Special Issue "Avian Respiratory Viruses"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Faizal Careem
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The vast majority of disease-causing avian viruses use respiratory mucosa for host entry. Although there are a number of effective disease-prevention strategies in place on poultry farms, viruses such as avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, and infectious laryngotracheitis virus continue to be major constraints for the sustainability of the poultry industry globally. With a view of the economic and public health importance of avian respiratory viral infections, in this Special Issue we will focus on the most recent research progress on these viral infections, including the evolution of the virus, pathogenesis, virus–host interactions, vaccine development, and the development of novel control measures.

Prof. Dr. Faizal Careem
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • avian influenza virus
  • Newcastle disease virus
  • infectious bronchitis virus
  • infectious laryngotracheitis
  • virus evolution
  • pathogenesis
  • virus–host interaction
  • vaccine
  • innate immune response
  • adjuvant
  • avian

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
A Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus Expressing F and HN Genes of Avian Avulavirus-1 (AAvV-1) Genotype VI Confers Cross-Protection against Challenge with Virulent AAvV-1 Genotypes IV and VII in Chickens
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090784 - 25 Aug 2019
Abstract
Newcastle disease (ND) is responsible for significant economic losses in the poultry industry. The disease is caused by virulent strains of Avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV-1), a species within the family Paramyxoviridae. We developed a recombinant construct based on the herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) [...] Read more.
Newcastle disease (ND) is responsible for significant economic losses in the poultry industry. The disease is caused by virulent strains of Avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV-1), a species within the family Paramyxoviridae. We developed a recombinant construct based on the herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) as a vector expressing two genes: F and HN (HVT-NDV-F-HN) derived from the AAvV-1 genotype VI (“pigeon variant” of AAvV-1). This recombinant viral vaccine candidate was used to subcutaneously immunize one group of specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and two groups of broiler chickens (20 one-day-old birds/group). Humoral immune response was evaluated by hemagglutination-inhibition test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The efficacy of the immunization was assessed in two separate challenge studies performed at 6 weeks of age with the use of virulent AAvV-1 strains representing heterologous genotypes IV and VII. The developed vaccine candidate elicited complete protection in SPF chickens since none of the birds became sick or died during the 2-week observation period. In the broiler groups, 90% and 100% clinical protection were achieved after challenges with AAvV-1 of IV and VII genotypes, respectively. We found no obvious relationship between antibody levels and protection assessed in broilers in the challenge study. The developed recombinant HVT-NDV-F-HN construct containing genes from a genotype VI AAvV-1 offers promising results as a potential vaccine candidate against ND in chickens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Respiratory Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Immune Responses in the Eye-Associated Lymphoid Tissues of Chickens after Ocular Inoculation with Vaccine and Virulent Strains of the Respiratory Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV)
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070635 - 10 Jul 2019
Abstract
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute respiratory disease of poultry caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Control of the disease with live attenuated vaccines administered via eye drop build upon immune responses generated by the eye-associated lymphoid tissues. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute respiratory disease of poultry caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Control of the disease with live attenuated vaccines administered via eye drop build upon immune responses generated by the eye-associated lymphoid tissues. The aim of this study was to assess cytokine and lymphocyte changes in the conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissues (CALT) and Harderian gland (HG) stimulated by the ocular inoculation of the ILTV chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine strain and virulent strain 63140. This study offers strong evidence to support the roles that the CALT and HG play in the development of protective ILTV immune responses. It supports the premise that ILTV-mediated immunomodulation favors the B cell response over those of T cells. Further, it provides evidence that expansions of CD8α+ cells, with the concomitant expression of the Granzyme A gene, are key to reducing viral genomes in the CALT and halting ILTV cytolytic replication in the conjunctiva. Ultimately, this study revealed that the early upregulation of interleukin (IL)-12p40 and Interferon (IFN)-γ cytokine genes, which shape the antigen-specific cell-mediated immune responses, retarded the decline of virus replication, and enhanced the development of lesions in the conjunctiva epithelium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Respiratory Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Exosomes Carry microRNAs into Neighboring Cells to Promote Diffusive Infection of Newcastle Disease Virus
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11060527 - 06 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, was shown to prefer to replicate in tumor cells instead of normal cells; however, this mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Exosomes play a crucial role in intercellular communication due to the bioactive substances they carry. [...] Read more.
Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, was shown to prefer to replicate in tumor cells instead of normal cells; however, this mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Exosomes play a crucial role in intercellular communication due to the bioactive substances they carry. Several studies have shown that exosomes are involved in virus infections. However, the effect that exosomes have on NDV-infected tumor cells is not known. In this study, we focus on the role of exosomes secreted by NDV-infected HeLa cells in promoting NDV replication. Three miRNA candidates (miR-1273f, miR-1184, and miR-198) embraced by exosomes were associated with enhancing NDV-induced cytopathic effects on HeLa cells. Furthermore, luciferase assays, RT-qPCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) all demonstrated that these miRNAs could suppress interferon (IFN)-β gene expression. Enhanced NDV replication in HeLa cells was identified by Western blot and plaque assays. Based on these results, we speculate that NDV employed exosomes entry into neighboring cells, which carry miRNAs, resulting in inhibition of the IFN pathway and promotion of viral infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the involvement of NDV-employed exosomes in tumor cells, and as such, it provides new insights into the development of anti-tumor therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Respiratory Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N5 Viruses in Europe in 2016–2017 Appears Related to the Timing of Reassortment Events
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11060501 - 31 May 2019
Abstract
During the epizootic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus in Europe in 2016–2017, HPAI viruses of subtype H5N5 were also isolated. However, the detection of H5N5 viruses was limited compared to H5N8. In this study, we show that the genetic constellation [...] Read more.
During the epizootic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus in Europe in 2016–2017, HPAI viruses of subtype H5N5 were also isolated. However, the detection of H5N5 viruses was limited compared to H5N8. In this study, we show that the genetic constellation of a newly isolated H5N5 virus is different from two genotypes previously identified in the Netherlands. The introduction and spread of the three H5N5 genotypes in Europe was studied using spatiotemporal and genetic analysis. This demonstrated that the genotypes were isolated in distinguishable phases of the epizootic, and suggested multiple introductions of H5N5 viruses into Europe followed by local spread. We estimated the timing of the reassortment events, which suggested that the genotypes emerged after the start of autumn migration. This may have prevented large-scale spread of the H5N5 viruses on wild bird breeding sites before introduction into Europe. Experiments in primary chicken and duck cells revealed only minor differences in cytopathogenicity and replication kinetics between H5N5 genotypes and H5N8. These results suggest that the limited spread of HPAI H5N5 viruses is related to the timing of the reassortment events rather than changes in virus pathogenicity or replication kinetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Respiratory Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
The PB2 Polymerase Host Adaptation Substitutions Prime Avian Indonesia Sub Clade 2.1 H5N1 Viruses for Infecting Humans
Viruses 2019, 11(3), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030292 - 22 Mar 2019
Abstract
Significantly higher numbers of human infections with H5N1 virus have occurred in Indonesia and Egypt, compared with other affected areas, and it is speculated that there are specific viral factors for human infection with avian H5N1 viruses in these locations. We previously showed [...] Read more.
Significantly higher numbers of human infections with H5N1 virus have occurred in Indonesia and Egypt, compared with other affected areas, and it is speculated that there are specific viral factors for human infection with avian H5N1 viruses in these locations. We previously showed PB2-K526R is present in 80% of Indonesian H5N1 human isolates, which lack the more common PB2-E627K substitution. Testing the hypothesis that this mutation may prime avian H5N1 virus for human infection, we showed that: (1) K526R is rarely found in avian influenza viruses but was identified in H5N1 viruses 2–3 years after the virus emerged in Indonesia, coincident with the emergence of H5N1 human infections in Indonesia; (2) K526R is required for efficient replication of Indonesia H5N1 virus in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo and reverse substitution to 526K in human isolates abolishes this ability; (3) Indonesian H5N1 virus, which contains K526R-PB2, is stable and does not further acquire E627K following replication in infected mice; and (4) virus containing K526R-PB2 shows no fitness deficit in avian species. These findings illustrate an important mechanism in which a host adaptive mutation that predisposes avian H5N1 virus towards infecting humans has arisen with the virus becoming prevalent in avian species prior to human infections occurring. A similar mechanism is observed in the Qinghai-lineage H5N1 viruses that have caused many human cases in Egypt; here, E627K predisposes towards human infections. Surveillance should focus on the detection of adaptation markers in avian strains that prime for human infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Respiratory Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Pathogenicity and Transmissibility of North American H7 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Chickens and Turkeys
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020163 - 16 Feb 2019
Abstract
Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses can silently circulate in poultry and wild aquatic birds and potentially mutate into highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. In the U.S., recent emergence and spread of H7N8 and H7N9 HPAI viruses not only caused devastating losses [...] Read more.
Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses can silently circulate in poultry and wild aquatic birds and potentially mutate into highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. In the U.S., recent emergence and spread of H7N8 and H7N9 HPAI viruses not only caused devastating losses to domestic poultry but also underscored the capability of LPAI viruses to mutate into HPAI viruses. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated pathogenicity and transmissibility of H7N8 and H7N9 LPAI viruses (the progenitors of HPAI viruses) in chickens and turkeys. We also included H7N2 isolated from an outbreak of LPAI in commercial chickens. H7 viruses replicated more efficiently in the respiratory tract than in the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that their replication is restricted to the upper respiratory tract. Specifically, H7N2 replicated most efficiently in two-week-old chickens and turkeys. In contrast, H7N8 replicated least efficiently in those birds. Further, replication of H7N2 and H7N9 was restricted in the upper respiratory tract of four-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) and broiler chickens. Despite their restricted replication, the two viruses efficiently transmitted from infected to naïve birds by direct contact, leading to seroconversion of contacted chickens. Our findings suggest the importance of continuous monitoring and surveillance of LPAI viruses in the fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Respiratory Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Pullet Vaccination on Development and Longevity of Immunity
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020135 - 02 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Avian respiratory disease causes significant economic losses in commercial poultry. Because of the need to protect long-lived poultry against respiratory tract pathogens from an early age, vaccination programs for pullets typically involve serial administration of a variety of vaccines, including infectious bronchitis virus [...] Read more.
Avian respiratory disease causes significant economic losses in commercial poultry. Because of the need to protect long-lived poultry against respiratory tract pathogens from an early age, vaccination programs for pullets typically involve serial administration of a variety of vaccines, including infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Often the interval between vaccinations is only a matter of weeks, yet it is unknown whether the development of immunity and protection against challenge when vaccines are given in short succession occurs in these birds, something known as viral interference. Our objective was to determine whether serially administered, live attenuated vaccines against IBV, NDV, and ILTV influence the development and longevity of immunity and protection against challenge in long-lived birds. Based on a typical pullet vaccination program, specific-pathogen-free white leghorns were administered multiple live attenuated vaccines against IBV, NDV, and ILTV until 16 weeks of age (WOA), after which certain groups were challenged with IBV, NDV, or ILTV at 20, 24, 28, 32, and 36 WOA. Five days post-challenge, viral load, clinical signs, ciliostasis, tracheal histopathology, and antibody titers in serum and tears were evaluated. We demonstrate that pullets serially administered live attenuated vaccines against IBV, NDV, and ILTV were protected against homologous challenge with IBV, NDV, or ILTV for at least 36 weeks, and conclude that the interval between vaccinations used in this study (at least 2 weeks) did not interfere with protection. This information is important because it shows that a typical pullet vaccination program consisting of serially administered live attenuated vaccines against multiple respiratory pathogens can result in the development of protective immunity against each disease agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Respiratory Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Genetic Diversity and Phylodynamics of Avian Coronaviruses in Egyptian Wild Birds
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010057 - 14 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Avian coronaviruses (ACoVs) are continuously evolving and causing serious economic consequences in the poultry industry and around the globe. Owing to their extensive genetic diversity and high mutation rates, controlling ACoVs has become a challenge. In this context, the potential contribution of wild [...] Read more.
Avian coronaviruses (ACoVs) are continuously evolving and causing serious economic consequences in the poultry industry and around the globe. Owing to their extensive genetic diversity and high mutation rates, controlling ACoVs has become a challenge. In this context, the potential contribution of wild birds in the disease dynamics, especially in domesticated birds, remains largely unknown. In the present study, five hundred fifty-seven (n = 557) cloacal/fecal swabs were collected from four different wild bird species from eight Egyptian governorates during 2016 and a total of fourteen positive isolates were used for phylodynamics and evolutionary analysis. Genetic relatedness based on spike (S1) gene demonstrated the clustering of majority of these isolates where nine isolates grouped within Egy/variant 2 (IS/885 genotype) and five isolates clustered within Egy/variant 1 (IS/1494/06 genotype). Interestingly, these isolates showed noticeable genetic diversity and were clustered distal to the previously characterized Egy/variant 1 and Egy/variant 2 in Egyptian commercial poultry. The S1 gene based comparison of nucleotide identity percentages revealed that all fourteen isolates reported in this study were genetically related to the variant GI-23 lineage with 92–100% identity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ACoVs are circulating in Egyptian wild birds and highlight their possible contributions in the disease dynamics. The study also proposes that regular monitoring of the ACoVs in wild birds is required to effectively assess the role of wild birds in disease spread, and the emergence of ACoVs strains in the country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Respiratory Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
The PA Subunit of the Influenza Virus Polymerase Complex Affects Replication and Airborne Transmission of the H9N2 Subtype Avian Influenza Virus
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010040 - 09 Jan 2019
Abstract
The polymerase acidic (PA) protein is the third subunit of the influenza A virus polymerase. In recent years, studies have shown that PA plays an important role in overcoming the host species barrier and host adaptation of the avian influenza virus (AIV). The [...] Read more.
The polymerase acidic (PA) protein is the third subunit of the influenza A virus polymerase. In recent years, studies have shown that PA plays an important role in overcoming the host species barrier and host adaptation of the avian influenza virus (AIV). The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of the PA subunit on the replication and airborne transmission of the H9N2 subtype AIV. By reverse genetics, a reassortant rSD01-PA was derived from the H9N2 subtype AIV A/Chicken/Shandong/01/2008 (SD01) by introducing the PA gene from the pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus A/swine/Shandong/07/2011 (SD07). Specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and guinea pigs were selected as the animal models for replication and aerosol transmission studies. Results show that rSD01-PA lost the ability of airborne transmission among SPF chickens because of the single substitution of the PA gene. However, rSD01-PA could infect guinea pigs through direct contact, while the parental strain SD01 could not, even though the infection of rSD01-PA could not be achieved through aerosol. In summary, our results indicate that the protein encoded by the PA gene plays a key role in replication and airborne transmission of the H9N2 subtype AIV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Respiratory Viruses)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Global Perspective on H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070620 - 05 Jul 2019
Abstract
H9N2 avian influenza viruses have become globally widespread in poultry over the last two decades and represent a genuine threat both to the global poultry industry but also humans through their high rates of zoonotic infection and pandemic potential. H9N2 viruses are generally [...] Read more.
H9N2 avian influenza viruses have become globally widespread in poultry over the last two decades and represent a genuine threat both to the global poultry industry but also humans through their high rates of zoonotic infection and pandemic potential. H9N2 viruses are generally hyperendemic in affected countries and have been found in poultry in many new regions in recent years. In this review, we examine the current global spread of H9N2 avian influenza viruses as well as their host range, tropism, transmission routes and the risk posed by these viruses to human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Respiratory Viruses)
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Open AccessReview
Innovation in Newcastle Disease Virus Vectored Avian Influenza Vaccines
Viruses 2019, 11(3), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030300 - 26 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease are economically important avian diseases worldwide. Effective vaccination is critical to control these diseases in poultry. Live attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vectored vaccines have been developed for bivalent vaccination against HPAI viruses and NDV. [...] Read more.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease are economically important avian diseases worldwide. Effective vaccination is critical to control these diseases in poultry. Live attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vectored vaccines have been developed for bivalent vaccination against HPAI viruses and NDV. These vaccines have been generated by inserting the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of avian influenza virus into NDV genomes. In laboratory settings, several experimental NDV-vectored vaccines have protected specific pathogen-free chickens from mortality, clinical signs, and virus shedding against H5 and H7 HPAI viruses and NDV challenges. NDV-vectored H5 vaccines have been licensed for poultry vaccination in China and Mexico. Recently, an antigenically chimeric NDV vector has been generated to overcome pre-existing immunity to NDV in poultry and to provide early protection of poultry in the field. Prime immunization of one-day-old poults with a chimeric NDV vector followed by boosting with a conventional NDV vector has shown to protect broiler chickens against H5 HPAI viruses and a highly virulent NDV. This novel vaccination approach can provide efficient control of HPAI viruses in the field and facilitate poultry vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Respiratory Viruses)
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