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Open AccessArticle

Fatty Acids Regulate Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection via the AMPK-ACC1 Signaling Pathway

by Siwen Long 1,2, Yanrong Zhou 1,2,*, Dongcheng Bai 1,2, Wanjun Hao 1,2, Bohan Zheng 1,2, Shaobo Xiao 1,2 and Liurong Fang 1,2,3,*
1
State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
2
The Key Laboratory of Preventive Veterinary Medicine in Hubei Province, Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070, China
3
Laboratory of Animal Virology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, 1 Shi-zi-shan Street, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121145
Received: 25 October 2019 / Revised: 6 December 2019 / Accepted: 8 December 2019 / Published: 10 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
Lipids play a crucial role in the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a porcine virus that is endemic throughout the world. However, little is known about the effect of fatty acids (FAs), a type of vital lipid, on PRRSV infection. In this study, we found that treatment with a FA biosynthetic inhibitor significantly inhibited PRRSV propagation, indicating the necessity of FAs for optimal replication of PRRSV. Further study revealed that 5′-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key kinase antagonizing FA biosynthesis, was strongly activated by PRRSV and the pharmacological activator of AMPK exhibited anti-PRRSV activity. Additionally, we found that acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), the first rate-limiting enzyme in the FA biosynthesis pathway, was phosphorylated (inactive form) by PRRSV-activated AMPK, and active ACC1 was required for PRRSV proliferation, suggesting that the PRRSV infection induced the activation of the AMPK–ACC1 pathway, which was not conducive to PRRSV replication. This work provides new evidence about the mechanisms involved in host lipid metabolism during PRRSV infection and identifies novel potential antiviral targets for PRRSV. View Full-Text
Keywords: porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV); fatty acid; AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV); fatty acid; AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1)
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Long, S.; Zhou, Y.; Bai, D.; Hao, W.; Zheng, B.; Xiao, S.; Fang, L. Fatty Acids Regulate Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection via the AMPK-ACC1 Signaling Pathway. Viruses 2019, 11, 1145.

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