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Special Issue "Applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Marine and Offshore Engineering"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 January 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Ling Qian

School of Computing, Mathematics and Digital Technology, The Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD, England, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: CFD modelling; numerical wave tanks; Cartesian cut cell method; overset grid; wave structure interaction; marine renewable energy; computational aerodynamcis and hydrodynamics
Guest Editor
Prof. Hanbin Gu

School of Naval Architecture & Mechanical-electrical Engineering, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, Zhejiang, 316022, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: numerical wave simulation; level set method; wave interaction with structure; renewable ocean energy; coastal reservoir; ocean engineering
Guest Editor
Dr. Zhihua Ma

School of Computing, Mathematics and Digital Technology, The Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD, England, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: wave breaking simulation; multiphase flow modelling; hydrodynamic impact; high-speed compressible flows; parallel computing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last few decades, with the constant advances in computer technology and numerical techniques for solving underlying equations for free surface flow, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), in the form of numerical wave tank (NWT), has increasingly been adopted for and has become an integral part of the design and testing of new marine and offshore structures. A large number of commercial, in-house and open source CFD codes exist for the specific flow problem of wave structure interactions. However, due to the non-linear and even violent nature of the flow problem, which involves complex moving/deforming free surfaces, wave breaking and air entrainment, flow turbulence and fluid compressibility effects as well as their interaction with moving/floating solid or compliant structures, further improvements to the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the underlying flow solvers, including their efficient implementation on modern high-performance computing platforms are still required before they can be routinely applied, as a design tool, for real engineering practices.

The aim of this Special Issue is to disseminate the latest advancement in CFD techniques for flow problems arising from marine and offshore applications. A particular focus will be on the development and applications of high-fidelity and efficient numerical techniques for emerging offshore and marine engineering problems, e.g., modelling of wave interaction with multi-use platforms including offshore renewable energy and aquaculture devices. The scope of the special issue will include, but not limited to, the following topics:

  • Review of the latest development in offshore and marine CFD;
  • Novel CFD methods (mesh or particle based) for free surface flows;
  • Violent wave impact on coastal and offshore structures including aeration and fluid compressibility effects;
  • Modelling of novel offshore renewable energy devices and multi-use offshore platforms;
  • Development and application of OpenFoam and other open sources CFD codes for offshore and marine engineering problems;
  • Wave interaction with floating and/or flexible structures (hydro-elasticity);
  • Integrated numerical wave tank through effective code coupling;
  • Implementation of high performance computing in CFD.

Dr. Ling Qian
Prof. Hanbin Gu
Dr. Zhihua Ma
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
  • Numerical wave tanks
  • Wave impact on offshore and marine structures
  • Breaking waves and air entrainment
  • Openfoam
  • High performance computing
  • Offshore and marine renewable energy devices
  • Ship hydrodynamics and seakeeping
  • Sloshing waves
  • Wave interaction with compliant structures

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Hydrodynamic Performance Analysis of the Vertical Axis Twin-Rotor Tidal Current Turbine
Water 2018, 10(11), 1694; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111694
Received: 28 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 17 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7096 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The goal of this manuscript is to investigate the influence of relative distance between the twin rotors on the hydrodynamic performance of the vertical axis twin-rotor tidal current turbine. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations based on commercial software ANSYS-CFX have been performed to
[...] Read more.
The goal of this manuscript is to investigate the influence of relative distance between the twin rotors on the hydrodynamic performance of the vertical axis twin-rotor tidal current turbine. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations based on commercial software ANSYS-CFX have been performed to enhance the understanding of interactions between the twin-rotors. The interactions between the twin rotors are known to have increased the power output efficiency as a whole, and it is, therefore, of great significance to undertake deeper research. The simulation results are found to be consistent with similar research results in the literature in some aspects. The simulation results of stand-alone turbine and twin rotors are compared from three different aspects, including blade forces, power output efficiency and wake flow field. The results showed that the cyclic variations tendency of blade force coefficients of twin rotors is close to that of the stand-alone turbine. The average power output efficiency of the twin-rotors system is higher than that of the stand-alone turbine. The interactions between the turbines increase the power output of the twin turbine system as whole in a wide relative distance range. However, smaller relative distance between the twin rotors does not mean a bigger power output efficiency of such a system. The power out efficiency of such a system would decrease when the relative distance between the twin rotors exceeds the critical point. The power output of the twin rotors reaches the peak value when the ratio between the two main axis distance and diameter of the turbine is around 9/4. This research can provide a reference for the design and development of larger tidal power stations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Liquid Sloshing Damping in an Accelerated Tank Using a Novel Slot-Baffle Design
Water 2018, 10(11), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111565
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
PDF Full-text (2814 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A slot-baffle design used in water treatment tanks previously developed by the authors is used to suppress sloshing effects in an accelerated tank. This new application is another example of the versatility of the slot-baffle design in inducing turbulence in fluid flow systems,
[...] Read more.
A slot-baffle design used in water treatment tanks previously developed by the authors is used to suppress sloshing effects in an accelerated tank. This new application is another example of the versatility of the slot-baffle design in inducing turbulence in fluid flow systems, which has numerous uses in engineering applications. Large amplitude surface waves in a harmonically excited tank are simulated using a second-order accurate numerical model in OpenFOAM. The verification of the numerical model is performed by comparing the numerical results with existing laboratory measurements, which show a favorable agreement. Various slot configurations are studied in order to evaluate the damping performance during the external excitation of the tank. It is shown that the present design shows an effective dissipation performance in a broad range of oscillation frequencies, while 88% of the internal kinetic energy of the liquid is dissipated over thirty oscillation periods for the resonance case. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Understanding Morphodynamic Changes of a Tidal River Confluence through Field Measurements and Numerical Modeling
Water 2018, 10(10), 1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101424
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
A confluence is a natural component in river and channel networks. This study deals, through field and numerical studies, with alluvial behaviors of a confluence affected by both river run-off and strong tides. Field measurements were conducted along the rivers including the confluence.
[...] Read more.
A confluence is a natural component in river and channel networks. This study deals, through field and numerical studies, with alluvial behaviors of a confluence affected by both river run-off and strong tides. Field measurements were conducted along the rivers including the confluence. Field data show that the changes in flow velocity and sediment concentration are not always in phase with each other. The concentration shows a general trend of decrease from the river mouth to the confluence. For a given location, the tides affect both the sediment concentration and transport. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of suspended load was set up to illustrate the combined effects of run-off and tidal flows. Modeled cases included the flood and ebb tides in a wet season. Typical features examined included tidal flow fields, bed shear stress, and scour evolution in the confluence. The confluence migration pattern of scour is dependent on the interaction between the river currents and tidal flows. The flood tides are attributable to the suspended load deposition in the confluence, while the ebb tides in combination with run-offs lead to erosion. The flood tides play a dominant role in the morphodynamic changes of the confluence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Solitary Wave Generation and Propagation under Hypergravity Fields
Water 2018, 10(10), 1381; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101381
Received: 22 July 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
PDF Full-text (4559 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The traditional small-scale marine engineering experiments that are performed under normal gravity fields always encounter one stubborn difficulty related to full-scale prototype models. However, the difficulty can be resolved by centrifuge experiments that can generate hypergravity fields in which the centrifuge acceleration is
[...] Read more.
The traditional small-scale marine engineering experiments that are performed under normal gravity fields always encounter one stubborn difficulty related to full-scale prototype models. However, the difficulty can be resolved by centrifuge experiments that can generate hypergravity fields in which the centrifuge acceleration is many times greater than the gravity acceleration. In this study, the generation of solitary waves in hypergravity fields is proposed using solitary wavemaker theory and scaling laws. A series of case simulations are performed under four different gravity fields (1 g, 30 g, 50 g, and 100 g, where g is the gravity acceleration). These cases are presented and discussed in detail to understand and verify the scaling laws and the stability of the solitary wave during its generation and propagation within hypergravity fields. The numerical results show that the waveform and the static pressure field that are obtained during the simulations performed under different gravity fields agree well at the macroscale. Since the velocity field is sensitive to wave attenuation, time lag, fluid viscosity and surface tension, some discrepancies can be found in the velocity field. It should be noted that the fluid viscosity and surface tension have influence on the wave attenuation. However, wave attenuation and time lag can be offset by a well-designed incident wave condition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study on the Hydrodynamic Resistance Moment of Horizontally-Framed Miter Gates
Water 2018, 10(10), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101345
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
PDF Full-text (6882 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Generally, the operation of the horizontally-framed miter gate in a ship lock should consider the effects of hydrodynamic resistance. If over-filling or over-emptying exists and the miter gate opens with reverse head, the hydrodynamic resistance will increase rapidly, endangering the operation safety of
[...] Read more.
Generally, the operation of the horizontally-framed miter gate in a ship lock should consider the effects of hydrodynamic resistance. If over-filling or over-emptying exists and the miter gate opens with reverse head, the hydrodynamic resistance will increase rapidly, endangering the operation safety of the miter gate. In order to study the operating characteristics of the miter gate, a prototype test is introduced in this paper. Results show that, during the filling or emptying process, when water levels at both sides of the miter gate are equal the first time, opening the gate in a timely manner can obviously avoid the influence of reverse head. Furthermore, a three-dimensional numerical model with a dynamic mesh is established for analyzing the hydrodynamic characteristics in different operating conditions. Results show that the peak value of operating load always occurs at the initial time, and the greater the submerged water depth, the larger the peak value. With the increasing of reverse head, the piston rods sustain a great compression, and the peak value appears at an early stage of gate opening. The results have a reference value for the design of a miter gate in the related engineering projects. Full article
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