lu, Jing Wu, Yangchun Lu, Weibo Zhou and Yudong Lu
Water 2023, 15(16), 3000; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163000 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1084
Abstract
As a typical desert in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, the Ulan Buh Desert has a dry climate and scarce precipitation all year round. Groundwater has become the main factor limiting the growth of vegetation in this region. It is of great significance [...] Read more.
As a typical desert in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, the Ulan Buh Desert has a dry climate and scarce precipitation all year round. Groundwater has become the main factor limiting the growth of vegetation in this region. It is of great significance to study the influence of groundwater depth on the spatial distribution pattern of vegetation in this region. Based on the PIE-Engine platform and using long-term time-series Landsat data, this paper analyzed the spatial–temporal distribution characteristics and trends in vegetation coverage in the Ulan Buh Desert in the last 20 years using a pixel dichotomy model and the image difference method. The Kriging interpolation method was used to interpolate the groundwater depth data from 106 monitoring wells in the Ulan Buh Desert over the past 20 years, and the spatial distribution characteristics of groundwater depth in the Ulan Buh Desert were analyzed. Finally, the correlation coefficient between changes in vegetation coverage and changes in groundwater depth was calculated. The results showed the following: (1) The vegetation coverage in the Ulan Buh Desert was higher in the periphery and lower in the center of the desert. The overall vegetation level showed an increasing trend year by year; the growth rate was 4.73%/10 years, and the overall vegetation cover showed an improving trend. (2) The overall groundwater depth in the Ulan Buh Desert was deep in the southwest and shallow in the northeast. In the past 20 years, the groundwater depth in the Ulan Buh area has become shallower, and the ecological condition has gradually improved. (3) On the whole, the vegetation coverage varied with the groundwater depth, and the shallower the groundwater depth, the greater the vegetation coverage. When the groundwater depth increased to more than 4 m, the change in the groundwater depth had a significant effect on the vegetation coverage. However, when the groundwater depth was greater than 6 m, the change in the groundwater depth had no significant effect on the change in vegetation coverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)
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19 pages, 1337 KiB  
Article
The Base Value of the Ecological Compensation Standard in Transboundary River Basins: A Case Study of the Lancang–Mekong River Basin
by Yue Zhao, Fang Li, Yanping Chen, Xiangnan Chen and Xia Xu
Water 2023, 15(15), 2809; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152809 - 3 Aug 2023
Viewed by 867
Abstract
The ecological compensation standard in transboundary river basins should be determined by the basin countries through negotiation on the basis of the base value of the ecological compensation standard. This paper calculated the base value range of the ecological compensation standard, determining the [...] Read more.
The ecological compensation standard in transboundary river basins should be determined by the basin countries through negotiation on the basis of the base value of the ecological compensation standard. This paper calculated the base value range of the ecological compensation standard, determining the upper limit based on the spillover value of ecosystem services for the ecosystem-service-consuming country and the lower limit according to the cost of ecological protection for the ecosystem-service-supplying country. The final range was determined by integrating this with the willingness to pay and the actual effort in each basin country. Taking, for example, the Lancang–Mekong River basin, the results indicate that the spillover value of ecosystem services in Laos, China and Myanmar was positive and these three countries were ecosystem-service-supplying countries, while in Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand it was negative and these three countries were ecosystem-service-consuming countries. Among the ecosystem-service-supplying countries, the cost of ecological protection of them was in descending order of Laos, China and Myanmar, which was related to their own level of economic development. Considering the adjustment coefficient for the payment of ecosystem service value and the cost-sharing coefficient of each basin country, the feasible range for the base value of the ecological compensation standard was determined to be [2.47, 229.67] × 108 $, which provided the basis for the negotiation on the determination of the ECS. In addition, implementation suggestions were proposed from three aspects: establishing a basin-information-sharing mechanism and platform, establishing an integrated management organization for transboundary river basins, and strengthening and improving the coordination and supervision model of ecological compensation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)
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25 pages, 3895 KiB  
Article
Groundwater Management for Agricultural Purposes Using Fuzzy Logic Technique in an Arid Region
by Amjad Al-Rashidi, Chidambaram Sabarathinam, Dhanu Radha Samayamanthula, Bedour Alsabti and Tariq Rashid
Water 2023, 15(14), 2674; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142674 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2187
Abstract
The study aimed to determine groundwater’s suitability for irrigation and cattle rearing in Kuwait. In this regard, groundwater samples were collected from Umm Al Aish (UA) and adjoining Rawdhatain (RA) water wellfields to develop groundwater suitability maps for irrigation purposes using the fuzzy [...] Read more.
The study aimed to determine groundwater’s suitability for irrigation and cattle rearing in Kuwait. In this regard, groundwater samples were collected from Umm Al Aish (UA) and adjoining Rawdhatain (RA) water wellfields to develop groundwater suitability maps for irrigation purposes using the fuzzy logic technique in ArcGIS. RA was dominated by Na-Cl, Na-Ca, and Ca-SO4 water types, whereas UA was dominated by the Ca-Mg water type. Due to the influence of the temperature and pCO2, the carbonates were inferred to be more susceptible to precipitation in the soil than the sulfates. The ternary plots for both regions revealed that the samples’ suitability ranged from good to unsuitable. Spatial maps of nine significant parameters governing the irrigation suitability of water were mapped and integrated using the fuzzy membership values for both regions. The final suitability map derived by overlaying all the considered parameters indicated that 8% of the RA region was categorized as excellent, while UA showed only 5%. Samples situated in the study areas showed an excellent to very satisfactory range for livestock consumption. Developing a monitoring system along with innovative water resource management systems is essential in maintaining the fertility of the soil and existing groundwater reserves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)
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16 pages, 9688 KiB  
Article
Evolution Characteristics of Rainfall and Runoff in the Upper Reaches of Zhang River Basin
by Lijuan Du, Guangyao Wang and Bo Lei
Water 2023, 15(14), 2521; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142521 - 10 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1068
Abstract
It is of great significance to study and analyze the surface water resources and their change trend in the groundwater overexploitation area of the North China Plain, which is of great significance to solve the shortage of water resources in the groundwater overexploitation [...] Read more.
It is of great significance to study and analyze the surface water resources and their change trend in the groundwater overexploitation area of the North China Plain, which is of great significance to solve the shortage of water resources in the groundwater overexploitation area of the North China Plain, promote the exploitation of groundwater, and realize the sustainable development of water resources. This paper takes Minyou Irrigation District of Handan City, a typical overexploitation area in the North China Plain, as an example. Based on the measured rainfall and runoff data from 1957 to 2020, the Mann–Kendall trend test, cumulative anomaly method, double cumulative curve method, and Morlet wavelet transform were used to analyze and predict the trend of water resources in the irrigation area and the individual contribution of climate change and human activities to runoff change. The results show that the annual rainfall and annual runoff in the irrigation area have a significant downward trend and significant cyclical changes throughout the study period. In 1977, the annual runoff showed a sudden change, and the average contribution rates of climate change and human activities to its change were 40.55% and 59.46%, respectively. In the future (2020–2035), runoff will remain stable and rainfall will show an increasing trend. The research results can provide scientific reference for the development, utilization, and rational allocation of surface water resources in the groundwater overexploitation area of the North China Plain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)
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17 pages, 4348 KiB  
Article
Assessing Feasibility of Water Resource Protection Practice at Catchment Level: A Case of the Blesbokspruit River Catchment, South Africa
by Koleka Makanda, Stanley Nzama and Thokozani Kanyerere
Water 2023, 15(13), 2394; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132394 - 28 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1429
Abstract
The operationalization of water resource protection initiatives for surface water resource quality and equitable water quality allocation is critical for sustainable socio-economic development. This paper assessed Blesbokspruit River Catchment’s water quality status, using the South African Water Quality standards and Water Quality Index [...] Read more.
The operationalization of water resource protection initiatives for surface water resource quality and equitable water quality allocation is critical for sustainable socio-economic development. This paper assessed Blesbokspruit River Catchment’s water quality status, using the South African Water Quality standards and Water Quality Index (WQI). Protection levels for quality, and waste discharge for point sources were set and evaluated using the total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) and chemical mass balance (CMB) techniques, respectively. The study found that the water quality results for the analysed physico-chemical parameters (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl, F, pH, EC, SO42−) of the data collected from 2015 to 2022 were within the limits of the water quality standards, except for NO3 and PO42−. The water quality from the study area was categorized as acceptable for drinking purposes with the WQI of 54.80. The application of the TMDL approach resulted in the 77.96 mS/m for electrical conductivity (EC), 9.92 mg/L for phosphate (PO42−), and 15.16 mg/L for nitrate NO3 being set as the protection levels for the catchment. The CMB was found to be a useful tool for the evaluation of point source discharges into water resources. The study recommends the application of TMDL and CMB techniques in water resource protection practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)
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19 pages, 2968 KiB  
Article
A Study on Water Rights Allocation in Transboundary Rivers Based on the Transfer and Inequality Index of Virtual Water
by Xia Xu, Jing Yuan and Qianwen Yu
Water 2023, 15(13), 2379; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132379 - 28 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
Virtual water exerts an essential effect on water resources, yet such effect is rarely considered in current studies on water rights allocation in transboundary rivers. Hence, this paper ran a case study on Taihu Lake Basin, collecting data from 2017 to make clear [...] Read more.
Virtual water exerts an essential effect on water resources, yet such effect is rarely considered in current studies on water rights allocation in transboundary rivers. Hence, this paper ran a case study on Taihu Lake Basin, collecting data from 2017 to make clear the physical water rights of four regions—Jiangsu Province, Zhejiang Province, Anhui Province, and Shanghai City—in the Basin. After that, the multiregional input–output (MRIO) approach was utilized to measure the trade in value-added (TiVA) transfer and virtual water transfer (VWT) and construct an inequality index of VWT (VWI). Next, water efficiency coefficient was employed to convert the VWT into riparian level. Finally, VWT and VWI were incorporated into the water rights allocation model to form up a water rights allocation scheme for Taihu Lake Basin. Results showed: (1) Jiangsu enjoys the most allocated physical water rights, followed by Zhejiang, and Anhui ranks the lowest; (2) Anhui and Jiangsu are net virtual water exporters (2.259 billion m3 and 1.78 billion m3, respectively), while Zhejiang and Shanghai are net importers (2.344 billion m3 and 1.695 billion m3, respectively); (3) Anhui suffers the most inequality—0.4401—followed by 0.5076 of Jiangsu, while Zhejiang has the most equal environment—0.7012; (4) after the inclusion of virtual water, the quantity of water rights allocation changes, whereas Anhui experiences the largest growth—144 million m3—due to the dual effects from the highest VWT and inequality. In conclusion, the effect of virtual water is indispensable, so VWT and VWI should both be considered in the physical water rights allocation of transboundary rivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)
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18 pages, 9183 KiB  
Article
Hydrochemical Characteristics and Human Health Risk Assessment of Surface Water in the Danjiang River Source Basin of the Middle Route of China’s South-to-North Water Transfer Project
by Longjian Lin, Yafeng Zhang, Xinyu Qian and Yingwei Wang
Water 2023, 15(12), 2203; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15122203 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1291
Abstract
The Danjiang River basin is an important water source for the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. With the shortage of water resources and the increase in pollution pressure, it is of great significance to study the hydrochemical characteristics of surface [...] Read more.
The Danjiang River basin is an important water source for the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. With the shortage of water resources and the increase in pollution pressure, it is of great significance to study the hydrochemical characteristics of surface water in the Danjiang River basin and the risk to human health posed by polluted water bodies for the protection and utilization of water resources. In this paper, 40 surface water samples were collected and analyzed by innovatively adopting the sampling principle of “geological structure unit + landform unit + small watershed unit”. Comprehensive mathematical statistical analysis, Piper trilinear diagrams, Gibbs diagrams, and ion ratio coefficients were used to analyze the hydrochemical composition, spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of surface water in the Danjiang River. The entropy weight comprehensive index method (EWQI) and the health risk assessment model recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (HHRA model) were used to evaluate the water quality and potential non-carcinogenic risk of surface water in the Danjiang River source basin. The results showed that the pH of surface water in the study area was 7.02~8.77, with an average value of 8.26; and the TDS was ranged from 134 to 388 mg/L, with an average value of 252.75 mg/L. The main cations in the surface water were Ca2+ and Mg2+, accounting for 71% and 20% of the total cations, respectively, while the main anions were HCO3 and SO42−, accounting for 74% and 19% of the total anions, respectively. The hydrochemical type was HCO3 Ca·Mg. The hydrochemical genesis was mainly controlled by the weathering of carbonate rocks, while some ions were influenced by the weathering of silicate rocks, and human activities were also an important factor affecting the chemical characteristics of the water. The EWQI of surface water in the whole region was 8.95~25.69, and the health risk index (HI) of nitrate pollution ranged from 0.0122 to 0.2118, in which the HI ranges for children and adults were 0.0217~0.2118 and 0.0122~0.1333, respectively, indicating that the water quality of the entire study area met the Class I water standards, and the potential non-carcinogenic risk of nitrate was low. However, its impact on children was significantly higher than on adults, so it is recommended to monitor the water quality downstream of urban areas in the study area to reduce agricultural non-point source pollution and urban domestic sewage discharge and thereby reduce the potential health risks for young populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)
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17 pages, 9240 KiB  
Article
Quantifying the Impact of Coal Mining on Underground Water in Arid and Semi-Arid Area: A Case Study of the New Shanghai No. 1 Coal Mine, Ordos Basin, China
by Yuguang Lyv, Wei Qiao, Weichi Chen, Xianggang Cheng, Mengnan Liu and Yingjie Liu
Water 2023, 15(9), 1765; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091765 - 4 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1665
Abstract
The new Shanghai No. 1 Coal Mine is located in arid and semiarid area of northwest China, which is characterized by scarce rainfall, intense evaporation, and limited water resources. High-intensity coal mining has caused severe damage to groundwater resources. The Baotashan sandstone aquifer [...] Read more.
The new Shanghai No. 1 Coal Mine is located in arid and semiarid area of northwest China, which is characterized by scarce rainfall, intense evaporation, and limited water resources. High-intensity coal mining has caused severe damage to groundwater resources. The Baotashan sandstone aquifer of the Jurassic system has abundant water resources, and they are stored in the floor strata of mining coal seams. This poses the risk of high-pressure build-up and water inrush hazards during the mining of coal. To avoid these, the Baotashan sandstone aquifer needs to be drained and depressurized, which can result in a huge waste of water resources. Thus, taking the New Shanghai No. 1 Coal Mine as the basis for the case study, the impact of coal mining on the underground water resources was quantified. Large-scale water release tests were performed under the shaft to determine the hydrogeological properties of the Baotashan sandstone aquifer and a three-dimensional numerical model of the groundwater system was established. The dynamic phenomenon of water drainage was simulated and the drained water discharge was predicted under the condition of safe mining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)
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Review

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34 pages, 4157 KiB  
Review
Water Resources in Jordan: A Review of Current Challenges and Future Opportunities
by Mohammad Al-Addous, Mathhar Bdour, Mohammad Alnaief, Shatha Rabaiah and Norman Schweimanns
Water 2023, 15(21), 3729; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213729 - 25 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 7336
Abstract
Jordan is facing significant challenges related to water scarcity, including overexploitation of groundwater, increasing demand, and wasteful practices. Despite efforts to manage water resources, inadequate planning has resulted in ongoing water security concerns and deteriorating water quantity and quality. To address water stress, [...] Read more.
Jordan is facing significant challenges related to water scarcity, including overexploitation of groundwater, increasing demand, and wasteful practices. Despite efforts to manage water resources, inadequate planning has resulted in ongoing water security concerns and deteriorating water quantity and quality. To address water stress, Jordan has implemented measures such as desalination, dam construction, and water conservation initiatives. However, water stress remains high, necessitating a comprehensive strategy that includes short-term demand-side interventions and long-term supply-side reforms. Financial and governance challenges hinder the implementation of these measures, requiring private investment and coordination among stakeholders. This paper provides a comprehensive review of Jordan’s water resources, analyzing current trends, challenges, and opportunities. The aim is to offer insight into the current situation and propose sustainable management approaches. The findings will be valuable for policymakers, researchers, and stakeholders working towards addressing Jordan’s complex water challenges and securing a sustainable water future for its citizens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)
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0 pages, 3125 KiB  
Review
Integrated River Basin Management for Sustainable Development: Time for Stronger Action
by Minhaz Farid Ahmed, Mazlin Bin Mokhtar, Chen Kim Lim, Izzati Afiqah Binti Che Suza, Ku Adriani Ku Ayob, Rd. Puteri Khairani Khirotdin and Nuriah Abd Majid
Water 2023, 15(13), 2497; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132497 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3198
Abstract
Malaysia has numerous policies, institutions, and experts with foresight and vision for its development. Nevertheless, river basin management has been lacking due to several factors such as insufficient proactive leadership roles of institutions, as well as locally authorized bodies. Reviewing of stakeholders’ role [...] Read more.
Malaysia has numerous policies, institutions, and experts with foresight and vision for its development. Nevertheless, river basin management has been lacking due to several factors such as insufficient proactive leadership roles of institutions, as well as locally authorized bodies. Reviewing of stakeholders’ role in the PENTA-HELIX partnership model (i.e., government, business, academia, community, and NGO) reveals that individuals and institutions with proactive and effective leadership roles along with top-down and bottom-up approaches can create a more strategic policy implementation resulting in better outcomes in river basin management. Local authorities with proactive leadership roles should be encouraged to use a creative and innovative key performance indicator system accompanied by mentoring and training, as well as education, to inspire a passive to active attitude change. A local authority with sound leadership roles can develop proper partnerships with its many stakeholders to improve awareness with more multitasking activities. These can be achieved by motivating all the related stakeholders towards more commitment to creating a sustainable environment. Identifying and recognizing local authorities to manage the rivers will result in more powerful actions in river management. It is essential to ensure quality control and quality assurance at various levels to bring sustainability science at the multi-stakeholders’ platforms towards an integrated river basin management to achieve a better living quality for everyone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)
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