Special Issue "Greenhouse Gas Emission from Freshwater Ecosystem"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2022 | Viewed by 7063

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Amit Kumar
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Hydrology and Water Resources, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Ningliu Road No. 219, Nanjing 210044, Jiangsu, China
Interests: biogeochemistry; environmental impact assessment; environment; Ec0-hydrology; carbon sequestration; soil analysis; soil chemistry; GHG emission; climate change; water quality; rivers
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Zhiguo Yu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, School of Hydrology and Water Resources, Ningliu Road No. 219, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210044, China
Interests: greenhouse gas emission; Peatlands; carbon cycle; groundwater inflow; biogeochemical processes; carbon fluxes; lakes; heavy metal; water chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Freshwater reservoirs, as with all inland aquatic systems, are a well-known source of greenhouse gas (GHG; CO2, CH4, and N2O) to the atmosphere, but their quantitative measurement and importance are still loosely constrained. This is mainly due to a lack of clear methodology for GHG quantification, unavailability of datasets for medium- to long-term prediction, and model availability. Freshwater bodies (e.g., rivers, lakes, and reservoirs) are actual sites of carbon processing and transport. They receive carbon (C) in various forms (inorganic and organic forms, labile organic carbon, autochthonous and allochthonous); the maximum part of which is released into the atmosphere and partially buried more or less in their sediments and transferred downstream. Since the 1990s (after the pre-industrial era), freshwater has contributed a significant amount of GHG emissions into the atmosphere. Furthermore, it plays an important role in regional and/or global carbon budgeting. The GHG emissions are mainly due to the degradation of organic matter (resulting mainly from the catchments and reaching the freshwater ecosystem through runoffs), occuring aerobically and/or anaerobically in benthic sediment. This quantification (maximum/minimum) is mainly due to the availability of nutrients (particularly carbon and nitrogen), climatic condition, depth, availability of dissolved oxygen, stratification, temperature of water column, etc. In general, tropical eco-regions are hotspots of emissions compared to temperate and sub-tropical regions. Given the worldwide importance of natural ecosystems, questioning man-made reservoirs as to their own carbon footprints is to be expected. There is vast uncertainty surrounding GHG inventory, although part of this uncertainty is the result of the complex biogeochemical processes involved and a lack of clear methodology to assess their GHG footprint.

This Special Issue accepts critical reviews, monographs, mini research articles, and research papers that analyze and discuss GHG emissions from freshwater ecosystems. Special emphasis is placed on (i) the quantification of GHG from rivers, lakes, reservoirs; (ii) their impact on regional and/or global carbon budgeting; (iii) modeling and measurement; (iv) factors affecting emissions; v) carbon budgeting; vi) carbon dynamics and their climate change implications; (vii) the mitigation strategies and/or regulatory policies.

Prof. Dr. Amit Kumar
Prof. Dr. Zhiguo Yu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Greenhouse gas emissions
  • River
  • Lake
  • Peatlands
  • Hydropower reservoir
  • Freshwater bodies
  • CO2, CH4, and N2O
  • Climate and soil environmental factors
  • Carbon dynamics
  • Modeling and measurement
  • Water quality assessment
  • Carbon budgeting
  • Soil carbon sequestration
  • Carbon sources and sink
  • Eco-hydrology
  • GHG footprint
  • C burial

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Hydrological Effects of Prefabricated Permeable Pavements on Parking Lots
Water 2022, 14(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010045 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
Permeable pavements can infiltrate and reduce stormwater runoff in parking lots, but issues around long construction periods and proper maintenance still required proper research and further understanding. The application of precast concrete can help to solve this. In this study, precast concrete components [...] Read more.
Permeable pavements can infiltrate and reduce stormwater runoff in parking lots, but issues around long construction periods and proper maintenance still required proper research and further understanding. The application of precast concrete can help to solve this. In this study, precast concrete components were applied to the design of permeable pavements to form prefabricated permeable pavements. The laboratory study is one of the first to examine the hydrological effect of prefabricated pervious pavements in parking lots. Four kinds of permeable pavements were designed and manufactured. These had different materials (natural sand-gravel, medium sand) which comprised the leveling layer or different assembly forms of precast concrete at the base. Three scenarios of rainfall intensity (0.5, 1, and 2 mm/min) and three rainfall intervals (one, three, and seven days) were simulated using rainfall simulators. The initial runoff time, runoff coefficient, and runoff control rate of each permeable pavement were investigated during the process of simulating. Results showed that the initial runoff time was no earlier than 42 min, the maximum runoff coefficient was 0.52, and the minimum runoff control rate was 47.7% within the rainfall intensity of 2 mm/min. The initial runoff time of each permeable pavement was no earlier than 36 min when the rainfall interval was one day, whereas, the maximum runoff coefficient was 0.64, and the average runoff control rate was 41.5%. The leveling layer material had a greater impact on the hydrological effect of permeable pavements, while the assembly form of precast concrete had no significant effect. Compared with natural sand-gravel, when the leveling layer was medium sand, the runoff generation was advanced by 4.5–7.8 min under different rainfall intensities, and 7–10 min under different rainfall intervals. The maximum runoff coefficient increased with about 14.6% when the rainfall interval was one day. Among four kinds of permeable pavements, the type I permeable pavement had the best runoff regulation performance. The results revealed that all prefabricated permeable pavements used in this study had good runoff control performance, and this design idea proved to be an alternative for the future design of permeable pavements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission from Freshwater Ecosystem)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Comparing GHG Emissions from Drained Oil Palm and Recovering Tropical Peatland Forests in Malaysia
Water 2021, 13(23), 3372; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233372 - 29 Nov 2021
Viewed by 897
Abstract
For agricultural purposes, the drainage and deforestation of Southeast Asian peatland resulted in high greenhouse gases’ (GHGs, e.g., CO2, N2O and CH4) emission. A peatland regenerating initiative, by rewetting and vegetation restoration, reflects evidence of subsequent forest [...] Read more.
For agricultural purposes, the drainage and deforestation of Southeast Asian peatland resulted in high greenhouse gases’ (GHGs, e.g., CO2, N2O and CH4) emission. A peatland regenerating initiative, by rewetting and vegetation restoration, reflects evidence of subsequent forest recovery. In this study, we compared GHG emissions from three Malaysian tropical peatland systems under the following different land-use conditions: (i) drained oil palm plantation (OP), (ii) rewetting-restored forest (RF) and (iii) undrained natural forest (NF). Biweekly temporal measurements of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes were conducted using a closed-chamber method from July 2017 to December 2018, along with the continuous measurement of environmental variables and a one-time measurement of the soil physicochemical properties. The biweekly emission data were integrated to provide cumulative fluxes using the trapezoidal rule. Our results indicated that the changes in environmental conditions resulting from draining (OP) or rewetting historically drained peatland (RF) affected CH4 and N2O emissions more than CO2 emissions. The cumulative CH4 emission was significantly higher in the forested sites (RF and NF), which was linked to their significantly higher water table (WT) level (p < 0.05). Similarly, the high cumulative CO2 emission trends at the RF and OP sites indicated that the RF rewetting-restored peatland system continued to have high decomposition rates despite having a significantly higher WT than the OP (p < 0.05). The highest cumulative N2O emission at the drained-fertilized OP and rewetting-restored RF sites was linked to the available substrates for high decomposition (low C/N ratio) together with soil organic matter mineralization that provided inorganic nitrogen (N), enabling ideal conditions for microbial mediated N2O emissions. Overall, the measured peat properties did not vary significantly among the different land uses. However, the lower C/N ratio at the OP and the RF sites indicated higher decomposition rates in the drained and historically drained peat than the undrained natural peat (NF), which was associated with high cumulative CO2 and N2O emissions in our study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission from Freshwater Ecosystem)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen Input via Net Nitrogen Mineralization under Antibiotics and Warming from the Water Level Fluctuation Zone of a Three Gorges Tributary
Water 2021, 13(18), 2502; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182502 - 12 Sep 2021
Viewed by 717
Abstract
The water level fluctuation (WLF) zone is one of the dominant sources of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (TDN) export via net nitrogen (N) mineralization in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). However, antibiotics pollution may impact the process of TND exports from WLF zone [...] Read more.
The water level fluctuation (WLF) zone is one of the dominant sources of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (TDN) export via net nitrogen (N) mineralization in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). However, antibiotics pollution may impact the process of TND exports from WLF zone in the TGR, especially under drying-rewetting processes and climate warming, and thus increasing the risk of eutrophication in the tributaries of the TGR. The effects of the antibiotics Griseofulvin (GIN) and Fosfomycin (FIN) with 0, 0.2 and 0.4 g kg−1 net N mineralization rate (NMR) from WLF-zone soil in the Pengxi river, a typical tributary of the Yangtze River, under 25 and 35 °C were estimated in 30-day flooding and drying incubations. The results showed that GIN concentrations, temperatures and their interaction significantly affect net-nitrification rates (NNR) and NMR under drying and did not significantly affect NNR under flooding. FIN concentrations and temperatures solely influenced the NNR under flooding. The amounts of TDN exports via NMR without antibiotics from the WLF zone of Pengxi River are 6883.8 (flooding, 25 °C), 9987.3 (flooding, 35 °C), 9781.6 (drying, 25 °C), and 27,866.5 (drying, 35 °C) t year−1, which is 21.0, 29.8, 30.4 and 84.8 times of the permissible Class A discharge in China according to (GB18918-2002). Thus, the NMR of WLF zone should be controlled whether there is antibiotics pollution or not, especially during the dry period for alleviating water eutrophication. This study will be helpful for the assessment of nitrogen budgets in the WLF zone to eutrophication in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission from Freshwater Ecosystem)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analysis of Existing Equations for Calculating the Settling Velocity
Water 2021, 13(14), 1987; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141987 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 916
Abstract
The settling velocity of sediment is one of the essential parameters in studying freshwater reservoirs and transporting sediment in flowing water, mainly when the suspension is the dominant process. Hence, their quantitative measurements are crucial. An error during the prediction of the settling [...] Read more.
The settling velocity of sediment is one of the essential parameters in studying freshwater reservoirs and transporting sediment in flowing water, mainly when the suspension is the dominant process. Hence, their quantitative measurements are crucial. An error during the prediction of the settling velocity may be increased by a factor of three or more in the estimation of the suspended load transport in the flowing water. Despite its significance, obtaining its real value in situ is practically impossible, and it is usually derived via laboratory tests or anticipated by empirical formulas. Numerous equations are available to calculate the settling velocity of the particle. However, it is exceedingly difficult to choose the best method when giving a specific solution for the same problem. Hence, a review of the existing equations is required. In this study, extensive data on settling velocity is collected from the literature, and previously proposed equations are analysed using graphical and statistical analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission from Freshwater Ecosystem)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Influence of Hydropower and Coal Consumption on Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Comparison between China and India
Water 2021, 13(10), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101387 - 16 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1206
Abstract
This study mainly aims to investigate carbon status according to the Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH) in developing countries such as India and China based on annual time series data from 1980 to 2016. The recently developed bootstrap autoregressive distributed lag procedure is applied [...] Read more.
This study mainly aims to investigate carbon status according to the Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH) in developing countries such as India and China based on annual time series data from 1980 to 2016. The recently developed bootstrap autoregressive distributed lag procedure is applied to observe the long-run effect of FDI, hydropower, and coal-based fossil fuel consumption on three repressive measures of carbon emissions. The empirical results of the analysis show that hydropower and coal consumption lead to an upsurge in carbon emissions and the size of the carbon footprint in China. Similarly, Chinese FDI increases the carbon footprint. Moreover, Indian FDI and coal consumption accelerate carbon emissions while hydropower has no impact on environmental degradation. These results suggest that the PHH exists in China and India and that the validity of the PHH varies according to differing carbon indicators. Based on the empirical results, effective policy practices can be implemented by replacing coal and hydropower with more effective renewable energy sources and allowing foreign investors to pursue environmental concerns in the fight against environmental degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission from Freshwater Ecosystem)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Greenhouse Gases Trade-Off from Ponds: An Overview of Emission Process and Their Driving Factors
Water 2022, 14(6), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060970 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 670
Abstract
Inland water bodies (particularly ponds) emit a significant amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs), particularly methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and a comparatively low amount of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. In recent decades, ponds (<10,000 m [...] Read more.
Inland water bodies (particularly ponds) emit a significant amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs), particularly methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and a comparatively low amount of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. In recent decades, ponds (<10,000 m2) probably account for about 1/3rd of the global lake perimeter and are considered a hotspot of GHG emissions. High nutrients and waterlogged conditions provide an ideal environment for CH4 production and emission. The rate of emissions differs according to climatic regions and is influenced by several biotic and abiotic factors, such as temperature, nutrients (C, N, & P), pH, dissolved oxygen, sediments, water depth, etc. Moreover, micro and macro planktons play a significant role in CO2 and CH4 emissions from ponds systems. Generally, in freshwater bodies, the produced N2O diffuses in the water and is converted into N2 gas through different biological processes. There are several other factors and mechanisms which significantly affect the CH4 and CO2 emission rate from ponds and need a comprehensive evaluation. This study aims to develop a decisive understanding of GHG emissions mechanisms, processes, and methods of measurement from ponds. Key factors affecting the emissions rate will also be discussed. This review will be highly useful for the environmentalists, policymakers, and water resources planners and managers to take suitable mitigation measures in advance so that the climatic impact could be reduced in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission from Freshwater Ecosystem)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from ponds: A comprehensive review of processes, mechanism and their driving factors
Authors: Sandeep K. Malyan1; Amit Kumar2; Ram Kishor Fagodiya3; Smita S. Kumar4; Amit Kumar5*; Zhiguo Yu5; Devendra Kumar6
Affiliation:
1 Research Management and Outreach Division, National Institute of Hydrology, Jalvigyan Bhawan, Roorkee, Uttarakhand-247667, India; [email protected]
2 Central Muga Eri Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Jorhat, Assam 785000, India; [email protected]
3 Division of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana 132001, India; [email protected]
4 Department of Environmental Sciences, J.C. Bose University of Science and Technology YMCA Faridabad, India; [email protected]
5 School of Hydrology and Water Resources, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China; [email protected] 6 Amity Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Safety and Management, Amity University Noida, Uttar Pradesh-201301, India; [email protected] *Corresponding author: [email protected] (A.K)
Abstract: 
Inland water bodies (particularly, ponds) emit a significant amount of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. In recent decades, ponds (<10000 m2) probably account for about 1/3rd of the global lake perimeter and are considered hotspots for greenhouse gas (GHGs; especially, CH4 and CO2) emission. High nutrients and waterlogged conditions provide an ideal environment for CH4 production and emission. The rate of emissions was differed according to climatic regions and is influenced by several biotic and abiotic factors like temperature, water nutrients, pH, dissolved oxygen, sediments, water depth, etc. Further, higher CO2 fluxes were associated with calcium, silicon, while higher CH4 fluxes were associated with total organic carbon and total phosphorus. Micro and macro plankton play a significant role in CO2 and CH4 emissions from ponds systems. There were several other factors and mechanism which significantly affect the CH4 and CO2 rate from ponds and need a comprehensive evaluation. This study aims to develop a decisive understanding of GHGs emission mechanism, processes from ponds, along with their key factors affecting emissions rate. Besides, uncertainty & limitation of GHG measurements, and future directions have also been discussed. This review will be highly useful for the environmentalist, policymakers, and water resources planners & managers to take suitable mitigation measures in advance so that its climatic impacts could be reduced in the future.

 

Title: Eco-hydrological Appraisal with Environmental Quality of Freshwater Ecosystems
Authors: Ramachandra T V1,2,3**, Vinay S1,4, Asulabha K S1, Sincy V1, Bharath H Aithal1,4
Affiliation:
1.Energy & Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences (CES), Indian Institute of Science
2 Centre for Sustainable Technologies (astra), Indian Institute of Science (IISc)
3. Centre for infrastructure, Sustainable Transportation and Urban Planning (CiSTUP), IISc
4. Ranbir and Chitra Gupta School of Infrastructure Design and Management (RCG SIDM), IIT-Kharagpur, Web URL: http://ces.iisc.ernet.in/energy;
http://ces.iisc.ernet.in/foss http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5528-1565
*Corresponding Author: [email protected]; [email protected]
Abstract: Rivers are important source of freshwater that cater needs of society. The burgeoning population and the consequent land use changes have been altering the biophysical and chemical integrity, flow characteristics, etc. This necessitates understanding land use dynamics, flow dynamics, hydrologic regime and water quality of riverine ecosystems. Assessment of land use dynamics in the Aghanashini river basin reveal the decline of vegetation cover from 86.06% (1973) to 50.78% (2018). Computation of Eco-Hydrological Indices (EHI) highlights that the sub-watersheds with native vegetation had higher infiltration (and storage) compared to the water loss due to evapotranspiration and meet the societal demand. Computation of Water Quality Index helped to assess overall water quality across seasons. The study provides insights of hydrology linkages with the catchment landscape dynamics to the hydrologists and land use managers for the prudent management of river basins to address the issues of water stress through watershed treatment involving afforestation, appropriate cropping, soil conservation measures, etc.

Back to TopTop