Use of Water Isotopes in Hydrological Processes II

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 15964

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Jožef Stefan Institute, Department of Environmental Sciences, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: water cycle; isotopes; changes in time and space; measurement traceability; statistical analysis; water management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Institute for Geological and Geochemical Research, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
Interests: isotopes in precipitation; quaternary climate and environmental changes; statistical analysis of isotopic time series
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Stable (1H, 2H, 16O, 17O, 18O) and radioactive (3H) isotopes in water are powerful tools in the tracking of the path of water molecules through the whole water cycle. In the last decade, a considerable number of studies have been published on the use of water isotopes, and their number is ever-growing. In 2020, the first Special Issue on “Use of Water Isotopes in Hydrological Processes” of Water MDPI was published, with thirteen original research papers and a review paper that shed light on a diverse list of the use of water isotopes in hydrological processes worldwide, including studies on local and regional scales related either to precipitation dynamics or to different applications of water isotopes in combination with other hydrochemical parameters in investigations of surface water, snowmelt, soil water, groundwater, and xylem water to identify the hydrological and geochemical processes.

It is our pleasure to now invite you to contribute the results of your interesting work to the second volume of the Special Issue, “Use of Water Isotopes in Hydrological Processes II”. This Special Issue addresses advances in methods, applications, and hydrological process interpretations using stable and radioactive water isotopes in the whole water cycle. Contributions related to measurement traceability (comparison of different measurement techniques), conceptual network development, and long-term maintenance on a local to regional scale as well as papers on different statistical data evaluation approaches are highly welcome.

Dr. Polona Vreča
Dr. Zoltán Kern
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • water cycle
  • isotope hydrology
  • measurement traceability
  • surface water
  • groundwater
  • water management
  • networks and databases
  • statistical evaluation

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 39231 KiB  
Article
Defining a Precipitation Stable Isotope Framework in the Wider Carpathian Region
by Viorica Nagavciuc, Aurel Perșoiu, Carmen-Andreea Bădăluță, Oleg Bogdevich, Sorin Bănică, Marius-Victor Bîrsan, Sandu Boengiu, Alexandru Onaca and Monica Ionita
Water 2022, 14(16), 2547; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14162547 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
The eastern part of Europe is very poorly represented in the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database, mainly because the monitoring of the stable isotopes in precipitation started only recently compared with other regions. In this respect, the main objective of [...] Read more.
The eastern part of Europe is very poorly represented in the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database, mainly because the monitoring of the stable isotopes in precipitation started only recently compared with other regions. In this respect, the main objective of this article is to fill the gap in the GNIP database over the eastern part of Europe and show the temporal variability and potential drivers of an extended network of δ18O values in precipitation collected from 27 locations in Romania and the Republic of Moldova. We also present the first high-resolution map of the spatio-temporal distribution of δ18O values in precipitation in Romania and the Republic of Moldova, according to an observational dataset. According to our results, the stations from western and northern Romania tend to have LMWLS with higher values than those from southwestern Romania. The monthly variation of the δ18O and δ2H showed a clearly interannual variation, with distinct seasonal differences, following the seasonal temperatures. The analysis of the spatial distribution of stable isotopes in precipitation water was made on the basis of both observational data and modeled data. This allowed us to study the origin of the air moisture and the interaction with regional and local patterns and to analyze the link between the spatial δ18O variations and the large-scale circulation patterns on a seasonal scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Water Isotopes in Hydrological Processes II)
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21 pages, 8380 KiB  
Article
Rainwater Isotopic Composition in the Ecuadorian Andes and Amazon Reflects Cross-Equatorial Flow Seasonality
by Danny Vargas, Oscar Chimborazo, Elemér László, Marjan Temovski and László Palcsu
Water 2022, 14(13), 2121; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132121 - 03 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2450
Abstract
The variability of the rainfall stable isotopic values (δ2Hp, δ18Op) in the Ecuadorian Amazon to the Andes presents a marked local “altitude” effect. At the same time, this complex orography creates diverse precipitation regimes (unimodal, bimodal, [...] Read more.
The variability of the rainfall stable isotopic values (δ2Hp, δ18Op) in the Ecuadorian Amazon to the Andes presents a marked local “altitude” effect. At the same time, this complex orography creates diverse precipitation regimes (unimodal, bimodal, and three-modal) that make it difficult to establish a relationship with the local amount. Nevertheless, stations along these regions show a similar intra-annual isotopic variability, with lower values during MAM and ON. In contrast, higher values are found during DJF and JAS in a w-shaped pattern, suggesting a common regional controller. A monthly δ2Hp and δ18Op collection campaign was established in Central Ecuador (n = 30) to complement stations biased towards the northern and southern parts. Based on back trajectory analysis, the results demonstrated that moisture arrives from two primary sources: the Tropical North Atlantic (DJFM) and the Amazon Basin (JAS). Nevertheless, their convergence (AMJ and ON) is the crucial factor modulating the lowest isotopic values. Precisely, this convergence is stronger at the V-Index region (5° S–5° N, 65°–75° W), where the wind seasonality and reversal at low levels are enhanced, allowing the inter-hemispheric moisture flux transport (cross-equatorial flow). We propose that the amount of rainfall located at the V-Index region is a more robust approach for explaining the δ2Hp and δ18Op variability rather than the local amount. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Water Isotopes in Hydrological Processes II)
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16 pages, 2234 KiB  
Article
Multi-Isotope Characterization of Water in the Water Supply System of the City of Ljubljana, Slovenia
by Klara Nagode, Tjaša Kanduč, Branka Bračič Železnik, Brigita Jamnik and Polona Vreča
Water 2022, 14(13), 2064; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132064 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1892
Abstract
Urban water supply systems (WSS) are complex and challenging to manage since the properties of water in the WSS change from source to the end user over time. However, understanding these changes requires a more profound knowledge of the WSS. This study describes [...] Read more.
Urban water supply systems (WSS) are complex and challenging to manage since the properties of water in the WSS change from source to the end user over time. However, understanding these changes requires a more profound knowledge of the WSS. This study describes the urban water cycle within the WSS of Ljubljana, Slovenia, where different water parameters such as temperature, electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, δ2H, δ18O, and δ13CDIC were monitored from September to November 2018. Altogether 108 samples were collected, including from the source (3) and at different levels of the WSS: wells (41), joint exits from water pumping stations (7), reservoirs (22), water treatment locations (2), drinking fountains (13), taps (19) and wastewater system (1). The data show that although the ranges of δ2H and δ18O values were small, each well is represented by a unique fingerprint when considering additional parameters. A statistically significant difference was observed between sampling months, and temperature and most parameters showed higher variability within the wells than across the WSS, suggesting a more unified WSS. Finally, based on δ13CDIC values, a distinction could be made between river/groundwater interactions within the WSS and between shallower and deeper wells and their distance from the river bank. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Water Isotopes in Hydrological Processes II)
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17 pages, 2586 KiB  
Article
Using Stable Isotopes to Assess Groundwater Recharge and Solute Transport in a Density-Driven Flow-Dominated Lake–Aquifer System
by Nicolas Valiente, Iordanka Dountcheva, David Sanz and Juan José Gómez-Alday
Water 2022, 14(10), 1628; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101628 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 1728
Abstract
Saline lakes are mostly located in endorheic basins in arid and semi-arid regions, where the excess of evaporation over precipitation promotes the accumulation of salts on the surface. As the salinity of these lakes increases, their mass balance changes, and biogeochemical processes may [...] Read more.
Saline lakes are mostly located in endorheic basins in arid and semi-arid regions, where the excess of evaporation over precipitation promotes the accumulation of salts on the surface. As the salinity of these lakes increases, their mass balance changes, and biogeochemical processes may be intensified. In that sense, Pétrola Lake (SE Spain) is a terminal lake located in an endorheic basin with elevated anthropic pressure, mainly derived from agricultural inputs and wastewater discharge. The goal of this study was to evaluate the interaction between groundwater and saline water from Pétrola Lake to improve our knowledge of groundwater recharge processes by density-driven flow (DDF) in terminal lakes. A combination of hydrochemical (chloride concentration) and stable isotope (δ18OH2O and δ2HH2O) data were used. In order to test the conceptual model, a simple numerical experiment was performed using a one-dimensional column that represents the relationship between the lake and the aquifer incorporating the variable density coupling control in solute migration. The isotopic composition of 190 groundwater and surface water samples collected between September 2008 and July 2015 provides a regression line (δ2HH2O = 5.0·δ18OH2O − 14.3‰, R2 = 0.95) consistent with dominant evaporation processes in the lake. The DDF towards the underlying aquifer showed a strong influence on the mixing processes between the groundwater and surface water. Nevertheless, groundwater chemistry at different depths beneath the lake remains almost constant over time, suggesting an equilibrium between DDF and regional groundwater flow (RGF). Modelling isotope changes allowed inferring the temporal pattern of saline water recharge, coinciding with the summer season when water loss through evaporation is most significant. Consequently, the transport of solutes suitable for chemical reactions is then feasible to deeper zones of the aquifer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Water Isotopes in Hydrological Processes II)
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17 pages, 3904 KiB  
Article
Isotopic Characterization of Rainwater for the Development of a Local Meteoric Water Line in an Arid Climate: The Case of the Wadi Ziz Watershed (South-Eastern Morocco)
by Anas El Ouali, Allal Roubil, Abderrahim Lahrach, Jacques Mudry, Tibari El Ghali, Mohamed Qurtobi, Mohammed El Hafyani, Abdennabi Alitane, Abdellah El Hmaidi, Ali Essahlaoui and Anton Van Rompaey
Water 2022, 14(5), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050779 - 01 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3040
Abstract
For any hydrological or hydrogeological system, the arrival of new rains is the input signal to the system. This isotopic signature of precipitation is of major interest in understanding the recharge processes of the aquifer system. On the scale of a given basin, [...] Read more.
For any hydrological or hydrogeological system, the arrival of new rains is the input signal to the system. This isotopic signature of precipitation is of major interest in understanding the recharge processes of the aquifer system. On the scale of a given basin, staged stations at different altitudes and spread out in space allow this input signal to be well characterized and to draw the local meteoric water line. In south-eastern Morocco, specifically, in the Errachidia region, several chemical and isotopic studies of the waters of the various aquifers have been carried out. In the absence of a local meteoric water line, these studies were based on the use of the global meteoric water line (GMWL). Thus, the objective of this work is the isotopic characterization and the elaboration of the local meteoric water line of the rainwater of the Ziz watershed. This characterization of the input signal in the study area is based on 41 measurements of stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) relating to the precipitations collected during the period from December 2019 to November 2020 in four staged stations at different altitudes and spread over the space from upstream to downstream of the watershed. The linear relationship of δ2H as a function of δ18O describes the local meteoric water line (LMWL) by equation δ2H = 7.5 ± 0.3 δ18O + 4.6 ± 1.7; R2 = 0.93. This equation displays evaporation confirmed by the arrival of continental currents in an arid environment. The variation in precipitation δ18O as a function of the sampling altitudes for the rains highlighted the relationship δ18O = −0.0026 ∗ Z − 1.67, with R2 = 0.93, which means an altitudinal gradient of −0.26‰ per 100 m of altitude. In this regard, the development of the local meteoric water line and the determination of the altitudinal gradient for the first time in this arid to semi-arid region of the watershed will be of great use to researchers and water resource managers; for example, to help determine the groundwater recharge areas, determine the exchanges between surface water and groundwater, and analyze many other hydrological problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Water Isotopes in Hydrological Processes II)
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11 pages, 1943 KiB  
Article
Isotopic Composition of Glacier Ice and Meltwater in the Arid Parts of the Altai Mountains (Central Asia)
by Dmitriy Bantcev, Dmitriy Ganyushkin, Anton Terekhov, Alexey Ekaykin, Igor Tokarev and Kirill Chistyakov
Water 2022, 14(2), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020252 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1768
Abstract
The objective of this study is to reveal the isotopic composition of ice and meltwater in glaciated regions of South-Eastern Altai. The paper depicts differences between the isotopic composition of glacier ice from several types of glaciers and from various locations. Detected differences [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to reveal the isotopic composition of ice and meltwater in glaciated regions of South-Eastern Altai. The paper depicts differences between the isotopic composition of glacier ice from several types of glaciers and from various locations. Detected differences between the isotopic composition of glacier ice in diversified parts of the study region are related to local climate patterns. Isotopic composition of meltwater and isotopic separation for glacier rivers runoff showed that in the Tavan-Bogd massif, seasonal snow participates more in the formation of glacier runoff due to better conditions for snow accumulation on the surface of glaciers. In other research areas pure glacier meltwater prevails in runoff. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Water Isotopes in Hydrological Processes II)
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16 pages, 1869 KiB  
Article
Variability of δ2H and δ18O in Soil Water and Its Linkage to Precipitation in an East Asian Monsoon Subtropical Forest Plantation
by Sidan Lyu
Water 2021, 13(20), 2930; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202930 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1977
Abstract
The linkage between δ2H and δ18O of soil water and precipitation provides a way of understanding precipitation infiltration, residence time, and soil water source. Soil water at 0–5, 15–20, and 40–45 cm depths and event-based precipitation were collected in [...] Read more.
The linkage between δ2H and δ18O of soil water and precipitation provides a way of understanding precipitation infiltration, residence time, and soil water source. Soil water at 0–5, 15–20, and 40–45 cm depths and event-based precipitation were collected in a subtropical forest plantation. Correlations between the δ18O of soil water and precipitation on the same day were used to determine the critical threshold of precipitation infiltration. Residence time of precipitation in soil was determined with correlations between the δ18O of soil water and cumulative precipitation before sampling. Soil water source was determined by the intersection points of Soil Water Evaporation Lines (SEL) and local meteoric water lines. The results showed that precipitation >5–6 mm could pass through canopy and litter, and infiltrate into soil. Residence times varied from a few days to several months, and increased with soil depth. The model-based approach for SEL estimation were more robust than the regression-based approach due to the inverse variability in the δ2H and δ18O of soil water source and soil evaporative fractionation. Soil water at a 0–5 cm depth originated mainly from precipitation in the current season, while those at 15–20 and 40–45 cm depths originated mainly from precipitation in the previous season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Water Isotopes in Hydrological Processes II)
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