Next Article in Journal
Current Understanding of the Molecular Basis of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Pathogenesis and Vaccine Development
Previous Article in Journal
Integrated MicroRNA and mRNA Profiling in Zika Virus-Infected Neurons
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of Pullet Vaccination on Development and Longevity of Immunity
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020163

Pathogenicity and Transmissibility of North American H7 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Chickens and Turkeys

VA-MD Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Respiratory Viruses)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1960 KB, uploaded 16 February 2019]   |  

Abstract

Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses can silently circulate in poultry and wild aquatic birds and potentially mutate into highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. In the U.S., recent emergence and spread of H7N8 and H7N9 HPAI viruses not only caused devastating losses to domestic poultry but also underscored the capability of LPAI viruses to mutate into HPAI viruses. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated pathogenicity and transmissibility of H7N8 and H7N9 LPAI viruses (the progenitors of HPAI viruses) in chickens and turkeys. We also included H7N2 isolated from an outbreak of LPAI in commercial chickens. H7 viruses replicated more efficiently in the respiratory tract than in the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that their replication is restricted to the upper respiratory tract. Specifically, H7N2 replicated most efficiently in two-week-old chickens and turkeys. In contrast, H7N8 replicated least efficiently in those birds. Further, replication of H7N2 and H7N9 was restricted in the upper respiratory tract of four-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) and broiler chickens. Despite their restricted replication, the two viruses efficiently transmitted from infected to naïve birds by direct contact, leading to seroconversion of contacted chickens. Our findings suggest the importance of continuous monitoring and surveillance of LPAI viruses in the fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: low pathogenic avian influenza virus; H7; replication; transmissibility; chickens low pathogenic avian influenza virus; H7; replication; transmissibility; chickens
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Roy Chowdhury, I.; Yeddula, S.G.R.; Kim, S.-H. Pathogenicity and Transmissibility of North American H7 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Chickens and Turkeys. Viruses 2019, 11, 163.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top