Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 July 2023) | Viewed by 35581

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
Interests: river ecology; LUCC; water resource; non-point pollution; remote sensing; GIS; environmental modelling

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Guest Editor
Tianjin Research Institute for Water Transport Engineering, Ministry of Transport, Inland Waterway Engineering Research Center, Tianjin 300456, China
Interests: sediment dynamics; sedimentology; coastal dynamics; coastal sediments; estuarine evolution; river evolution; numerical simulation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inland waterways play an important role in the global transportation system, but over-exploitation of waterways for navigational purposes has often been to the detriment of river ecosystems. Overall costs will become extremely high when restoring a river ecosystem once ecological damage has occurred. On the other hand, the essence of regional sustainability is to protect the environment while achieving socio-economic development goals, and the maintenance of river health is of particular importance in supporting the long-term provision of ecosystem goods, services and values for future needs. This Special Issue invites contributions that investigate the major challenges to sustaining inland waterways in the context of social-economic development and climate change.

This Special Issue is interdisciplinary and encourages methodological pluralism. We welcome research-based manuscript submissions from scholars and practitioners working in river studies, environmental sciences, ecology, information sciences, navigation and policy studies. We are especially interested in manuscripts that examine applications of new technologies to inland waterway sustainability, and carbon flux of inland waterway systems.

Prof. Dr. Tianhong Li
Prof. Dr. Yunping Yang
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • inland waterway
  • river system
  • monitoring
  • assessment
  • ecological integrity
  • sustainable river basin management
  • waterway bearing capacity
  • waterway resource development
  • waterway infrastructure

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

22 pages, 13659 KiB  
Article
Effects of the Diversity of Flow Velocity on the Upstream Migration Behavior of Grass Carp in the Reaches of Spur Dikes
by Jielong Hu, Pingyi Wang, Hanbao Chen, Zhen Liu and Songgui Chen
Water 2023, 15(17), 3091; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15173091 - 29 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 881
Abstract
The construction of spur dikes alters the flow pattern of rivers and affects the upstream migration behavior of fishes. Traditional rock-fill spur dikes and experimental permeable spur dikes with a “Weighted Excess Storage” (WES) profile were evaluated using hydrodynamic experiments and experiments on [...] Read more.
The construction of spur dikes alters the flow pattern of rivers and affects the upstream migration behavior of fishes. Traditional rock-fill spur dikes and experimental permeable spur dikes with a “Weighted Excess Storage” (WES) profile were evaluated using hydrodynamic experiments and experiments on the upstream migration behavior of juvenile Grass Carp (Mylopharyngodon idella). The swimming ability and upstream migration paths of juvenile Grass Carp in the spur dike were analyzed, and the relationship between the upstream migration success rate of Grass Carp and the diversity of flow velocity was studied. The induced velocity and critical velocity of juvenile Grass Carp with a body length of 5 ± 0.5 cm are 0.1 m/s and 0.7 m/s according to the experiment. The flow velocity diversity index increased roughly in a power function trend with the increase in flow discharge, and under the same flow conditions, the flow velocity diversity index of permeable spur dikes was greater than that of rock-fill spur dikes. When the flow velocity was within the preferred velocity range of Grass Carp, the success rate of upstream migration increased linearly with the diversity of flow velocity. When the velocity was greater than 60% of the critical velocity of Grass Carp, the success rate of upstream migration dropped sharply. Compared with rock-fill spur dikes, the experimental permeable spur dikes provide a passage for the upstream migration of fishes and reduce the impact on the upstream migration of fish. The results of this research provide theoretical support for ecologically optimized designs of spur dikes and the ecological management of rivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways)
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18 pages, 7176 KiB  
Article
Discrete Analysis of Local Scour Morphology of Bridge Piers Affected by Sediment Storage Dam
by Qiaoling Xu and Feng Xie
Water 2023, 15(11), 2080; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112080 - 30 May 2023
Viewed by 1189
Abstract
In order to solve the prediction and protection problems of local pier scour with a downstream sediment storage dam on non-uniform sand riverbeds in mountainous areas, the Xi’an Chanhe Bridge in China was taken as the research object. Through comprehensive physical model experiments, [...] Read more.
In order to solve the prediction and protection problems of local pier scour with a downstream sediment storage dam on non-uniform sand riverbeds in mountainous areas, the Xi’an Chanhe Bridge in China was taken as the research object. Through comprehensive physical model experiments, the influence of sediment storage dam layout on the surrounding water flow and local scour morphology around bridge piers was studied. The relationship between boundary conditions and local scour pit morphology was studied using a discrete analysis model. The research results showed that the inflow rate Q was the most significant factor affecting local scour, and local scour generally developed rapidly within 0.5–1.0 h and then gradually reached a dynamic equilibrium. The maximum depth was located within 0.25B in front of the pier relative to the pier width B, and the impact range of local scour behind the pier was [5B,10B]. The recommended layout of a sediment storage dam has a distance between pier and dam L of [8B,11B] and a dam crest elevation Z higher than that of the original riverbed elevation at the bridge pier, which is [0.4B,0.5B]. An improved calculation formula for the local scour depth of bridge piers hs is proposed and verified through experimental measurements to provide a reference for the design and protection of bridge piers with a downstream sediment storage dam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways)
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24 pages, 8586 KiB  
Article
Waterway Channel Stability and Management Measures of Chenglingji—Wuhan Reaches in the Middle Section of the Yangtze River
by Xiabo Zhang, Yunping Yang, Ming Li, Mingjin Zhang, Jianjun Wang and Weiyan Xin
Water 2023, 15(11), 2047; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112047 - 28 May 2023
Viewed by 1344
Abstract
In China’s Yangtze River Basin, systematic waterway improvement and dredging maintenance have increased the waterway water depth compared with that before the implementation of the Three Gorges Project. Although the water depth of the middle section increased from 2.9 m in 2002 to [...] Read more.
In China’s Yangtze River Basin, systematic waterway improvement and dredging maintenance have increased the waterway water depth compared with that before the implementation of the Three Gorges Project. Although the water depth of the middle section increased from 2.9 m in 2002 to 4.2 m in 2021, it remains less than 6.0 m in the lower section and 4.5 m in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. This study explores the Chenglingji—Wuhan reaches in the middle section of the Yangtze River, using hydrological data from 1954 to 2021 and topographic data from 2002 to 2021 to analyze river channel scouring or deposition characteristics, verify the waterway scale with a multi-scale width of 4.5 m water depth, and propose waterway management countermeasures. After the implementation of the Three Gorges Project, the Chenglingji—Wuhan reaches were scouring using a low-flow channel (94.95%), thereby facilitating waterway depth improvement. A serious obstruction area was located in the branching channel, and an unstable relationship between the boundary of the continental bank and the branching channel was found to be the main factor hindering navigation, with a water depth below 4.5 m. The Chenglingji—Wuhan reaches waterway water depth has been raised from 2.9 m in 2003 to 4.2 m; it can be raised to 4.5 m through waterway scale improvement. This study explains the navigation obstruction characteristics of alluvial waterways, which has important reference value for waterway scale improvement and planning, and the efficient utilization of deep-water resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways)
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16 pages, 10911 KiB  
Article
Development and Application of a New Auxiliary Diversion Structure for Mountain Ship Lock: A Case Study of Wuqiangxi Lock in China
by Chunfeng Qi, Xiaogang Pu, Wei Peng, Qunan Ouyang, Danyuan Wang, Zhe Liu and Fei Wang
Water 2023, 15(5), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050941 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
Ship locks on mountain rivers usually experience difficulties owing to harsh flow conditions such as strong oblique flow and backflow, which significantly affect navigation safety and efficiency. To improve navigation conditions, a structural measure involving pile-foundation permeable dislocation-type diversion vanes, a new type [...] Read more.
Ship locks on mountain rivers usually experience difficulties owing to harsh flow conditions such as strong oblique flow and backflow, which significantly affect navigation safety and efficiency. To improve navigation conditions, a structural measure involving pile-foundation permeable dislocation-type diversion vanes, a new type of diversion structure, is proposed by analyzing the features and working mechanisms of the existing diversion structures. Based on a typical mountain ship lock—the Wuqiangxi Lock—model tests including various schemes were conducted to investigate the effects of the new diversion structure. The new diversion structure obtained better results than other existing diversion structures, particularly in terms of reducing the transverse flow velocity extremums. By controlling the diversion volume, stabilizing the deflection angle, and dissipating the flow energy, the new diversion structure could effectively weaken the oblique flow intensity at the entrance area. In addition, comparisons of its cost efficiency with that of a hybrid measure combining riverbed dredging and diversion piers was carried out. Moreover, its performance of practical application in the reconstruction project of the Wuqiangxi Lock was demonstrated. Based on the investigation presented herein, the new diversion structure is a promising approach for improving flow conditions at the entrance area of the lock approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways)
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12 pages, 5537 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Data-Driven Ship Motion Simulation toward Visual-Aided Navigation on Water
by Zongmo Yang, Qianfeng Jing and Xiaochen Li
Water 2023, 15(5), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050872 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
Visual aids for navigation systems are a key function of intelligent onboard navigation units for ships. These systems visualize the planning decisions of an intelligent navigation unit for computer-aided visual navigation to reduce the cognitive workload of the driving control personnel of an [...] Read more.
Visual aids for navigation systems are a key function of intelligent onboard navigation units for ships. These systems visualize the planning decisions of an intelligent navigation unit for computer-aided visual navigation to reduce the cognitive workload of the driving control personnel of an intelligent ship. In this study, we propose a dynamic data driven method to simulate the motion of ships on the water. We constructed a validation dataset for ship motion simulation toward visual-aided navigation considering the combined effects of wind, waves and currents. According to the validation results on this dataset, the proposed simulation method exhibited good accuracy and real-time performance. Under the given control and environmental input series, the mean errors of simulated heading and simulated trajectory were 5.7°/h and 282.6 m/h, respectively; the simulation time was 475 ms for each hour of physical duration. Overall, the proposed simulation method satisfies the need for visual navigation aids and could improve the situational awareness of the driving control personnel of the intelligent ship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways)
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16 pages, 7123 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Prediction of Poyang Lake’s Navigable Conditions under a New Hydrological Regime
by Dong Wang and Tao Zhou
Water 2023, 15(3), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030583 - 2 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1660
Abstract
Human activities have profoundly changed the hydrological regime and trends of rivers and lakes, which, in turn, has affected the utilization of their navigable conditions. However, few studies have focused on the effects of changes in hydrological regimes and trends of rivers and [...] Read more.
Human activities have profoundly changed the hydrological regime and trends of rivers and lakes, which, in turn, has affected the utilization of their navigable conditions. However, few studies have focused on the effects of changes in hydrological regimes and trends of rivers and lakes on navigable conditions. Thus, this study intensively analyzes and investigates the navigable depth at the major control sections in the lake area during the dry season in the period before 2002, when the Three Gorges Reservoir was not yet constructed, and the period from 2003 to 2019, when the Three Gorges Project was put into operation with impoundment based on the dry-season water level curve in the Poyang Lake area since the operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir. This study also further analyzes the influence of the change in the hydrological regime on the navigable depth in the lake area. The results show that the waterway depth and width could meet the navigation requirements before 2002. From 2003 to 2019, whereas the water level with a 98% guarantee rate of duration at the Xingzi Hydrometric Station decreased, that at the Hukou Hydrometric Station increased. The waterway depth and width at both the Hukou and Xingzi hydrometric stations could meet the requirements of the size of Grade II waterways. This study also performs a simulation prediction of the water regime of Poyang Lake under a new hydrological regime using the mathematical model of water and sediment of the Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute. The results reveal that in 2030 and 2050, after the Three Gorges Reservoir has been in operation for 30–50 years, the water levels at the Hukou, Xingzi, and Wucheng hydrometric stations (Hukou) of Poyang Lake will decline by approximately 0.18–0.66 and 0.10–0.24 m, respectively. Although the overall navigable depth can basically meet the navigation requirements for a period of time, the trend of the long-term declining water level may cause unsafe navigation risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways)
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12 pages, 257 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Evaluation Method for Construction Disturbance and Ecological Restoration of Waterway Engineering and Its Application
by Xia Shen, Haipeng Wang, Peng Wang, Rui Xie, Yongping Wang and Changhui Ji
Water 2023, 15(3), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030460 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
With the increasing emphasis on the ecology and environment of rivers, the construction of ecological waterway projects has become a development trend in China. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the ecological [...] Read more.
With the increasing emphasis on the ecology and environment of rivers, the construction of ecological waterway projects has become a development trend in China. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the ecological effects of ecological waterway construction. Based on pressure-state-response (PSR) and driver-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) logical frameworks, this paper established a state-pressure-impact-response (SPIR) conceptual model. The model took the river ecology and environment state as the main line, and described the disturbance pressure of the engineering construction on the river state, the impacts of the project on the river comprehensive function, and the positive responses taken in the full lifetime cycle of the project. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy evaluation model were used to study the changes of the river ecosystem status after suffering from the construction pressure and taking positive responses. Taking the 12.5 m deep water waterway project in the Taicang-Nantong section of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River as an example, the disturbance on the ecology and environment at different stages of the project construction and the effort of relieving the negative impacts of the project on the ecology and environment were evaluated by the health level of the ecosystem. The paper can provide a scientific method for the evaluation of ecological projects in river ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways)
15 pages, 4079 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on the Local Scour of Submerged Spur Dike Heads under the Protection of Soft Mattress in Plain Sand-Bed Rivers
by Hua Xu, Yangfan Li, Zeya Zhao, Xiaojun Wang and Fanyi Zhang
Water 2023, 15(3), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030413 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2007
Abstract
Submerged spur dikes are widely applied in the channel regulation structures of plain sand-bed rivers such as the lower reaches of the Yangtze River; thus, the issue of local scour protection near regulating structures is especially important for structure design engineering. To further [...] Read more.
Submerged spur dikes are widely applied in the channel regulation structures of plain sand-bed rivers such as the lower reaches of the Yangtze River; thus, the issue of local scour protection near regulating structures is especially important for structure design engineering. To further scientific research on the local scour of submerged spur dike heads, we investigated rulers describing the variance of the incoming flow dynamic, scale of the spur dike body, width of river bottom protection, etc., responding to the maximum local scouring depth of a submerged spur dike and the distance between the submerged spur dike and dam axis under the conditions of river bottom protection. According to principles of dimensional analysis, we established computational formulas for the maximum local scouring depth of a submerged spur dike and the distance between the submerged spur dike and dam axis, with consideration of bottom protection works for the remaining soft mattress. These research results not only enrich existing research on the calculation of local scour of channel-regulating structures, but they are also a relevant technical reference for the design of water conservancy and waterway engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways)
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19 pages, 8479 KiB  
Article
Decadal Hydro-Morphodynamic Evolution of a Sandy Meander Bend Downstream of the Three Gorges Dam and Impact on Waterway Navigation
by Hua Ge, Lingling Zhu, Chunyan Deng, Ling Jiang and Rui Long
Water 2022, 14(19), 3126; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193126 - 4 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
The Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in the Yangtze River profoundly regulates the downstream river discharge and sediment load, causing significant river morphodynamic changes since 2003. Understanding such changes is vital for managing the navigational waterway. Using the Wakouzi waterway 190 km downstream from [...] Read more.
The Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in the Yangtze River profoundly regulates the downstream river discharge and sediment load, causing significant river morphodynamic changes since 2003. Understanding such changes is vital for managing the navigational waterway. Using the Wakouzi waterway 190 km downstream from TGD as an example, we examined its decadal hydro-morphodynamic evolution based on hydrological and topographical data collected from the 1990s onwards. The results showed that the suspended sediment load has reduced by 85.8% downstream of TGD, although the annual runoff has not changed. The suspended sediment has become coarser due to depletion of the fine sediment source. As a result, the river channel has been substantially eroded, particularly the deep-water parts of the channel. Erosion of the elongated sand bars has emerged as well, even in the presence of channel regulation works. Consequently, channel degradation has led to a lower river stage under the same river discharge compared with the pre-TGD condition, particularly in the dry season with a lower river discharge. These changes imply worsened navigability of the examined riverbend. The results of this study have implications for management of other river reaches in the middle Yangtze River and other rivers undergoing similar changes worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways)
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13 pages, 7546 KiB  
Article
Research on Fine Ship Sewage Generation Inventory Based on AIS Data and Its Application in the Yangtze River
by Rongchang Chen, Chen Liu, Qingqing Xue and Rui Rui
Water 2022, 14(19), 3109; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193109 - 2 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
Inland waterway transport is an essential element of integrated transport systems, and the inland waterway freight volume accounts for about 50% of the total waterway freight volume in China. During the navigation, anchoring, and operation of ships, various water pollutants are generated, and [...] Read more.
Inland waterway transport is an essential element of integrated transport systems, and the inland waterway freight volume accounts for about 50% of the total waterway freight volume in China. During the navigation, anchoring, and operation of ships, various water pollutants are generated, and the pollution generated by sewage is receiving more and more attraction. To prevent and control pollution from ships, it is important to estimate the amount of sewage and pollutants involved. In this study, the data preparation process is established to generate the Degree of Ship Activity (DSA) data pool after cleaning and thinning the massive original Automatic identification System (AIS) data, and then the data fusion method of a fine GIS grid is established to integrate the DSA data into each grid. The total DSA in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River is 37.14 million h/a. The sewage and pollutant generation inventories for the lower reaches of Yangtze River are estimated and analyzed spatiotemporally. It is estimated that the generations of sewage are 1,768,600 t/a in total. After spatial analysis, it is revealed that the water areas with a relatively large amount of pollutant generation are mainly related to ports distributed along the channel and the DSA density. Finally, based on the spatial distribution characteristics of the estimated inventories, the countermeasures of “zero discharge” for inland ships, the receiving facility system improving, and prevention and control at the river basin level are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways)
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18 pages, 4286 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Study of Climatic and Anthropogenic Contributions to Streamflow and Sediment Load in the Yangtze River, China
by Honglu Qian, Jinxin Liu, Yunping Yang, Yunjia Liu and Yuanfang Chai
Water 2022, 14(19), 3104; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193104 - 2 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Under intensifying human activities and climate change, runoff and sediment load have changed significantly in the Yangtze River Basin, China. Daily discharge data at six hydrological stations and daily precipitation at 175 weather stations from 1961–2020 were collected to analyze the changes in [...] Read more.
Under intensifying human activities and climate change, runoff and sediment load have changed significantly in the Yangtze River Basin, China. Daily discharge data at six hydrological stations and daily precipitation at 175 weather stations from 1961–2020 were collected to analyze the changes in hydrological regimes. Two periods, namely the natural period (1961–1980) and the impacted period (1981–2020), were proposed to estimate the impacts of climate change and human activities by using regression analysis to reconstruct the natural runoff and the natural sediment load. The results show that there was a 0–3% difference in runoff reduction in the affected period, compared with the natural period at the five hydrological stations, except for the Datong station, while the sediment load in the whole river basin shows a downward trend varying from 17% to 40%. Human activities are the main reason for the reduced annual runoff at the other five stations during the impacted period, while climate change is the dominant factor for the increased runoff at Datong stations. This is because the precipitation-increased runoff in the basin of Lake Poyang exceeded the human-decreased runoff in the upper reaches. Human activities are the reason for the reduced sediment load in the mainstream during the impacted period, and their effects enhance over time, while climate change brings the opposite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways)
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18 pages, 1184 KiB  
Article
Health Assessment of the Waterway from Chongqing to Yibin in the Upper Yangtze River, China
by Pinjian Li, Jing Xue, Wei Xia and Tianhong Li
Water 2022, 14(19), 3007; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193007 - 24 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2059
Abstract
Ecological waterway construction and waterway health protection have become a trend and requirement of waterway development worldwide. How to assess the health status of a waterway is a fundamental concern for waterway sustainable development. This study established a comprehensive framework for health assessment [...] Read more.
Ecological waterway construction and waterway health protection have become a trend and requirement of waterway development worldwide. How to assess the health status of a waterway is a fundamental concern for waterway sustainable development. This study established a comprehensive framework for health assessment of the waterway from Chongqing to Yibin in the upper reach of the Yangtze River, focusing on the coordinated development of river functions or services including navigation, flood discharge, sediment transport, water supply, self-purification, ecology, and recreation. This framework consists of a hierarchical indicator system, a weight determination method with analytic hierarchy process (AHP), an assessment model considering cask short board effect, and a sensitive analysis method. The waterway health in this river section in the periods 2016–2017 and 2018–2020 were assessed. The results showed that the river functions of navigation, flood discharge, water supply, ecology, and recreation had improved, while sediment transport had deteriorated from “Fair” to “Poor”, and self-purification remained at “Excellent” condition. The overall health of the waterway from Chongqing to Yibin has improved but remained in a “Fair” state during 2016–2020, at roughly the same healthy state as the other three waterways in the middle, middle-lower, and lower reaches. The results are conducive to understanding the health status of the whole Yangtze River waterway. They can serve as an important reference for ecological protection and development of high quality in the Yangtze River basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways)
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24 pages, 6673 KiB  
Article
Economic Risk Potential of Infrastructure Failure Considering In-Land Waterways
by Rebecca Wehrle, Marcus Wiens, Fabian Neff and Frank Schultmann
Water 2022, 14(18), 2874; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182874 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2806
Abstract
Purpose—Unreliable transport infrastructure can cause negative externalities for industries. In this article, we analyze how the private sector is affected by infrastructure failure of public transport infrastructure, using waterways as an example. Methodology—To investigate the affectedness of riparian industries, we chose [...] Read more.
Purpose—Unreliable transport infrastructure can cause negative externalities for industries. In this article, we analyze how the private sector is affected by infrastructure failure of public transport infrastructure, using waterways as an example. Methodology—To investigate the affectedness of riparian industries, we chose two complementary parallel approaches: A proximity analysis via GIS, and a concluding survey among the identified waterway-dependent industries. An exemplary application is validated by stakeholders. Findings—We identify a predominance of location preferences in dependence on waterways for mining, chemical, and metal industries. Their risk tolerance exhibits potentially severe impacts on industries if reliable transport cannot be ensured via waterways, as our paper provides essential insights into the relationship between infrastructure failure and company decisions. Most importantly, we reveal that a lack of alternatives due to missing capacities of other transport modes causes realistic threats to business locations. Practical implications—include that a regional focus is crucial for the empirical risk assessment of transport infrastructure. Hence, the data collection should relate to the regional focus groups, particularly the directly affected industries. In addition, infrastructure maintenance should integrate a risk focus and consider the short and long-run impacts on industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways)
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13 pages, 3937 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Shock Wave Pressure Transmission Patterns and Influencing Factors Caused by Underwater Drilling Blasting
by Yu Wan, Wenjie Li, Hongbo Du and Xiao Yang
Water 2022, 14(18), 2837; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182837 - 12 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2846
Abstract
Underwater blasting technology has been widely used in inland waterway improvement projects. However, due to the particularity and complexity of underwater blasting, it is difficult to predict the transmission patterns of underwater blasting shock waves. Therefore, based on the Guoyuan Port Phase II [...] Read more.
Underwater blasting technology has been widely used in inland waterway improvement projects. However, due to the particularity and complexity of underwater blasting, it is difficult to predict the transmission patterns of underwater blasting shock waves. Therefore, based on the Guoyuan Port Phase II project in Chongqing, the transmission patterns and influencing factors of underwater drilling blast shock wave pressure were investigated by field monitoring and numerical simulation. In this study, a total of 45 groups of shock wave pressures were measured, and the underwater shock wave pressure transmission formula obtained through data fitting was P = 27.39 × (Q1/3/R)1.25. Furthermore, the shock wave pressure transmission process in water was numerically simulated, and the simulation results were verified using field monitoring data. The results showed that the simulation and measured results were consistent. Finally, the influence of water depth, flow rate, and flow direction on the transmission pattern of shock wave pressure was analyzed, based on a numerical simulation method. The results showed that the more blastholes there are, the smaller the peak pressure of the shock wave. The lower the depth of blasting, the faster the decay of shock wave pressure. The flow rate has less effect on the shock wave pressure. At flow rates of 1, 2, 3, and 4 m/s in the range of 0 to 50 m, the shock wave pressure in the upstream flow decreased by 5.7%, 7.4%, 9.1%, and 10.2%, respectively, compared with that in the downstream flow. This study provides a theoretical basis for safety control of underwater drilling blasting engineering in inland waterways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways)
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17 pages, 12451 KiB  
Article
Simulating Ecological Effects of a Waterway Project in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River Based on Hydraulic Indicators on the Spawning Habitats of Four Major Chinese Carp Species
by Shuran Yin, Yunpig Yang, Jianjun Wang, Jie Zhang, Qinghua Cai, Yude Zhu and Chenyang Wang
Water 2022, 14(14), 2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142147 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1691
Abstract
The adaptability of fish to their habitats is closely related to river hydraulics. While navigation channel projects aim to improve the navigation conditions by adjusting the hydrodynamic force of local river sections, the impacts of these projects on the hydraulic indicators of habitats [...] Read more.
The adaptability of fish to their habitats is closely related to river hydraulics. While navigation channel projects aim to improve the navigation conditions by adjusting the hydrodynamic force of local river sections, the impacts of these projects on the hydraulic indicators of habitats of the four major Chinese carp species (FMCCs) remain unclear. Taking the Daijiazhou reach in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River as a case study, a mathematical model for spawning suitability was established to simulate changes in these hydraulic indicators before and after the implementation of a navigation channel project. The optimal flow rate interval for the spawning of the FMCCs was 17,500–22,000 m3·s−1. After the navigation channel project was implemented, the habitat suitability index (HSI) and weighted useable area (WUA) increased across the spawning habitats of all FMCCs, indicating that the project implementation created more habitat space. The central bar (Chihugang central bar) became exposed during the dry season, with the HSI and WUA decreasing under low water flow but increasing under medium-low or higher water flow levels. At the Daijiazhou bar head floodplain, which remained unexposed during the dry season, the HSI and WUA increased after project implementation, providing more space for spawning and habitation for the FMCCs. For the low point bar with bank gullies (Lejiawan point bar), the implementation of the bar protection zone project restricted gully development, with the HSI and WUA decreasing for all FMCCs. Based on the above impacts of navigation channel projects on the hydrodynamic environment of fish habitats, this paper provides a reference for the optimization of navigation channel arrangement as well as for the restoration of fish habitats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways)
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13 pages, 5868 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Anti-Scour Property and Erosion Resistance of 3D Mat Materials for Slope Protection in Waterway Engineering
by Yanhua Yang, Haiyong Xu, Xin Wang, Mingjin Zhang, Wanli Liu, Yude Zhu and Zhe Liu
Water 2022, 14(9), 1392; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091392 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2493
Abstract
3D mats are environmentally friendly and ecological materials for protecting river and waterway banks. The anti-scour properties of the materials and the erosion resistance of the soil under them can be studied to provide decision support for the selection of slope protection materials [...] Read more.
3D mats are environmentally friendly and ecological materials for protecting river and waterway banks. The anti-scour properties of the materials and the erosion resistance of the soil under them can be studied to provide decision support for the selection of slope protection materials and their applicable areas. In this paper, an indoor prototypical scouring experiment with a flume is carried out to study the anti-scour properties of three types of 3D mat materials (vegetation grass mats, Enkamat and reinforced Mike mat) and the erosion resistance of the underlying soil under typical combined conditions of flow rate and water stage. It is concluded that the 3D mats increase the resistance coefficient of the bed surface, and that with the same incoming flow, the average flow velocity is inversely related to the resistance coefficient. There are three scouring modes for 3D mats under the action of water flow: material failure caused by mechanical damage, performance failure caused by serious erosion of the soil mass and non-failure. Of the three mat materials, the reinforced Mike mats are more resistant to scouring than the other two unreinforced materials, and the erosion volume ratios of reinforced Mike mats, vegetation grass mats and Enkamat are 59.24%, 61.81% and 62.17%, respectively, under the same small flow rate and high water stage. The results show that the reinforced Mike mats have the best anti-scour property and soil conservation performance, followed by Enkamat and the vegetation grass mats. In addition, reinforced materials outperform non-reinforced ones in their anti-scour performance and their protection for the underlying soil on the bank slope. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways)
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14 pages, 6433 KiB  
Article
Study of the Long-Term Morphological Evolution of the Modaomen Channel in the Pearl River Delta, China
by Zhiyuan Han, Huaiyuan Li, Hualiang Xie, Shuhua Zuo and Ting Xu
Water 2022, 14(9), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091331 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1443
Abstract
Deltaic channels in river deltas usually play important roles in flood discharge, water supply, and navigation development. Under the combined influences of fluvial and ocean dynamics and human activity, the complex long-term morphological evolution of deltaic channels requires further research, in particular the [...] Read more.
Deltaic channels in river deltas usually play important roles in flood discharge, water supply, and navigation development. Under the combined influences of fluvial and ocean dynamics and human activity, the complex long-term morphological evolution of deltaic channels requires further research, in particular the Modaomen Channel in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. This study explored the morphological evolution of the Modaomen Channel from 1962 to 2017. During the study period, the characteristics of the Modaomen Channel after 1977 differed substantially from those before 1977. Before 1977, the channel evolution was mainly controlled by natural processes, with a low silting rate. From 1977 to the present, the channel was strongly influenced by human activities, including sand mining and channel regulation, and then, the channel deepened sharply. Therefore, the deep trough of the channel at the upstream was linked completely to that at the downstream, which became much wider and deeper compared to that in the past. Although the deepening of the channel was beneficial for flood discharge and shipping development, serious environmental problems also developed, including strengthened tidal dynamics and saltwater intrusion. Owing to the severely reduced sediment discharge from the Pearl River and the deepening trend in the channel, the future evolution of the channel and its impacts by extreme flood and storm surge require further detailed investigation and research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways)
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14 pages, 5827 KiB  
Article
Study of Jingjiang Beach Morphodynamics in the Tidal Reach of the Yangtze River
by Yuncheng Wen, Yunfeng Xia, Dejun Du, Hua Xu, Fanyi Zhang and Zelin Cheng
Water 2022, 14(7), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071109 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
Large marginal sandbanks in tidal rivers experience periodic splitting processes. In this paper, the morphodynamic evolution of Jingjiang Beach, a sandbank on the Yangtze tidal river, has been investigated based on measured data. The results show that the duration of the splitting process [...] Read more.
Large marginal sandbanks in tidal rivers experience periodic splitting processes. In this paper, the morphodynamic evolution of Jingjiang Beach, a sandbank on the Yangtze tidal river, has been investigated based on measured data. The results show that the duration of the splitting process in the middle and lower sections of Jingjiang Beach is 4–6 years. The periodical evolution occurred both in flood season and dry season, with a slight difference in the initial stage of splitting. This paper focuses on the evolution characteristics related to strong human activities since 2003. Ever since the second stage of the 12.5 m Deepwater Channel Project (DCP), the volumes above the 10 m and 12.5 m isobaths of Jingjiang Beach have been generally decreasing. The elevation data in recent years have demonstrated that the upper section, and nearshore side of the middle section, of Jingjiang Beach have tended to be stable. Moreover, the migration distance for a splitting sand body at the tail of Jingjiang Beach appears to have shortened. With the operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the number of days with discharge less than 15,000 m3/s has shown a decreasing trend; thus, the development scale of Jingjiang Beach could decline in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Inland Waterways)
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