Special Issue "Coastal Dynamic and Evolution"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Oceans and Coastal Zones".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Giorgio Anfuso
SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Dep. Earth Sciences, Faculty of Marine Sciences, University of Cádiz, Spain.
Interests: coastal geomorphology; coastal short-term evolution; disturbance depth; seasonal evolution; historical changes
Dr. Angela Rizzo

Guest Editor
REgional Models and geo-Hydrological Impacts, Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, Italy
Interests: coastal geomorphology; coastal short-term evolution; historical changes; sea level rise; climate change

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is devoted to geomorphological studies on coastal dynamic and evolution. Results of field studies, observations, and surveys on morphological changes of the shoreline and/or dune system at different time scales, from hours, days, to months and years, as well as historical coastal evolution investigations, carried out by means of aerial photos and/or satellite images, and research results concerning coastal changes at scale of decades/centuries, linked to past and future sea level variations and/or land tectonic movements, are welcome. Study cases have to investigate relatively large spatial areas, i.e., coastal sectors of tens of kilometers. Last, investigations on coastal wave climates and the characterization of marine storms in a context of climate change scenarios are also of interest.

Prof. Dr. Giorgio Anfuso
Dr. Angela Rizzo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • beach surveys
  • disturbance depth
  • aerial photographs
  • satellite images
  • sea level rise
  • wave climate
  • marine storms

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Dune Systems’ Characterization and Evolution in the Andalusia Mediterranean Coast (Spain)
Water 2020, 12(8), 2094; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082094 - 23 Jul 2020
Abstract
This paper deals with the characterization and evolution of dune systems along the Mediterranean coast of Andalusia, in the South of Spain, a first step to assess their relevant value in coastal flood protection and in the determination of sound management strategies to [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the characterization and evolution of dune systems along the Mediterranean coast of Andalusia, in the South of Spain, a first step to assess their relevant value in coastal flood protection and in the determination of sound management strategies to protect such valuable ecological systems. Different dune types were mapped as well as dune toe position and fragmentation, which favors dune sensitivity to storms’ impacts, and human occupation and evolution from 1977 to 2001 and from 2001 to 2016. Within a GIS (Geographic Information System) project, 53 dune systems were mapped that summed a total length of ca. 106 km in 1977, differentiating three dune environments: (i) Embryo and mobile dunes (Type I), (ii) grass-fixed dunes (Type II) and (iii) stabilized dunes (Type III). A general decrease in dunes’ surfaces was recorded in the 1977–2001 period (−7.5 × 106 m2), especially in Málaga and Almería provinces, and linked to dunes’ fragmentation and the increase of anthropic occupation (+2.3 × 106 m2). During the 2001–2016 period, smaller changes in the level of fragmentation and in dunes’ surfaces were observed. An increase of dunes’ surfaces was only observed on stable or accreting beaches, both in natural and anthropic areas (usually updrift of ports). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Dynamic and Evolution)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Tsunami Propagation and Flooding in Sicilian Coastal Areas by Means of a Weakly Dispersive Boussinesq Model
Water 2020, 12(5), 1448; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051448 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper addresses the tsunami propagation and subsequent coastal areas flooding by means of a depth-integrated numerical model. Such an approach is fundamental in order to assess the inundation hazard in coastal areas generated by seismogenic tsunami. In this study we adopted, an [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the tsunami propagation and subsequent coastal areas flooding by means of a depth-integrated numerical model. Such an approach is fundamental in order to assess the inundation hazard in coastal areas generated by seismogenic tsunami. In this study we adopted, an interdisciplinary approach, in order to consider the tsunami propagation, relates both to geomorphological characteristics of the coast and the bathymetry. In order to validate the numerical model, comparisons with results of other studies were performed. This manuscript presents first applicative results achieved using the weakly dispersive Boussinesq model in the field of tsunami propagation and coastal inundation. Ionic coast of Sicily (Italy) was chosen as a case study due to its high level of exposure to tsunamis. Indeed, the tsunami could be generated by an earthquake in the external Calabrian arc or in the Hellenic arc, both active seismic zones. Finally, in order to demonstrate the possibility to give indications to local authorities, an inundation map, over a small area, was produced by means of the numerical model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Dynamic and Evolution)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Spatial Variability of Beach Impact from Post-Tropical Cyclone Katia (2011) on Northern Ireland’s North Coast
Water 2020, 12(5), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051380 - 13 May 2020
Abstract
In northern Europe, beach erosion, coastal flooding and associated damages to engineering structures are linked to mid-latitude storms that form through cyclogenesis and post-tropical cyclones, when a tropical cyclone moves north from its tropical origin. The present work analyses the hydrodynamic forcing and [...] Read more.
In northern Europe, beach erosion, coastal flooding and associated damages to engineering structures are linked to mid-latitude storms that form through cyclogenesis and post-tropical cyclones, when a tropical cyclone moves north from its tropical origin. The present work analyses the hydrodynamic forcing and morphological changes observed at three beaches in the north coast of Northern Ireland (Magilligan, Portrush West’s southern and northern sectors, and Whiterocks), prior to, during, and immediately after post-tropical cyclone Katia. Katia was the second major hurricane of the active 2011 Atlantic hurricane season and impacted the British Isles on the 12–13 September 2011. During the Katia event, offshore wave buoys recorded values in excess of 5 m at the peak of the storm on the 13 September, but nearshore significant wave height ranged from 1 to 3 m, reflecting relevant wave energy dissipation across an extensive and shallow continental shelf. This was especially so at Magilligan, where widespread refraction and attenuation led to reduced shore-normal energy fluxes and very minor morphological changes. Morphological changes were restricted to upper beach erosion and flattening of the foreshore. Longshore transport was evident at Portrush West, with the northern sector experiencing erosion while the southern sector accreted, inducing a short-term rotational response in this embayment. In Whiterocks, berm erosion contributed to a general beach flattening and this resulted in an overall accretion due to sediment influx from the updrift western areas. Taking into account that the post-tropical cyclone Katia produced £100 m ($157 million, 2011 USD) in damage in the United Kingdom alone, the results of the present study represent a contribution to the general database of post-tropical storm response on Northern European coastlines, informing coastal response prediction and damage mitigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Dynamic and Evolution)
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Open AccessArticle
Mangrove Forests Evolution and Threats in the Caribbean Sea of Colombia
Water 2020, 12(4), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041113 - 15 Apr 2020
Abstract
Colombia has approximately 379,954 hectares of mangrove forests distributed along the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea coasts. Such forests are experiencing the highest annual rate of loss recorded in South America and, in the last three decades, approximately 40,000 hectares have been [...] Read more.
Colombia has approximately 379,954 hectares of mangrove forests distributed along the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea coasts. Such forests are experiencing the highest annual rate of loss recorded in South America and, in the last three decades, approximately 40,000 hectares have been greatly affected by natural and, especially, human impacts. This study determined, by the use of Landsat multispectral satellite images, the evolution of three mangrove forests located in the Colombian Caribbean Sea: Malloquín, Totumo, and La Virgen swamps. Mangrove forest at Mallorquín Swamp recorded a loss of 15 ha in the period of 1985–2018, associated with alterations in forest hydrology, illegal logging, urban growth, and coastal erosion. Totumo Swamp lost 301 ha in the period 1985–2018 associated with changes in hydrological conditions, illegal logging, and increased agricultural and livestock uses. La Virgen Swamp presented a loss of 31 ha in the period of 2013–2018 that was linked to the construction of a roadway, alterations of hydrological conditions, illegal logging, and soil urbanization, mainly for tourist purposes. Although Colombian legislation has made efforts to protect mangrove ecosystems, human activities are the main cause of mangrove degradation, and thus it is mandatory for the local population to understand the value of the ecosystem services provided by mangroves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Dynamic and Evolution)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of a Reef Flat on Beach Profiles Along the Atlantic Coast of Morocco
Water 2020, 12(3), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030790 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The North Atlantic coast of Morocco is characterised by a flat rocky outcrop in the south (Asilah Beach) and a sandy beach free of rocky outcrops in the north (Charf el-Akab). These natural beaches were monitored for a period of two years (April [...] Read more.
The North Atlantic coast of Morocco is characterised by a flat rocky outcrop in the south (Asilah Beach) and a sandy beach free of rocky outcrops in the north (Charf el-Akab). These natural beaches were monitored for a period of two years (April 2005–January 2007) and two different profiles (one for each beach) were analysed based on differences in the substrate. Topographic data were analysed using statistics and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) to determine beach slope and volumetric changes over time. Several morphologic phenomena were identified (accretion/erosion and seasonal tilting of beach profiles around different hinge points), attesting to their importance in explaining variability in the data. Periods of accretion were similar in both profiles, but the volumetric rate of change was faster in the sand-rich (SR) profile than in the reef flat (RF) profile. Moreover, the erosion rate for the SR profile was greater than the RF profile (135.18 m3/year vs. 55.39 m3/year). Therefore, the RF acted as a geological control on the evolution of its profile because of wave energy attenuation. Thus, special attention should be given to the RF profile, which has larger slopes, less amounts of mobilised sand, and slower erosion/accretion rates than the SR profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Dynamic and Evolution)
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Open AccessArticle
The Origin of Sand and Its Colour on the South-Eastern Coast of Spain: Implications for Erosion Management
Water 2020, 12(2), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020377 - 30 Jan 2020
Abstract
Sand colour can give important information about mineral composition and, consequently, sediment source areas and input systems. Beach appearance, which is mostly linked to sand colour, has a relevant economic function in tourist areas. In this paper, the colour of 66 sand samples, [...] Read more.
Sand colour can give important information about mineral composition and, consequently, sediment source areas and input systems. Beach appearance, which is mostly linked to sand colour, has a relevant economic function in tourist areas. In this paper, the colour of 66 sand samples, collected along both natural and nourished beaches in the western Mediterranean coast of Spain, were assessed in CIEL*a*b* 1976 colour space. The obtained results showed relevant differences between natural and artificially nourished beaches. The colour of many nourished beaches generally differs from the native one because the origin of the injected sand is different. The native sand colour coordinates’ range is: L* (40.16–63.71); a* (−1.47–6.40); b* (7.48–18.06). On the contrary, for nourished beaches’ the colour range is: L* (47.66–70.75); a*(0.72‒5.16); b* (5.82–18.82). Impacts of beach nourishment on the native sand colour were studied at San Juan beach, the most popular one along the study area. Nourishment works were performed after severe erosion, usually linked to anthropic activities/structures and storm events, but also to increase beach width and hence benefit tourism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Dynamic and Evolution)
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Open AccessArticle
Documenting a Century of Coastline Change along Central California and Associated Challenges: From the Qualitative to the Quantitative
Water 2019, 11(12), 2648; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122648 - 15 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Wave erosion has moved coastal cliffs and bluffs landward over the centuries. Now climate change-induced sea-level rise (SLR) and the changes in wave action are accelerating coastline retreat around the world. Documenting the erosion of cliffed coasts and projecting the rate of coastline [...] Read more.
Wave erosion has moved coastal cliffs and bluffs landward over the centuries. Now climate change-induced sea-level rise (SLR) and the changes in wave action are accelerating coastline retreat around the world. Documenting the erosion of cliffed coasts and projecting the rate of coastline retreat under future SLR scenarios are more challenging than historical and future shoreline change studies along low-lying sandy beaches. The objective of this research was to study coastal erosion of the West Cliff Drive area in Santa Cruz along the Central California Coast and identify the challenges in coastline change analysis. We investigated the geological history, geomorphic differences, and documented cliff retreat to assess coastal erosion qualitatively. We also conducted a quantitative assessment of cliff retreat through extracting and analyzing the coastline position at three different times (1953, 1975, and 2018). The results showed that the total retreat of the West Cliff Drive coastline over 65 years ranges from 0.3 to 32 m, and the maximum cliff retreat rate was 0.5 m/year. Geometric errors, the complex profiles of coastal cliffs, and irregularities in the processes of coastal erosion, including the undercutting of the base of the cliff and formation of caves, were some of the identified challenges in documenting historical coastline retreat. These can each increase the uncertainty of calculated retreat rates. Reducing the uncertainties in retreat rates is an essential initial step in projecting cliff and bluff retreat under future SLR more accurately and in developing a practical adaptive management plan to cope with the impacts of coastline change along this highly populated edge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Dynamic and Evolution)
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Open AccessArticle
Mathematical Reconstruction of Eroded Beach Ridges at the Ombrone River Delta
Water 2019, 11(11), 2281; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112281 - 31 Oct 2019
Abstract
Several remotely sensed images, acquired by different sensors on satellite, airplane, and drone, were used to trace the beach ridges pattern present on the delta of the River Ombrone. A more detailed map of these morphologies, than those present in the literature, was [...] Read more.
Several remotely sensed images, acquired by different sensors on satellite, airplane, and drone, were used to trace the beach ridges pattern present on the delta of the River Ombrone. A more detailed map of these morphologies, than those present in the literature, was obtained, especially at the delta apex, where beach ridges elevation in minor. Beach ridges crests, highlighted through image enhancement using ENVI 4.5 and a DTM based on LiDAR data, were then processed with ArcGIS 9.3 software. Starting from this map, a method to reconstruct beach ridges segments deleted by the transformations of the territory is proposed in this paper. The best crest-lines fitting functions were calculated through interpolation of their points with Curve Expert software, and further extrapolated to reconstruct the ridges morphology where human activity, riverbed migration, or coastal erosion eliminated them. This allowed to reconstruct the ridges pattern also offshore the present delta apex, where the shoreline retreated approximately 900 m in the last 150 years. Results can be further used to implement conceptual and numerical models of delta evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Dynamic and Evolution)
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Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Sea Level Rise and River Discharge on the Hydrodynamics Characteristics of Jakarta Bay (Indonesia)
Water 2019, 11(7), 1384; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071384 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Jakarta city has been vulnerable to sea level rise and flooding for many years. A Giant Seawall (GSW) was proposed in Jakarta Bay to protect the city. The impacts of sea level rise and river discharge on the tidal dynamics in Jakarta Bay [...] Read more.
Jakarta city has been vulnerable to sea level rise and flooding for many years. A Giant Seawall (GSW) was proposed in Jakarta Bay to protect the city. The impacts of sea level rise and river discharge on the tidal dynamics in Jakarta Bay and flooding areas in Jakarta city were investigated using the finite-volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM). Model results showed that the bay is diurnally dominated by the K1 tidal component. The diurnal tides propagate westward, while the semidiurnal tides propagate eastward in the bay. The rise of sea level increases the diurnal tidal component and the inundation areas due to the increased tidal forcing: when considering a sea level rise of 0.6 m, the K1 amplitude increases by ~1% (0.25 cm) near the coastline and the current magnitude increases by 16.6% (0.05 m/s). The inundation area increases with the sea level rise in the low land elevation areas occurring near the coastlines: the inundation area increased by 29.68 km2 (7.1%) with a sea level rise of 0.6 m. The increase of river discharge amplified the diurnal tidal component as well as the inundation areas at the river mouth due to increased fluvial forcing: if 10 times the mean river discharge occurs, the K1 amplitude increases by ~1% (0.25 cm) and the current magnitude increases by 100% (0.4 m/s), and the inundation areas increase by 26.61 km2 (6.2%). The K1 tidal phase remains almost unchanged under both the sea level rise and river discharge conditions. The combined increase of sea level rise and the river discharge amplifies the inundation areas and the tidal currents due to increased tidal and fluvial forcing. The construction of GSW would decrease the tidal prism and dissipation effects of the bay, thus slightly increasing the K1 amplitude of the tidal level: by less than 1% (0.2 cm). There would be no significant change of phase lag for the K1 component. Although this study is site specific, the findings could be applied more widely to any open-type bays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Dynamic and Evolution)
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Open AccessArticle
Key Aesthetic Appeal Concepts of Coastal Dunes and Forests on the Example of the Curonian Spit (Lithuania)
Water 2019, 11(6), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061193 - 07 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The main objective of the study was to elicit key concepts determining the aesthetic appeal of coastal dunes and forests using the example of the Curonian Spit (Lithuania). The mixed approach included three methods: (1) paired comparison survey of 45 coastal landscapes, (2) [...] Read more.
The main objective of the study was to elicit key concepts determining the aesthetic appeal of coastal dunes and forests using the example of the Curonian Spit (Lithuania). The mixed approach included three methods: (1) paired comparison survey of 45 coastal landscapes, (2) semi-structured interviews with local inhabitants, and (3) eliciting the key aesthetic appeal concepts by a panel of experts using the Delphi technique. The results of the paired comparison survey show that the most aesthetically appealing landscapes of the Curonian Spit are: (1) white mobile dunes, (2) white dunes with grey (grassland) dunes in the background, and (3) grey dunes with white dunes in the background. The local inhabitants considered the concept of visual coherence as the best, explaining the aesthetic appeal of the dune and the forest landscapes on the spit. The experts of the Delphi survey considered that the concepts of stewardship, naturalness, imageability, and visual scale best define the scenic appeal. The appeal of the least attractive landscapes, in their opinion, was shaped by the concepts of naturalness, disturbance, and complexity. We conclude that the notions of visitors, local inhabitants and experts differ on the aesthetic appeal concepts of coastal dunes and forests, suggesting potential management conflicts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Dynamic and Evolution)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensitivity of Storm-Induced Hazards in a Highly Curvilinear Coastline to Changing Storm Directions. The Tordera Delta Case (NW Mediterranean)
Water 2019, 11(4), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040747 - 10 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Extreme coastal storms, especially when incident in areas with densely urbanized coastlines, are one of the most damaging forms of natural disasters. The main hazards originating from coastal storms are inundation and erosion, and their magnitude and extent needs to be accurately assessed [...] Read more.
Extreme coastal storms, especially when incident in areas with densely urbanized coastlines, are one of the most damaging forms of natural disasters. The main hazards originating from coastal storms are inundation and erosion, and their magnitude and extent needs to be accurately assessed for effective management of coastal risk. The use of state-of-art morphodynamic process-based models is becoming standard, with most being applied to straight coastlines with gentle slopes. In this study, the XBeach model is used to assess the coastal response of a curvilinear sensitive deltaic coast with coarse sediment and steep slopes (intermediate-reflective conditions). The tested hypothesis is that changes in wave direction may cause large variations in the magnitude of storm-induced hazards. The model is tested against field data available for the Sant Esteve Storm (December 2008), obtaining an overall BSS (Brier Skill Score) score on the emerged morphological response of 0.68. Later, the 2008 event is used as baseline scenario to create synthetic events covering the range from NE to S. The obtained results show that storm-induced hazards along a highly curvilinear coast are very sensitive to changes in wave direction. Therefore, even under climate scenarios of relatively steady storminess, a potential shift in wave direction may significantly change hazard conditions and thus, need to be accounted for in robust damage risk assessments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Dynamic and Evolution)
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Open AccessArticle
Shoreline Dynamics and Evaluation of Cultural Heritage Sites on the Shores of Large Reservoirs: Kuibyshev Reservoir, Russian Federation
Water 2019, 11(3), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030591 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Over the last decades, the number of artificial reservoirs around the world has considerably increased. This leads to the formation of new shorelines, which are highly dynamic regarding erosion and deposition processes. The present work aims to assess the direct human action along [...] Read more.
Over the last decades, the number of artificial reservoirs around the world has considerably increased. This leads to the formation of new shorelines, which are highly dynamic regarding erosion and deposition processes. The present work aims to assess the direct human action along the largest reservoir in Europe—Kuibyshev (Russian Federation) and to analyse threatened cultural heritage sites from the coastal area, with the help of historical maps, UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle), and topographic surveys. This approach is a necessity, due to the oscillating water level, local change of climate, and to the continuous increasing of natural hazards (in this case coastal erosion) all over the world. Many studies are approaching coastal areas of the seas and oceans, yet there are fewer studies regarding the inland coastal areas of large artificial reservoirs. Out of the total number of 1289 cultural heritage sites around the Kuibyshev reservoir, only 90 sites are not affected by the dam building; the rest had completely disappeared under the reservoir’s water. The scenario of increasing and decreasing water level within the reservoir has shown the fact that there must be water oscillations greater than ±1 m in order to affect the cultural heritage sites. The results show that the coastal area is highly dynamic and that the complete destruction of the last remaining Palaeolithic site (Beganchik) from the shoreline of Kuibyshev reservoir is imminent, and immediate mitigation measures must be undertaken. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Dynamic and Evolution)
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Open AccessTechnical Note
Influence of Different Sieving Methods on Estimation of Sand Size Parameters
Water 2019, 11(5), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050879 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Sieving is one of the most used operational methods to determine sand size parameters which are essential to analyze coastal dynamics. However, the influence of hand versus mechanical shaking methods has not yet been studied. Herein, samples were taken from inside the hopper [...] Read more.
Sieving is one of the most used operational methods to determine sand size parameters which are essential to analyze coastal dynamics. However, the influence of hand versus mechanical shaking methods has not yet been studied. Herein, samples were taken from inside the hopper of a trailing suction dredger and sieved by hand with sieves of 10 and 20 cm diameters on board the dredger. Afterwards, these same samples were sieved with a mechanical shaker in the laboratory on land. The results showed differences for the main size parameters D50, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis. Amongst the main results, it should be noted that the highest values for D50 and kurtosis were given by the small sieves method. On the other hand, the lowest values were given by the mechanical shaker method in the laboratory. Furthermore, standard deviation and skewness did not seem to be affected by the sieving method which means that all the grainsize distribution was shifted but the shape remained unchanged. The few samples that do not follow these patterns have a higher percentage of shells. Finally and definitely, the small sieves should be rejected as a sieving method aboard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Dynamic and Evolution)
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