Foodborne Zoonotic Bacterial Infections

A special issue of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease (ISSN 2414-6366). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 4894

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
HUN-REN Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Hungária krt. 21., H-1143 Budapest, Hungary
Interests: EHEC; STEC; EPEC; mobile genetic elements; prophage; bacteriophage; biocontrol; microbial genetics; virulence factors; pathogenomics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Foodborne bacterial infections represent a major health risk, with millions of illnesses caused each year. In many cases, the reservoirs of these pathogens are food-producing animals. The rapid increase in the human population, especially in several countries under a tropical climate, paired with a trend of urbanization and increased protein consumption, drives an increase in intensive animal rearing, the production of processed foods, and the global movement of foodstuff. All these factors make food safety a critical issue in the coming years, especially in the tropical areas of the globe, with the control of zoonotic bacterial pathogens being an important task.

This Special Issue aims to publish original research and review articles focusing on foodborne zoonotic bacteria, including but not limited to intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Vibrio species, and various Salmonella enterica serovars. We seek to publish papers dealing with the epidemiology of these pathogens, as well as those describing or testing methods for their detection, control, preventive elimination, or treatment. Manuscripts describing research conducted on the pathophysiology, virulence, antimicrobial resistance, genetics, and genomics of these bacteria are also welcome, as well as those dealing with lesser-known and emerging pathogenic bacteria capable of causing food-related illness.

Dr. Domonkos Sváb
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • epidemiology
  • public health
  • zoonosis
  • foodborne disease
  • food safety
  • pathogenic Escherichia coli
  • Listeria
  • Salmonella
  • Campylobacter
  • Vibrio

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 594 KiB  
Article
Molecular Markers and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli from Camel Calves Including Colistin-Resistant and Hypermucoviscuous Strains
by Domonkos Sváb, Zoltán Somogyi, István Tóth, Joseph Marina, Shantymol V. Jose, John Jeeba, Anas Safna, Judit Juhász, Péter Nagy, Ahmed Mohamed Taha Abdelnassir, Ahmed Abdelrhman Ismail and László Makrai
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2024, 9(6), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed9060123 - 23 May 2024
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Abstract
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains are capable of causing various systemic infections in both humans and animals. In this study, we isolated and characterized 30 E. coli strains from the parenchymatic organs and brains of young (<3 months of age) camel calves [...] Read more.
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains are capable of causing various systemic infections in both humans and animals. In this study, we isolated and characterized 30 E. coli strains from the parenchymatic organs and brains of young (<3 months of age) camel calves which died in septicemia. Six of the strains showed hypermucoviscous phenotype. Based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values, seven of the strains were potentially multidrug resistant, with two additional showing colistin resistance. Four strains showed mixed pathotypes, as they carried characteristic virulence genes for intestinal pathotypes of E. coli: three strains carried cnf1, encoding cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1, the key virulence gene of necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC), and one carried eae encoding intimin, the key virulence gene of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). An investigation of the integration sites of pathogenicity islands (PAIs) and the presence of prophage-related sequences showed that the strains carry diverse arrays of mobile genetic elements, which may contribute to their antimicrobial resistance and virulence patterns. Our work is the first to describe ExPEC strains from camels, and points to their veterinary pathogenic as well as zoonotic potential in this important domestic animal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Zoonotic Bacterial Infections)
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12 pages, 1584 KiB  
Article
Multiple-Drug Resistant Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli in Raw Milk of Dairy Bovine
by Safir Ullah, Saeed Ul Hassan Khan, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Baharullah Khattak, Fozia Fozia, Ijaz Ahmad, Mohammad Ahmad Wadaan, Muhammad Farooq Khan, Almohannad Baabbad and Sagar M. Goyal
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2024, 9(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed9030064 - 19 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Introduction: Raw milk may contain pathogenic microorganisms harmful to humans, e.g., multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli non-O157:H7, which can cause severe colitis, hemolytic uremia, and meningitis in children. No studies are available on the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC O157:H7) in sick or [...] Read more.
Introduction: Raw milk may contain pathogenic microorganisms harmful to humans, e.g., multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli non-O157:H7, which can cause severe colitis, hemolytic uremia, and meningitis in children. No studies are available on the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC O157:H7) in sick or healthy dairy animals in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. Aim: This study aimed to isolate, characterize, and detect antibiotic resistance in STEC non-O157:H7 from unpasteurized milk of dairy bovines in this province. Materials and Methods: We collected raw milk samples (n = 800) from dairy farms, street vendors, and milk shops from different parts of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. E. coli was isolated from these samples followed by latex agglutination tests for serotyping. The detection of STEC was conducted phenotypically and confirmed by the detection of virulence genes genotypically. An antibiogram of STEC isolates was performed against 12 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 321 (40.12%) samples were found to be positive for E. coli in this study. These samples were processed for the presence of four virulence genes (Stx1, Stx2, ehxA, eae). Forty samples (5.0%) were STEC-positive. Of these, 38%, 25%, 19%, and 18% were positive for Stx1, Stx2, ehxA, and eae, respectively. Genotypically, we found that 1.37% of STEC isolates produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and contained the blaCTX M gene. Resistance to various antibiotics ranged from 18% to 77%. Conclusion: This study highlights the risk of virulent and multidrug-resistant STEC non-O157:H7 in raw milk and the need for proper quality surveillance and assurance plans to mitigate the potential public health threat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Zoonotic Bacterial Infections)
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13 pages, 913 KiB  
Article
Contamination Levels and Phenotypic and Genomic Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Fresh Salad Vegetables in the United Arab Emirates
by Ihab Habib, Rami H. Al-Rifai, Mohamed-Yousif Ibrahim Mohamed, Akela Ghazawi, Afra Abdalla, Glindya Lakshmi, Neveen Agamy and Mushtaq Khan
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(6), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8060294 - 27 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2255
Abstract
Contaminated fresh produce has been identified as a vehicle for human foodborne illness. The present study investigated the counts, antimicrobial resistance profile, and genome-based characterization of Escherichia coli in 11 different types of fresh salad vegetable products (n = 400) sampled from [...] Read more.
Contaminated fresh produce has been identified as a vehicle for human foodborne illness. The present study investigated the counts, antimicrobial resistance profile, and genome-based characterization of Escherichia coli in 11 different types of fresh salad vegetable products (n = 400) sampled from retailers in Abu Dhabi and Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. E. coli was detected in 30% of the tested fresh salad vegetable items, with 26.5% of the samples having an unsatisfactory level (≥100 CFU/g) of E. coli, notably arugula and spinach. The study also assessed the effect of the variability in sample conditions on E. coli counts and found, based on negative binominal regression analysis, that samples from local produce had a significantly higher (p-value < 0.001) E. coli count than imported samples. The analysis also indicated that fresh salad vegetables from the soil-less farming system (e.g., hydroponic and aeroponic) had significantly (p-value < 0.001) fewer E. coli than those from traditional produce farming. The study also examined the antimicrobial resistance in E. coli (n = 145) recovered from fresh salad vegetables and found that isolates exhibited the highest phenotypic resistance toward ampicillin (20.68%), tetracycline (20%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (10.35%). A total of 20 (13.79%) of the 145 E. coli isolates exhibited a multidrug-resistant phenotype, all from locally sourced leafy salad vegetables. The study further characterized 18 of the 20 multidrug-resistant E. coli isolates using whole-genome sequencing and found that the isolates had varying numbers of virulence-related genes, ranging from 8 to 25 per isolate. The frequently observed genes likely involved in extra-intestinal infection were CsgA, FimH, iss, and afaA. The β-lactamases gene blaCTX-M-15 was prevalent in 50% (9/18) of the E. coli isolates identified from leafy salad vegetable samples. The study highlights the potential risk of foodborne illness and the likely spread of antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes associated with consuming leafy salad vegetables and emphasizes the importance of proper food safety practices, including proper storage and handling of fresh produce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Zoonotic Bacterial Infections)
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