Allergic Reactions to Current Available COVID-19 Vaccines

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 42964

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Personalised Medicine Clinic Asthma & Allergy, Humanitas University, Department of Biomedical Sciences, IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, 20089 Milan, Italy
Interests: asthma; severe asthma; rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps; AIT; type 2 diseases; asthma comorbidities; digital medicine; artificial intelligence applied to immunocenters; mAB therapies for severe asthma (biologicals); COVID-19; precision medicine; personalized medicine

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, 20072 Pieve Emanuele, Italy
2. IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, 20089 Rozzano, Italy
Interests: allergy; anaphylaxis; drug allergy; asthma; severe asthma; rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps; biologicals; precision medicine
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Adverse hypersensitivity reactions to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for the prevention of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported since the initiation of the global vaccination campaign. These cases have elicited a lot of clamor, prompting the necessity to determine the real prevalence of allergic reactions to the vaccines, especially because no cases of anaphylaxis were reported in randomized clinical trials with the vaccine. A large number of studies have been published in the latest months about this topic, confirming that hypersensitivity reactions to COVID-19 vaccines and their prevention are one of the hot topics in the allergy and clinical immunology field.

The underlying immunological mechanisms of hypersensitivity reactions to the COVID-19 vaccines are only partially understood and urgently need clarification.

Precisely for these reasons, this Special Issue will focus on the re-assessment of published evidence and the re-evaluation of procedures and protocols for the prevention and management of this specific aspect, also taking into consideration patients’ psychological aspects and new tools such as digital health technologies.

Dr. Francesca Puggioni
Dr. Enrico Marco Heffler
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • vaccines
  • allergy
  • hypersensitivity
  • anaphylaxis
  • excipients
  • PEG
  • desensitization

Published Papers (10 papers)

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18 pages, 282 KiB  
Article
A First Report on Side-Effects of COVID-19 Vaccines among General Population in Sudan: A Cross-Sectional Analysis
by Malik Suliman Mohamed, Ahmed Osman Mohamed, Rawaf Alenazy, Yusra Habib Khan, Mona Timan Idriss, Noura A. A. Alhudaib, Tilal Elsaman, Magdi Awadalla Mohamed, Eyman M. Eltayib and Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020315 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1997
Abstract
Background: The process of mass immunization against COVID-19 may be impacted by vaccine reluctance despite intense and ongoing efforts to boost vaccine coverage. The COVID-19 vaccine is a crucial component for controlling the pandemic. To the best of our knowledge, we did not [...] Read more.
Background: The process of mass immunization against COVID-19 may be impacted by vaccine reluctance despite intense and ongoing efforts to boost vaccine coverage. The COVID-19 vaccine is a crucial component for controlling the pandemic. To the best of our knowledge, we did not come across any study presenting the post-vaccination side-effect profile among the Sudanese population. Developing strategies to improve the vaccine acceptability and uptake necessitate evidence-based reports about vaccine’s side effects and acceptance. In this regard, this study aimed at estimating the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine side-effects among the general population in Sudan. Methodology: A cross-sectional web-based quantitative study was conducted among the general population aged ≥18 years and residing in the Khartoum state of Sudan. A 30-item survey tool recorded the demographics, chronic diseases, allergy to other vaccines and COVID-19 vaccine side-effects after the first, second and booster doses. The data on the onset and duration of side-effects after each dose were also recorded. The distribution of side-effect scores after each dose of COVID-19 vaccine was compared using appropriate statistical methods. Results: A total of 626 participants were approached for this study. There was a preponderance of females (57.7%), and 19% of respondents had chronic diseases. The vaccination rate against COVID-19 was 55.8% (n = 349/626). The prevalence of side-effects after the first, second and booster doses were 79.7, 48 and 69.4%, respectively. Pain at the injection site, headache, fatigue, exhaustion and fever were the common side-effects after the first and second doses, while pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache and muscle pain were frequently reported after the booster dose. Most of these side-effects appeared within 6 h and resolved within one or two days following the administration of the vaccine dose. The average side-effects scores were 4.1 ± 4.4 (n = 349), 2.2 ± 3.6 (n = 202) and 3.5 ± 4.1 (n = 36) after the first, second and booster doses, respectively. The female gender had significantly higher side-effects after primary and booster doses. The age group 18-24 years indicated higher side-effects after the first dose compared to participants with ages ranging from 31 to 40 years (p = 0.014). Patients with chronic disease indicated significantly higher (p = 0.043) side-effects compared to those without any comorbid illness. Conclusions: This study showed a high prevalence of transient COVID-19 vaccine-related side-effects after primary and booster doses. However, these side-effects waned within 48 h. Pain at the injection site was the most common local side-effect, while fatigue, fever, headache and muscle pain were frequently reported systemic side-effects. The frequency of side-effects was more profound among females, young adults and those with comorbid conditions. These findings indicate that COVID-19 vaccines are safe and have side-effects as reported in the clinical trials of the vaccines. These results aid in addressing the ongoing challenges of vaccine hesitancy in the Sudanese population that is nurtured by widespread concerns over the safety profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Reactions to Current Available COVID-19 Vaccines)
18 pages, 7600 KiB  
Article
Public Health Surveillance for Adverse Events Following COVID-19 Vaccination in Africa
by AbdulAzeez Adeyemi Anjorin, Ismail A. Odetokun, Jean Baptiste Nyandwi, Hager Elnadi, Kwame Sherrif Awiagah, Joseph Eyedo, Ajibola Ibraheem Abioye, George Gachara, Aala MohmedOsman Maisara, Youssef Razouqi, Mohamed Farah Yusuf Mohamud, Zuhal Ebrahim Mhgoob, Tunde Ajayi, Lazare Ntirenganya, Morounke Saibu, Babatunde Lawal Salako, Nusirat Elelu, Kikelomo Ololade Wright, Folorunso O. Fasina and Rasha Mosbah
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040546 - 1 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3965
Abstract
Local, national, and international health agencies have advocated multi-pronged public health strategies to limit infections and prevent deaths. The availability of safe and effective vaccines is critical in the control of a pandemic. Several adverse events have been reported globally following reception of [...] Read more.
Local, national, and international health agencies have advocated multi-pronged public health strategies to limit infections and prevent deaths. The availability of safe and effective vaccines is critical in the control of a pandemic. Several adverse events have been reported globally following reception of different vaccines, with limited or no data from Africa. This cross-sectional epidemiological study investigated adverse events following COVID-19 vaccination in Africans from April–June, 2021 using a structured online questionnaire. Out of 1200 participants recruited, a total of 80.8% (n = 969) respondents from 35 countries, including 22 African countries and 13 countries where Africans live in the diaspora, reported adverse events. Over half of the vaccinees were male (53.0%) and frontline healthcare workers (55.7%), respectively. A total of 15.6% (n = 151) reported previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2, while about one-fourth, 24.8% (n = 240), reported different underlying health conditions prior to vaccination. Fatal cases were 5.1% (n = 49), while other significant heterogenous events were reported in three categories: very common, common, and uncommon, with the latter including enlarged lymph nodes 2.4% (n = 23), menstrual disorder 0.5% (n = 5), and increased libido 0.2% (n = 2). The study provided useful data for concerned authorities and institutions to prepare plans that will address issues related to COVID-19 vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Reactions to Current Available COVID-19 Vaccines)
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11 pages, 896 KiB  
Article
Gender and AB0 Blood Type Differences in a Unicentric Group of University Professors in Southern Italy Who Received the Vaxzevria COVID-19 Vaccine: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Vaccine Side Effects, Attitudes, and Hesitation
by Silvana Mirella Aliberti, Luigi Schiavo, Giovanni Boccia, Emanuela Santoro, Gianluigi Franci, Alessandro Ruggiero, Francesco De Caro and Mario Capunzo
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030373 - 27 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3195
Abstract
Vaccination has been a key protective behavior for COVID-19. This study investigated the clinical status of university professors administered the Vaxzevria COVID-19 vaccine, to monitor for any adverse reaction, and to understand attitude and hesitancy to vaccination. Data were collected through an online [...] Read more.
Vaccination has been a key protective behavior for COVID-19. This study investigated the clinical status of university professors administered the Vaxzevria COVID-19 vaccine, to monitor for any adverse reaction, and to understand attitude and hesitancy to vaccination. Data were collected through an online survey. The study received approval from the relevant ethics committee “Comitato Etico Campania Sud”. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to calculate significant predictors of the outcomes of interest. A gender and AB0 blood type difference in adverse vaccine reactions was found. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that female gender, city residence, blood type A+ and B−, and chronic underlying medical conditions or comorbidities were more strongly implicated in the occurrence of adverse reactions, whereas blood type 0 Rh+ or blood type A Rh− were protective factors of adverse reactions to the Vaxzevria vaccine. Both genders did not show serious adverse reactions to the Vaxzevria vaccine. Based on our results, we are able to support the hypothesis that AB0 blood type and gender difference appear as predictors of Vaxzevria COVID-19 vaccine reactogenicity. Furthermore, in the study population, the degree of concern and hesitation to undergo vaccination was minimal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Reactions to Current Available COVID-19 Vaccines)
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13 pages, 737 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccination Safety and Tolerability in Patients Allegedly at High Risk for Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions
by Toon Ieven, Martijn Vandebotermet, Lisa Nuyttens, David Devolder, Peter Vandenberghe, Dominique Bullens and Rik Schrijvers
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020286 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2199
Abstract
The reported incidence of immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHR) including anaphylaxis after COVID-19 vaccination is 10-fold higher than for other vaccines. Several patient groups are theorized to be at particular risk. Since specific vaccination guidelines for these patients are based on expert opinion, we [...] Read more.
The reported incidence of immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHR) including anaphylaxis after COVID-19 vaccination is 10-fold higher than for other vaccines. Several patient groups are theorized to be at particular risk. Since specific vaccination guidelines for these patients are based on expert opinion, we performed a retrospective monocentric analysis of the tolerability of adenoviral vector and mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines in a cohort of patients allegedly at high risk of IHR. Reactions were assessed immediately on-site by allergists during a monitored vaccination protocol and after 3–7 days through telephone interviews. The cohort included 196 patients (aged 12–84 years) with primary mast cell disease (pMCD, 50.5%), idiopathic anaphylaxis (IA, 19.9%), hereditary angioedema (HAE, 5.1%) or miscellaneous indications (24.5%). Twenty-five immediate reactions were observed in 221 vaccine doses (11.3%). Most occurred in IA or miscellaneous patients. None fulfilled anaphylaxis criteria and most were mild and self-limiting. Reaction occurrence was significantly associated with female sex. In total, 13.5% of pMCD patients reported mast cell activation-like symptoms within 72 h post-vaccination. All pediatric pMCD patients (n = 9, 12–18 years) tolerated both mRNA-based vaccine doses. In summary, adenoviral vector and mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines were safe and well-tolerated in patients with pMCD, HAE, and IA. No anaphylaxis was observed. The mild and subjective nature of most reactions suggests a nocebo effect associated with vaccination in a medicalized setting. Patients with pMCD could experience mild flare-ups of mast cell activation-like symptoms, supporting antihistamine premedication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Reactions to Current Available COVID-19 Vaccines)
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10 pages, 242 KiB  
Brief Report
Desensitization Protocols for Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines in Patients with High Risk of Allergic Reactions
by Maria Rita Messina, Carlotta Crisciotti, Laura Pellegrini, Emanuele Nappi, Francesca Racca, Giovanni Costanzo, Lorenzo Del Moro, Sebastian Ferri, Francesca Puggioni, Giorgio Walter Canonica, Enrico Heffler and Giovanni Paoletti
Vaccines 2023, 11(5), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11050910 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1428
Abstract
Vaccines for SAR-CoV-2 are the most effective preventive treatment able to reduce the risk of contracting the infection and experiencing worse outcomes whenever the infection is contracted. Despite their rarity, hypersensitivity reactions to the anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine have been described and could become the [...] Read more.
Vaccines for SAR-CoV-2 are the most effective preventive treatment able to reduce the risk of contracting the infection and experiencing worse outcomes whenever the infection is contracted. Despite their rarity, hypersensitivity reactions to the anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine have been described and could become the reason not to complete the vaccination. Desensitization protocols for other vaccines have been described and validated, while the use of this approach for anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is still anecdotal. We herein describe our experience with 30 patients with previous allergic reactions to anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines or to any of their excipients, proving that they are effective and safe; only two patients experienced hypersensitivity reaction symptoms during the desensitization procedure. Moreover, in this article, we propose desensitization protocols for the most common anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Reactions to Current Available COVID-19 Vaccines)
12 pages, 566 KiB  
Case Report
Adult-Onset Still’s Disease-like Syndrome following COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
by Poramed Winichakoon, Wanitcha Chanloung, Teerapat Nantsupawat and Worawit Louthrenoo
Vaccines 2022, 10(7), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071022 - 26 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2986
Abstract
Adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD)-like syndrome has rarely been reported as a complication of COVID-19 vaccination. This study reports a 31-year-old female patient who presented with fever, myalgia, arthralgia, pleuropericarditis, leukocytosis, and transaminitis following ChAdOx1 vaccination, and met Yamaguchi’s criteria. A PubMed literature search, [...] Read more.
Adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD)-like syndrome has rarely been reported as a complication of COVID-19 vaccination. This study reports a 31-year-old female patient who presented with fever, myalgia, arthralgia, pleuropericarditis, leukocytosis, and transaminitis following ChAdOx1 vaccination, and met Yamaguchi’s criteria. A PubMed literature search, performed up until March 2022, identified 10 such cases. A total of 11 cases, including the one in this report, developed AOSD-like syndrome after administration of the viral vector (ChAdOx1) vaccine (six patients) and mRNA vaccine (five patients: BNT162b2 in four and mRNA-1273 in one). There were four male and seven female patients, with their median (Q1, Q3) age and the onset of symptoms after vaccination being 36 years (29, 45) and 10 days (6, 13), respectively. Fever (100%), arthralgia/arthritis (90.9%), skin rashes (81.8%), and sore throat (81.8%) were the main clinical findings. Pericarditis (45.5%), myocarditis/cardiac dysfunction (36.4%), pleuritis (54.6%), and pulmonary infiltrations (36.4%) were also common. One patient developed macrophage activation syndrome. One patient responded well to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and the other six showed a good response to high-dose corticosteroids alone. Of the remaining four patients, who showed partial responses to high dose corticosteroids, showed good responses to biological agents. AOSD-like syndrome following COVID-19 vaccination shared many similar clinical features and treatment outcomes to those of idiopathic AOSD (but with a higher prevalence of cardiopulmonary involvement in the former). Physicians should be aware of this extremely rare complication to achieve early diagnosis and provide proper management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Reactions to Current Available COVID-19 Vaccines)
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7 pages, 3622 KiB  
Case Report
New Onset of Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Following mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccine
by Emanuele Nappi, Maria De Santis, Giovanni Paoletti, Corrado Pelaia, Fabrizia Terenghi, Daniela Pini, Michele Ciccarelli, Carlo Francesco Selmi, Francesca Puggioni, Giorgio Walter Canonica and Enrico Heffler
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050716 - 3 May 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5222
Abstract
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are safe and effective, also in individuals with allergic and immune-mediated diseases (IMDs). There are reports suggesting that vaccines may be able to trigger de-novo or exacerbate pre-existing IMDs in predisposed individuals. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a small-vessel vasculitis [...] Read more.
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are safe and effective, also in individuals with allergic and immune-mediated diseases (IMDs). There are reports suggesting that vaccines may be able to trigger de-novo or exacerbate pre-existing IMDs in predisposed individuals. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a small-vessel vasculitis characterized by asthma, eosinophilia, and eosinophil-rich granulomatous inflammation in various tissues. We describe the case of a 63-year-old man who experienced cardiac, pulmonary, and neurological involvement one day after the administration of the booster dose of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (mRNA-1273). A diagnosis of EGPA was made and the patient was treated with high-dose steroids and cyclophosphamide, with a good clinical response. Interestingly, our patient had experienced a significant worsening of his pre-existing asthma six months earlier, just after the first two vaccine shots with the ChAdOx1 anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. It is impossible to know whether our patient would have had developed EGPA following natural SARS-CoV-2 infection or at some point in his life regardless of infectious stimuli. Nevertheless, our report may suggest that caution should be paid during the administration of additional vaccine doses in individuals who experienced an increase in IMD severity that persisted over time following previous vaccine shots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Reactions to Current Available COVID-19 Vaccines)
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8 pages, 1426 KiB  
Case Report
Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Following BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination
by Ting-Yu Lin, Yun-Hsuan Yeh, Li-Wen Chen, Chao-Neng Cheng, Chen Chang, Jun-Neng Roan and Ching-Fen Shen
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040573 - 8 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4178
Abstract
Although serious adverse events have remained uncommon, cases of myocarditis induced by messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccines have been reported. Here, we presented a rare but potentially fatal disorder, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, in a 14-year-old previously healthy adolescent after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination. The initial [...] Read more.
Although serious adverse events have remained uncommon, cases of myocarditis induced by messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccines have been reported. Here, we presented a rare but potentially fatal disorder, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, in a 14-year-old previously healthy adolescent after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination. The initial evaluation showed splenomegaly, pancytopenia, hyperferritinemia, and hypofibrinogenemia. Further examination revealed positive blood EBV DNA, and other infectious pathogen surveys were all negative. Hemophagocytosis was observed in the bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. HLH was confirmed and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and methylprednisolone pulse therapy were given. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) was set up for cardiopulmonary support for 3 days due to profound hypotension. The patient was kept on oral prednisolone treatment for 28 days with the following gradual tapering. The hemogram and inflammatory biomarkers gradually returned to normal, and the patient was discharged. The fulminant presentation of HLH in our case could be the net result of both acute immunostimulation after COVID-19 vaccination and EBV infection. Our case suggests that the immune activation after COVID-19 vaccination is likely to interfere with the adequate immune response to certain infectious pathogens, resulting in a hyperinflammatory syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Reactions to Current Available COVID-19 Vaccines)
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5 pages, 2154 KiB  
Case Report
Polyneuritis Cranialis Associated with BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine in a Healthy Adolescent
by Pimchanok Kulsirichawaroj, Oranee Sanmaneechai, Orasri Wittawatmongkol and Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010134 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3901
Abstract
A 16-year-old Thai girl developed right facial palsy, a lower motor neuron lesion, and numbness 3 h after receiving the first dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Neurological examination showed the involvement of the right cranial nerves (CN) V, VII, IX, and X. [...] Read more.
A 16-year-old Thai girl developed right facial palsy, a lower motor neuron lesion, and numbness 3 h after receiving the first dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Neurological examination showed the involvement of the right cranial nerves (CN) V, VII, IX, and X. Electrophysiological tests revealed the absence of an F wave response, suggesting a proximal demyelinating process. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated abnormal enhancement of the right CN VII. The cerebrospinal fluid profile on day 7 after the onset of symptoms was normal. The patient was diagnosed with polyneuritis cranialis, a rare variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome. She was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Reactions to Current Available COVID-19 Vaccines)
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8 pages, 578 KiB  
Case Report
Atypical Kawasaki Disease after COVID-19 Vaccination: A New Form of Adverse Event Following Immunization
by Ana Lilia Peralta-Amaro, Melina Ivone Tejada-Ruiz, Karen Lilian Rivera-Alvarado, Orestes de Jesús Cobos-Quevedo, Patricia Romero-Hernández, Wiliams Macías-Arroyo, Alberto Avendaño-Ponce, Jorge Hurtado-Díaz, Olga Vera-Lastra and Abihai Lucas-Hernández
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010126 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 12303
Abstract
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a medium-vessel vasculitis that is typically presented during childhood; fewer than 100 cases of KD have been reported worldwide in adult patients who met the criteria according to the American College of Rheumatology. This study presents the case of [...] Read more.
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a medium-vessel vasculitis that is typically presented during childhood; fewer than 100 cases of KD have been reported worldwide in adult patients who met the criteria according to the American College of Rheumatology. This study presents the case of an 18-year-old patient with no previous history of any disease, who presented atypical KD with liver and kidney dysfunction, with a good response to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. The symptoms began 22 days after the application of the COVID-19 vaccine (nonreplicating viral vector Vaxzevria), and other conditions were ruled out. The term Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI)encompasses all the reactions that follow the application of any vaccine with no necessary causal relationship and can be due to the vaccine product, quality of the vaccine, immunization errors, or anxiety or just happen to be coincident events. These reactions should be reported so that clinicians can identify compatible cases and consider that the presentation of this disease, despite being atypical, can be manifested in adult patients. Likewise, case reports are an important basis for the pharmacovigilance of vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Reactions to Current Available COVID-19 Vaccines)
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