Special Issue "Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Douglas Gladue
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Plum Island Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Greenport, NY 11944, USA
Interests: ASFV; CSFV; PRRSV; PEDV; PDCoV; SwIV; FMDV; swine viruses
Dr. Fernando Rodriguez
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain
Interests: Vaccines; Immunology; Virology; African swine fever virus; emergent and reemergent viruses
Dr. Manuel Borca
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944, USA
Interests: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus; African Swine Fever Virus Vaccine; Classical Swine Fever

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The main topic of this Special Issue is agriculturally important swine viruses that have an effect on swine production or overall swine health. This includes viruses that have recently caused outbreaks, for example, the African swine fever virus (ASFV) in Europe and Asia or the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in Japan, which are causing devastating losses to the swine industry. Endemic swine viruses would include porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), swine influenza virus (SwIV), and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV).

Dr. Douglas Gladue
Dr. Fernando Rodriguez
Dr. Manuel Borca
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • African swine fever virus (ASFV)
  • Classical swine fever virus (CSFV)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)
  • Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)
  • Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV)
  • Swine influenza virus (SwIV)
  • Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Isolation and Identification of Porcine Deltacoronavirus and Alteration of Immunoglobulin Transport Receptors in the Intestinal Mucosa of PDCoV-Infected Piglets
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010079 - 09 Jan 2020
Abstract
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes watery diarrhea, vomiting, and frequently death in piglets, causing serious economic losses to the pig industry. The strain CHN-JS-2017 was isolated and identified by cytopathology, immunofluorescence assays, transmission electron microscopy, and sequence analysis. [...] Read more.
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes watery diarrhea, vomiting, and frequently death in piglets, causing serious economic losses to the pig industry. The strain CHN-JS-2017 was isolated and identified by cytopathology, immunofluorescence assays, transmission electron microscopy, and sequence analysis. A nucleotide sequence alignment showed that the whole genome of CHN-JS-2017 is 97.4%–99.6% identical to other PDCoV strains. The pathogenicity of the CHN-JS-2017 strain was investigated in orally inoculated five-day-old piglets; the piglets developed acute, watery diarrhea, but all recovered and survived. CHN-JS-2017 infection-induced microscopic lesions were observed, and viral antigens were detected mainly by immunohistochemical staining in the small intestine. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) are crucial immunoglobulin (Ig) receptors for the transcytosis ofimmunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, or IgM. Importantly, CHN-JS-2017 infected five-day-old piglets could significantly down-regulate the expression of FcRn, pIgR, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)in the intestinal mucosa. Note that the level of FcRn mRNA in the intestinal mucosa of normal piglets is positively correlated with pIgR and NF-κB. At the same time, the expressions of FcRn, pIgR, and NF-κB mRNA are also positively correlated in infected piglets. These results may help explain the immunological and pathological changes associated with porcine deltacorononirus infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
The MGF360-16R ORF of African Swine Fever Virus Strain Georgia Encodes for a Nonessential Gene That Interacts with Host Proteins SERTAD3 and SDCBP
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010060 - 03 Jan 2020
Abstract
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a contagious and frequently lethal disease of pigs with significant economic consequences to the swine industry. The ASFV genome encodes for more than 160 genes, but only a few of them have been studied in detail. Here [...] Read more.
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a contagious and frequently lethal disease of pigs with significant economic consequences to the swine industry. The ASFV genome encodes for more than 160 genes, but only a few of them have been studied in detail. Here we report the characterization of open reading frame (ORF) MGF360-16R. Kinetic studies of virus RNA transcription demonstrated that the MGF360-16R gene is transcribed as a late virus protein. Analysis of host–protein interactions for the MGF360-16R gene using a yeast two-hybrid screen identified SERTA domain containing 3 (SERTAD3) and syndecan-binding protein (SDCBP) as host protein binding partners. SERTAD3 and SDCBP are both involved in nuclear transcription and SDCBP has been shown to be involved in virus traffic inside the host cell. Interaction between MGF360-16R and SERTAD3 and SDCBP host proteins was confirmed in eukaryotic cells transfected with plasmids expressing MGF360-16R and SERTAD3 or SDCBP fused to fluorescent tags. A recombinant ASFV lacking the MGF360-16R gene (ASFV-G-ΔMGF360-16R) was developed from the highly virulent field isolate Georgia2007 (ASFV-G) and was used to show that MGF360-16R is a nonessential gene. ASFV-G-ΔMGF360-16R had a similar replication ability in primary swine macrophage cell cultures when compared to its parental virus ASFV-G. Experimental infection of domestic pigs showed that ASFV-G-ΔMGF360-16R is as virulent as the parental virus ASFV-G. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Role of the Spike Protein in Reversing the Virulence of the Highly Virulent Taiwan Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Pintung 52 Strains and Its Attenuated Counterpart
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010041 - 30 Dec 2019
Abstract
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has continuously caused severe economic losses to the global swine industries; however, no successful vaccine against PEDV has been developed. In this study, we generated four autologous recombinant viruses, including the highly virulent iPEDVPT-P5, attenuated iPEDVPT-P96, and two [...] Read more.
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has continuously caused severe economic losses to the global swine industries; however, no successful vaccine against PEDV has been developed. In this study, we generated four autologous recombinant viruses, including the highly virulent iPEDVPT-P5, attenuated iPEDVPT-P96, and two chimeric viruses (iPEDVPT-P5-96S and iPEDVPT-P96-5S) with the reciprocally exchanged spike (S) gene, to study the role of the S gene in PEDV pathogenesis. A deeper understanding of PEDV attenuation will aid in the rational design of a live attenuated vaccine (LAV) using reverse genetics system. Our results showed that replacing the S gene from the highly virulent iPEDVPT-P5 led to complete restoration of virulence of the attenuated iPEDVPT-P96, with nearly identical viral shedding, diarrhea pattern, and mortality rate as the parental iPEDVPT-P5. In contrast, substitution of the S gene with that from the attenuated iPEDVPT-P96 resulted in partial attenuation of iPEDVPT-P5, exhibiting similar viral shedding and diarrhea patterns as the parental iPEDVPT-P96 with slightly severe histological lesions and higher mortality rate. Collectively, our data confirmed that the attenuation of the PEDVPT-P96 virus is primarily attributed to mutations in the S gene. However, mutation in S gene alone could not fully attenuate the virulence of iPEDVPT-P5. Gene (s) other than S gene might also play a role in determining virulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Pathogenic Characteristics of a Porcine Astrovirus Strain Isolated in China
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121156 - 13 Dec 2019
Abstract
Astroviral infection is considered to be one of the causes of mammalian diarrheal diseases. It has been shown that astrovirus infections cause varying degrees of diarrhea in turkeys and mice. However, the pathogenesis of porcine astrovirus is unknown. In this study, the virulence [...] Read more.
Astroviral infection is considered to be one of the causes of mammalian diarrheal diseases. It has been shown that astrovirus infections cause varying degrees of diarrhea in turkeys and mice. However, the pathogenesis of porcine astrovirus is unknown. In this study, the virulence of a cytopathic porcine astrovirus (PAstV) strain (PAstV1-GX1) isolated from the PK-15 cell line was tested using seven-day-old nursing piglets. The results showed that PAstV1-GX1 infection could cause mild diarrhea, growth retardation, and damage of the villi of the small intestinal mucosa. However, all the above symptoms could be restored within 7 to 10days post inoculation (dpi). To evaluate the innate immunity response of PAstV in vivo, the alteration of inflammatory cytokine expression in piglets infected with PAstV1-GX1 was determined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The mRNA expression levels of the IFNβ and ISG54 were found to be significantly elevated in virus-infected piglets. In contrast, expression of IFNλ was downregulated in piglets infected with PAstV1-GX1. In addition, the mRNA expression of the tight junction protein 1 and 2 and zonula occludin 1, which are associated with the intestinal barrier permeability, were affected after PAstV1 infection. The present study adds to our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of PAstV and has established an animal model for further study of pig astrovirus infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Fatty Acids Regulate Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection via the AMPK-ACC1 Signaling Pathway
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121145 - 10 Dec 2019
Abstract
Lipids play a crucial role in the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a porcine virus that is endemic throughout the world. However, little is known about the effect of fatty acids (FAs), a type of vital lipid, on PRRSV [...] Read more.
Lipids play a crucial role in the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a porcine virus that is endemic throughout the world. However, little is known about the effect of fatty acids (FAs), a type of vital lipid, on PRRSV infection. In this study, we found that treatment with a FA biosynthetic inhibitor significantly inhibited PRRSV propagation, indicating the necessity of FAs for optimal replication of PRRSV. Further study revealed that 5′-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key kinase antagonizing FA biosynthesis, was strongly activated by PRRSV and the pharmacological activator of AMPK exhibited anti-PRRSV activity. Additionally, we found that acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), the first rate-limiting enzyme in the FA biosynthesis pathway, was phosphorylated (inactive form) by PRRSV-activated AMPK, and active ACC1 was required for PRRSV proliferation, suggesting that the PRRSV infection induced the activation of the AMPK–ACC1 pathway, which was not conducive to PRRSV replication. This work provides new evidence about the mechanisms involved in host lipid metabolism during PRRSV infection and identifies novel potential antiviral targets for PRRSV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Real-Time PCR Detection Patterns of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) in Polish Farms with Different Statuses of Vaccination against PCV2
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1135; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121135 - 08 Dec 2019
Abstract
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a globally spread pathogen controlled with generally highly efficacious vaccination protocols. In order to compare PCV2 detection profiles in farms with different vaccination statuses, serum (359) and fecal pools (351) and oral fluids (209) from four farms [...] Read more.
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a globally spread pathogen controlled with generally highly efficacious vaccination protocols. In order to compare PCV2 detection profiles in farms with different vaccination statuses, serum (359) and fecal pools (351) and oral fluids (209) from four farms that do not vaccinate against PCV2 (NON-VAC) and from 22 farms that do vaccinate (VAC) were tested with quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, nucleotide sequences of ORF2 of the virus were obtained from selected samples. Three genotypes, PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d, were detected. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in PCV2 prevalence and quantities between the VAC and NON-VAC farms were evident. In five VAC farms, no viremia or shedding in feces was detected. On the other hand, in four VAC farms, the results were very similar to those from NON-VAC farms. No significant difference in PCV2 prevalence in oral fluids was observed between VAC and NON-VAC farms. An examination of viremia can be recommended for the detection of vaccination efficacy issues. The median of the PCV2 viral loads >6.0 log10 copies/mL in pooled sera from the vaccinated population should be considered a very strong indication that the vaccination protocol needs revision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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