Enhancing Planning in the Management Urban Water Systems to Increase Resilience

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 July 2024 | Viewed by 5461

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, 1700-111 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: water and energy efficiency; resilience; urban water systems, hydraulic modeling; performance assessment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, 1700-111 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: water smart management; resilience; urban water systems; infrastructure asset management; performance assessment; strategic planning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Urban water infrastructures are vital to cities. They are complex and vulnerable to climate events (e.g., extreme precipitation events, tidal effects, droughts, and heat waves) and other disruptive events (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis, urban floods, and cyclones). Enhancing the resilience of urban water infrastructures through new approaches for planning management of drinking water systems, wastewater, and stormwater systems is crucial for the future sustainability of these essential urban services.

With aging infrastructures and the need to improve water resources and energy efficiency while reducing the vulnerability to several uncertain events, urban water systems planning needs to be improved. The impact of a paradigm shift on resilience (e.g., decentralized solutions, the coexistence of multiple sources and networks of water for potable and non-potable uses, use of nature-based solutions) needs to be appropriately assessed in the planning process, as well as incorporation of uncertainty. This process involves proposing and demonstrating comprehensive approaches for the diagnosis, identification, and decision making for improvement measures, implementation, monitoring and revision relative to traditional techniques. Therefore, for this Special Issue, robust and well-tested methods that support the different stages of the planning process to improve resilience are of particular interest. Moreover, new approaches for scenario building and uncertainty modeling are fundamental to the planning process for resilience improvement, and straightforward methods will be appreciated.

Dr. Dália Cruz Loureiro
Dr. Maria Adriana Cardoso
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • assessment and diagnosis
  • planning
  • resilience measures
  • resilience
  • uncertainty modelling
  • urban water systems

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 6174 KiB  
Article
Integrating Uncertainty in Performance Assessment of Water Distribution Networks by Scenario Building
by Joana Carneiro, Dália Loureiro, Marta Cabral and Dídia Covas
Water 2024, 16(7), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16070977 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 487
Abstract
This paper presents and demonstrates a novel scenario-building methodology that integrates contextual and future time uncertainty into the performance assessment of water distribution networks (WDNs). A three-step approach is proposed: (i) System context analysis, identifying the main key factors that impact the WDN [...] Read more.
This paper presents and demonstrates a novel scenario-building methodology that integrates contextual and future time uncertainty into the performance assessment of water distribution networks (WDNs). A three-step approach is proposed: (i) System context analysis, identifying the main key factors that impact the WDN performance; (ii) Scenario definition, identifying the implicated WDN variables, describing its possible evolution, and conjugating them to further establish the reference scenario and the two most relevant and opposite ones; and (iii) Scenario modelling, simulating the WDN behaviour for those scenarios. The obtained spatial and temporal hydraulic results are further used to calculate performance metrics. The methodology is applied to a real WDN to assess resilience performance considering infrastructure asset robustness (real water loss performance indicator), service reliability (minimum pressure index), and service flexibility (network resilience index). A new formulation to assess the metric evolution over time is proposed, deducting the further-away performance results by using an uncertainty weight. The results demonstrate that the increase in metric amplitude for the opposite scenarios over time highlights future uncertainty, reflecting context uncertainty, and the comparison of metric spatial distribution (i.e., at the pipe/node levels) highlights critical areas with higher associated uncertainty. Full article
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13 pages, 3135 KiB  
Article
Water–Energy–Nutrients Nexus of Urban Environments
by Armando Silva-Afonso and Carla Pimentel-Rodrigues
Water 2024, 16(6), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16060904 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 763
Abstract
The objective of this article is to deepen knowledge about the existing connections, at the level of urban environments, between energy, water, and nutrients (or food). Energy and basic resources—water and food—are closely interconnected, which is why the water–energy–food nexus constitutes the essential [...] Read more.
The objective of this article is to deepen knowledge about the existing connections, at the level of urban environments, between energy, water, and nutrients (or food). Energy and basic resources—water and food—are closely interconnected, which is why the water–energy–food nexus constitutes the essential integrated approach to ensuring the sustainable development of humanity. This nexus is also valid in urban environments and can be adapted for buildings, interconnecting, in this case, water, energy, and nutrients. This article is a literature review in this area, intending to highlight the strong connections between water, energy, and nutrients at the level of buildings, integrating the results obtained in different studies and showing the global importance of this nexus. The water–energy relationship in buildings is already well known in terms of the production of domestic hot water or building pumping, for example, but it turns out that it goes far beyond this interrelationship, also having implications for public networks. Regarding the water–nutrients nexus in urban environments, it can play an important role in terms of food security for humanity, especially regarding the possibility of recovering phosphorus in buildings. Full article
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32 pages, 15519 KiB  
Article
A Framework for Operational Management of Urban Water Systems to Improve Resilience
by Jorge Cardoso-Gonçalves and José Tentúgal-Valente
Water 2024, 16(1), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010154 - 30 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1033
Abstract
Optimizing the management of hydraulic infrastructures that support water supply, wastewater, and stormwater drainage can increase the efficiency of these systems. A framework for operational management of urban water systems allows for robust management, which contributes to the system’s overall resilience. A methodology [...] Read more.
Optimizing the management of hydraulic infrastructures that support water supply, wastewater, and stormwater drainage can increase the efficiency of these systems. A framework for operational management of urban water systems allows for robust management, which contributes to the system’s overall resilience. A methodology has been structured to support the decision-making process of managing entities. The methodology for the operational management of hydraulic infrastructures incorporates concepts of asset management, risk management, and technical management. It is organized into three operational areas (assessment, operation, and intervention) and aims to increase the efficiency of managing entities. Two cases were used to implement the aforementioned methodology—the Arouca Water Supply System (SAA-Arouca) and the Trofa Wastewater Drainage System (SAR-Trofa), both under the responsibility of Águas do Norte, S.A. In SAA-Arouca. There was a particularly significant reduction in the system input volume (purchased the first level) and the number of pipe busts observed in the subsequent period after the implementation of the methodology. Regarding the SAR-Trofa, the application of the methodology focused particularly on improper inflows (rainwater and others). The proposals for this system mainly aim at reducing the volumes collected by the drainage networks (in low-level infrastructures) and delivering them to different high-level infrastructures. Full article
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14 pages, 1784 KiB  
Article
Water Resources Carrying Capacity Based on the DPSIRM Framework: Empirical Evidence from Shiyan City, China
by Wenming Cheng, Jing Zhu, Xiaochun Zeng, Yuan You, Xuetao Li and Jun Wu
Water 2023, 15(17), 3060; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15173060 - 27 Aug 2023
Viewed by 857
Abstract
In this article, we construct an evaluation index system based on the DPSIRM framework to determine the water resources carrying capacity of Shiyan City. Then, we use an obstacle model to calculate and analyze the factors that constrain the improvement in the water [...] Read more.
In this article, we construct an evaluation index system based on the DPSIRM framework to determine the water resources carrying capacity of Shiyan City. Then, we use an obstacle model to calculate and analyze the factors that constrain the improvement in the water resources carrying capacity in the city. The research results are as follows: (1) The water resources carrying capacity of Shiyan City was on the rise during 2011–2021, and the water resources carrying capacity of Shiyan City was continuously improved. (2) The management system is the primary obstacle subsystem, followed by the driving force system, the response system, the pressure system, the state system, and the influence system. (3) Among the specific factors, the top three obstacles are sewage treatment investment, the proportion of guaranteed harvest area in drought and flood, and the average annual fertilizer applied per unit of cultivated land. These primary factors restrict Shiyan City from improving its water resources carrying capacity. This study has important practical significance for understanding the resilience of the water system in Shiyan City; exploring the changes in the water resources carrying capacity and its obstacle factors; and guiding the development, utilization, and management of water resources in Shiyan City. Full article
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19 pages, 3474 KiB  
Article
Stormwater Harvesting Potential for Local Reuse in an Urban Growth Area: A Case Study of Melton Growth Area in the West of Melbourne
by Ashok K. Sharma, Peter Sanciolo, Amir Behroozi, Dimuth Navaratna and Shobha Muthukumaran
Water 2023, 15(11), 2093; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112093 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Integrated urban water management approaches (IUWM) are implemented to address challenges from increases in water demand as a result of population growth and the impact of climate change. IUWM aims to utilize all water resources (stormwater, wastewater, and rainwater) based on fit-for-purpose concepts. [...] Read more.
Integrated urban water management approaches (IUWM) are implemented to address challenges from increases in water demand as a result of population growth and the impact of climate change. IUWM aims to utilize all water resources (stormwater, wastewater, and rainwater) based on fit-for-purpose concepts. Here, a local water utility in Melbourne’s Melton growth area explored the availability of stormwater as an alternative water resource for water service planning for a proposed residential development in an existing greenfield area of 13,890 hectares for 160,000 new houses by 2040. A methodology was developed for assessing the stormwater quantity and quality under land use change and different climatic conditions considering the availability of stormwater from the proposed urban development. The modelling results indicated that the amount of annual stormwater generated in the region increased by nearly four times to 32 GL/year under the 2040 full urban land use with high climate change. The provision of constructed wetlands in proposed development blocks was found to be efficient at removing TSS, TP, and TN, and able to retain over 90% of TSS, 77% of TP, and 52% of TN in all scenarios. Harvested stormwater, if treated to potable standards, can meet nearly 40% of water requirements for residential area needs. Full article
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