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Open AccessReview

A Global Perspective on H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus

Avian Influenza Group, The Pirbright Institute, Woking GU24 0NF, UK
Section of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK
Royal Veterinary College, London NW1 0TU, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Animal & Plant Health Agency, Weybridge KT15 3NB, UK.
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 620;
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 30 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Respiratory Viruses)
PDF [791 KB, uploaded 5 July 2019]


H9N2 avian influenza viruses have become globally widespread in poultry over the last two decades and represent a genuine threat both to the global poultry industry but also humans through their high rates of zoonotic infection and pandemic potential. H9N2 viruses are generally hyperendemic in affected countries and have been found in poultry in many new regions in recent years. In this review, we examine the current global spread of H9N2 avian influenza viruses as well as their host range, tropism, transmission routes and the risk posed by these viruses to human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: H9N2; avian influenza viruses; zoonotic; pandemic potential; poultry H9N2; avian influenza viruses; zoonotic; pandemic potential; poultry

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Peacock, T.P.; James, J.; Sealy, J.E.; Iqbal, M. A Global Perspective on H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus. Viruses 2019, 11, 620.

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