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Open AccessArticle

Delmarva (DMV/1639) Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) Variants Isolated in Eastern Canada Show Evidence of Recombination

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Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Health Research Innovation Center 2C53, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada
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Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
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Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Health Research Innovation Center 2C53, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11111054
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 10 November 2019 / Accepted: 11 November 2019 / Published: 13 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Respiratory Viruses)
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection in chickens can lead to an economically important disease, namely, infectious bronchitis (IB). New IBV variants are continuously emerging, which complicates vaccination-based IB control. In this study, five IBVs were isolated from clinical samples submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in Ontario, Canada, and subjected to detailed molecular characterization. Analysis of the spike (S)1 gene showed that these five IBVs were highly related to the Delmarva (DMV/1639) strain (~97.0% nucleotide sequence similarity) that was firstly isolated from an IB outbreak in the Delmarva peninsula, United States of America (USA), in 2011. However, the complete genomic sequence analysis showed a 93.5–93.7% similarity with the Connecticut (Conn) vaccine strain, suggesting that Conn-like viruses contributed to the evolution of the five Canadian IBV/DMV isolates. A SimPlot analysis of the complete genomic sequence showed evidence of recombination for at least three different IBV strains, including a Conn vaccine-like strain, a 4/91 vaccine-like strain, and one strain that is yet-unidentified. The unidentified strain may have contributed the genomic regions of the S, 3, and membrane (M) genes of the five Canadian IBV/DMV isolates. The study outcomes add to the existing knowledge about involvement of recombination in IBV evolution. View Full-Text
Keywords: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV); recombination; complete genome sequence; phylogenetic analysis; chicken; Canada Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV); recombination; complete genome sequence; phylogenetic analysis; chicken; Canada
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Hassan, M.S.H.; Ojkic, D.; Coffin, C.S.; Cork, S.C.; van der Meer, F.; Abdul-Careem, M.F. Delmarva (DMV/1639) Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) Variants Isolated in Eastern Canada Show Evidence of Recombination. Viruses 2019, 11, 1054.

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