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Viruses 2019, 11(2), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020135

Effect of Pullet Vaccination on Development and Longevity of Immunity

1
Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
2
Department of Poultry Science, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 January 2019 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Respiratory Viruses)
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Abstract

Avian respiratory disease causes significant economic losses in commercial poultry. Because of the need to protect long-lived poultry against respiratory tract pathogens from an early age, vaccination programs for pullets typically involve serial administration of a variety of vaccines, including infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Often the interval between vaccinations is only a matter of weeks, yet it is unknown whether the development of immunity and protection against challenge when vaccines are given in short succession occurs in these birds, something known as viral interference. Our objective was to determine whether serially administered, live attenuated vaccines against IBV, NDV, and ILTV influence the development and longevity of immunity and protection against challenge in long-lived birds. Based on a typical pullet vaccination program, specific-pathogen-free white leghorns were administered multiple live attenuated vaccines against IBV, NDV, and ILTV until 16 weeks of age (WOA), after which certain groups were challenged with IBV, NDV, or ILTV at 20, 24, 28, 32, and 36 WOA. Five days post-challenge, viral load, clinical signs, ciliostasis, tracheal histopathology, and antibody titers in serum and tears were evaluated. We demonstrate that pullets serially administered live attenuated vaccines against IBV, NDV, and ILTV were protected against homologous challenge with IBV, NDV, or ILTV for at least 36 weeks, and conclude that the interval between vaccinations used in this study (at least 2 weeks) did not interfere with protection. This information is important because it shows that a typical pullet vaccination program consisting of serially administered live attenuated vaccines against multiple respiratory pathogens can result in the development of protective immunity against each disease agent. View Full-Text
Keywords: Infectious bronchitis virus; Newcastle disease virus; infectious laryngotracheitis virus; vaccination program; immunity; respiratory disease; ciliostasis; antibody response Infectious bronchitis virus; Newcastle disease virus; infectious laryngotracheitis virus; vaccination program; immunity; respiratory disease; ciliostasis; antibody response
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Aston, E.J.; Jordan, B.J.; Williams, S.M.; García, M.; Jackwood, M.W. Effect of Pullet Vaccination on Development and Longevity of Immunity. Viruses 2019, 11, 135.

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